2. anaerobic glycolysis
3. 0xidative system
2.Fitness Facility Pre-participation screening questionnaire
Left main coronary stenosis, moderate stenotic valvular heart disease, Electrolyte abnormalities, severe atrial hypertension, tachy or bradydysrhythmia, hypertrophic myopathy, most disorders exacerbated by exercise, uncontrolled metabolic disease, chronic infectious disease, Mental impairment, AV block.
2. Curl up
3. push up
2. Peak HR method
3. Peak VO2. method
4. Peak METs method
5. VO2 reserve method
6. Talk test method
7. RPE method
Target HR = [(max HR -resting HR) X %intensity desired] + Resting HR.
Target HR = max HR X % intensity desired
Target VO2 = VO2max X intensity desired
What is VO2 reserve?
Target VO2 reserve = [(VO2max – VO2 rest) x %intensity desired] + VO2rest
Rise in BP above 250 and/or 115.
Failure of HR to increase
failure of test equipment
Pain when body part is at rest
Pain that continues after warming up.
Swelling or discoloration
Increased pain with weight bearing activities
changes in normal bodily functions
Bony alignment abnormalities
Type or speed of movement
number of reps
running on hills
acclimation – physiological adaptation that occurs in response to EXPERIMENTALLY induced changes in climate.
cold- maintain heat production by means beside shivering, maintenance of hand and feet temperatures.
altitude- Increases O2 carrying capacity in the blood. (Erythropoiesis, production of additional RBC) “live high” “train low” Benefits last up to 3 weeks.
Isokinetics- muscle actions performed at a constant angular limb velocity.
Plyometric training- enhances neuromuscular performance. quick, powerful movements that involve a rapid stretch of a muscle (eccentric) followed by a rapic shortening (concentric).
Order of exercise- Total body (perform more challenging first and large muscle groups first)
Resistance Load Used- Most important variables. Performed to muscle fatigue but not exhaustion.
Training Volume- number of exercises performed per session, reps performed per set, number of sets performed per exercise all influence training volume.
Rest intervals between sets- muscular strength (rest 2-3min) muscular endurance (rest <1min) repetition velocity-as individuals gain experience they may perform higher-velocity movements. Training Frequency- 2-3 x per week. Periodization- regularly changing the training stimulus to keep it effective.
2. Ballistic- rapid bouncing movements. Used by coaches for athletes to increase blood flow before competition. Contraindicated.
3. PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)- combining passive stretching combined with concentric and isometric. need partner. GTO plays an important role.
4. Dynamic flexibility- slow controlled movements, sport specific that increase core temperature- relate to type of activity.
sit and reach tests- most commonly used for flexibility in lower back and hip joint.
functional movement screens
1kg = 2.2 lbs
1in = 2.54cm
1m = 100cm
Does not differentiate between fat and fat free mass. Not a true measure of body fatness.
Obesity class I
Obesity class II
Obesity class III
very low <70cm Low 70-89cm High 90-110cm Very high >110
very low <80cm Low 80-9cm High 100-120cm Very high >120
Air displacement plethysmography- measures body volume.
DEXA- x- ray to measure bone mineral content, body fat, and lean soft tissue.
+- 3.5% error
Tension set at ~12 g/mm-2
*the amount of subcutaneous fat is proportional to the total amount of body fat.
pinch with thumb and index finger 1cm away from the center mark
wait 1-2 sec before reading the caliper
measure perpendicular to the skinfold.
thigh or subscapular
thigh or abdominal.
Thermic effect of food: 10% TEE
Physical activity expenditure: 20-30% TEE
what influences it the most?
lean body mass influences it because it is more metabolically active than fat.
1 g protein- 4 calories
1g fat- 9 calories
1g alcohol- 7 calories
10-15% of daily intake; .8 g/kg of body wt.; athletes may need 1.2 – 1.4 for endurance and 1.6-1.7 for strength; 4 cal/gram
what are the levels?
children and adolescents 1-18 600 IU
Older adults 800IU
unstable: more severe often seen at rest with time of little exertion and oxygen demand. May be a warning sign that a heart attack is imminent.
type 1: deficiency in blood insulin release.
type 2: elevated blood glucose levels due to developed insulin resistance
characterized by airflow limitation.
Ibuprofen, naproxen. increase risk of hypoglycemia
definition, signs and symptoms. most common sites, treatment
acute pain, muscle pain and dysfunction usually becomes more apparent 1-2 days after the the injury because of DOMS. most common in the calf and thigh (quads and hamstrings) rates I to III. III is the worst RICE
definition, signs and symptoms. most common sites, treatment
most common is ankle due to inversion. RICE
(edema)-fluid in surrounding tissues that act as a brace.
repair- 3-5 days after lasting up to 2 months. Exercise during this phase
remodeling-weakened repaired tissue.
Low back pain
*drawing in maneuver
focus on bracing
older adults: 65+
girls stop growing in stature by 15, boys by 17.
exercise 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on most days of the week.
2. dramatic relief
3. environmental re-evaluation
5. social liberation
2. helping relationships
3. reinforcement management
5. stimulus control
2. individual personality characteristics
3. behavioral factos
2. vicarious experience- seeing a similar person complete the behavior
3. verbal persuasion- others express faith in the individuals capabilities
4. psychological affective states- increase positive emotional state about the activity
It helps identify opportunities to promote participation in PA by recognizing multiple variables that may influence a person’s choices.
2. perception of severity of threat
3. perception of benefits
4. perceptions of barriers to reduce health threat
intension + perceived behavioral control
2. relatedness- need to be connected and involved with the social world
3. autonomy- maintaining a perceived internal locus of control and a sense that behaviors are chosen freely.
Time-bound- Short term goals are better than long term goals.
2. environmental changes
3. fear of injury
5. lack of enjoyable activities
*individuals become more committed to what they say to themselves than what they hear from others.
2. express feelings, not thoughts
3. identify needs, not strategies
4. make requests, not demands.
Most cases you will encounter will fall here.
breach of legal duty amounting to a civil wrong or injury for which a court of law will provide compensation/damages.
democratic- leader involves peers in decision making process
Laissez-faire- followers make their own decision, but leader is still ultimately responsible.
fixed expense- relatively consistent year after year. rent, property tax, etc.
acceptable profit margin (price is too low, people are skeptical of the product’s quality)
market value- balance between perceived value and the demand for the product.
-physical fitness assessments
-construct appropriate exercise prescriptions for healthy adults and individuals with controlled conditions released for independent physical activity
-motivating people with medically controlled diseases to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyle behaviors
-motivate people to begin and continue their healthy behavior
2. search for evidence
-personal experience not always relevant for each client
-academic preparation not always up to date
3.evaluate the evidence*** holds the least amount of bias.
4.incorporate evidence into practice
The loss of force and power that is independent of neural drive.
is relaxation or blood filling the heart
increase exercise capacity