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Administrative Management Final Exam Review

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strategic management
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overall, long-run management
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strategic planning
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the process of making plans and decisions that are focused on long-run performance.
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strategic analysis
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an assessment of the external and internal environments of an organization.
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Operational planning
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the process of determining the day-to-day activities that are necessary to achieve the long term goals of the organization.
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job description
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details of the responsibilities and tasks required by a job.
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demand forecasting
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determining the number of employees that the organization will need in the future as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities these employees must possess.
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supply forecasting
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determining what human resources will be available both inside and outside the organization.
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recruitment
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finding and attracting qualified job candidates.
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organizational culture
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the shared beliefs, values, and norms in an organization.
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resiliency
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the ability to absorb high levels of disruptive change
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motivation
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forces either internal or external to a person that act as inducements or that influence action to do something.
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needs-based approach
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motivational model that focuses on a person’s needs as motivators.
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process approach
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motivational model that focuses on understanding the thought process in influencing motivation.
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reinforcement approach
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motivational model based on learning and examine how consequences mold behavior.
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leadership
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a social influence process to influence people to achieve a common goal.
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power
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the ability to use human, informational, or material resources to get something done.
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personality
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an enduring pattern of an individual’s behavior.
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organizational design
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the way in which the activities of an organization are arranged and coordinated so that its mission can be achieved.
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organizational structure
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a phrase referring to the primary reporting relationships that exist within an organization.
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functional structure
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a structure in which tasks and jobs are grouped according to the function they perform within the organization.
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divisional structure
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a structure in which members of the organization are grouped on the basis of common products, geographic markets, or customers served.
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product divisional structure
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a structure in which the activities of the organization are grouped according to specific products or product lines.
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geographic divisional structure
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a structure in which the activities of the organization are grouped according to the geographic markets served.
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customer divisional structure
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an organizational structure focused on customer groups.
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matrix structure
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a technique that arranges work groups on two dimensions simultaneously.
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network structure
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an organization that has a core coordinating with other organizations or organizational units.
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internal network
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a network structure that relies on internally developed units to provide services to a core organizational unit.
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stable network
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a network structure that continually uses a set of alliance partners.
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dynamic network
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a network structure that makes extensive use of outsourcing through alliances with outside organizations.
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self-managed teams
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a group of employees who design their jobs and work responsibilities to achieve the self-determined goals and objectives of the team.
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skill variety
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the degree to which a job challenges the jobholder to use various skills and abilities.
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autonomy
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the degree to which a job includes freedom, independence, and decision-making authority.
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job design
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the set of tasks and activities that are grouped together to define a particular job.
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classical persepctive
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which school of management thought is the oldest?
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classical perspective
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which school of thought had its roots in the manufacturing industry?
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scientific management
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a perspective on management that focuses on the productivity of the individual worker.
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Taylor
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who is known as the father of scientific management?
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time-motion studies
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identify and measure a worker’s physical movements while the worker performs a task and then analyze the results to determine the best way of performing each task.
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Taylor
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who thought that money was the main motivator for workers?
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Taylor
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who thought managers should practice ‘functional foremanship’?
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Frank Gilbreth
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who specialized in time-and-motion studies?
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Lillian Gilbreth
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who specialized in improving working conditions?
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Henri Fayol
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who is associated with administrative management?
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planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controling
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what are the five functions of management according to Fayol?
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scientific
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which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the productivity of the individual worker?
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administrative
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which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the functions of the manager?
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bureaucratic
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which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the overall function of the organizational system?
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Weber
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who is associated with the bureaucratic school of classical management thought?
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bureaucratic
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which classical managerial school of thought focuses on division of labor, hiearchy of authority, rules and procedures, impersonality, and employee selection?
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Follett
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who believed that coordination was the key to good management?
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Follett
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who argued that subordinates should be involved in the decision making process?
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Follett
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who made early contributions in the field of conflict management?
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division of work
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by dividing the work into smaller elements and assigning specific workers, the work can performed more effeciently and more productively.
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authority and responsibility
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authority is necessary to carry out managerial responsibilities.
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discipline
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to ensure the smooth operation of the business, it is essential that members of the organization respect the rules that govern it.
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unity of command
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to avoid conflicting instructions and confusion, each employee should recieve orders from only one superior
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unity of direction
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similar activities within an organization should be coordinated under and directed by one person.
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subordination of individual interest to the common good
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the goals of the organization should take precedence over the interests of the employees
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remuneration of personnel
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financial compensation for work done should be fair to the employee and also to the organization.
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centralization
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power and authority should be concentrated into upper levels of the organization with authority lying in managers.
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scalar chain
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a single, uninterrupted chain of authority should extend from top level to the lowest position in the organization.
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order
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materials should always be in the right place at the right time.
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equity
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managers should display friendliness and fairness
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stability of personnel tenure
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high rates of employee turn over are ineffecient
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initiative
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subordinates should be given the freedom to take initiative in carrying out their work.
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espirit de corps
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team spirit and harmony should be promoted among workers to create a sense of organizational unity.