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This study critically analyses the function of leading to pull offing people in athletics and leisure administrations. It uses critical believing methods to show the definition of leading, the human resource direction in athletics leisure administration, the difference between direction and leading and some cardinal theories of leading. Finally, it analyses to analysis a instance surveies through one practical athleticss administration as illustration. The intent is to do logical recommendations for bettering the fittingness nine direction thoughts to construct a strong coherence and trueness of staff ranks high.

The Definition of Leadership

Leadership was defined by Parry ( 1996: 2 ) who stated that “Leadership is the presentation by a individual of some identifiable end or vision or future province that people can want ; and the coevals of a willingness within those people to follow the leader along a socially responsible and reciprocally good class of action, toward thatgoal.” This construct of leading seemed equivocal ; it did non emphasis the effectivity of leading and major features. Leadership likely means holding a long term vision and to excite the people follow he or she to accomplish their common end for the company ‘s hereafter development. Strange and Munford ( 2002 ) believed that the direct leading comes from the personal magnetic leading ; this could be the best manner to influence and motivate people. Therefore, Wunderer and Grunwald ( 1980: 232 ) defined “leadership as a goal-oriented and societal impact to carry through common undertakings in a structured work environment.” Because of many sorts of impressions about leading, it ever led to confusion between leading and direction. Equally far as this point is concerned, the following essay will research the function of leading in an indispensable place in the direction environment. Simultaneously, it will measure the procedure of human resource direction.

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management system plays a important function in a company or organisation. It straight impacts on this organisation ‘s strategic execution in each measure and controls the velocity of development with their rivals in the same domain. Heathfield ( 2010 ) proposed that “Human Resource Management ( HRM ) is the map within an organisation that focuses on enlisting of, direction of, and supplying way for the people who work in the organisation. Human Resource Management can besides be performed by line managers.” Furthermore, in the yesteryear in USA, HRM concentrated on the human dealingss in the endeavor direction and employees ‘ dealingss in the on the job environment ; Due to industrial psychological science, it applies amalgamate systems and schemes normally, HRM was besides considered as forces direction ( PM ) in the UK ( Chadwick and Beech, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to the above statements, it was evidently seen that a director was set in a nucleus place in the HRM system. The troughs chief duty was to cover with issues related to people, such as enlisting, to take who the most appropriate individual for this vacancy is. As Taylor et Al ( 2008 ) said the HRM system was the first degree of disposal in people direction system, while promoting more organisational activities. How can we measure the organisation owns a good HRM system or non? It focuses on the Strategic Human Resource Management ( SHRM ) system. Operational effectivity and strategic placement were two cardinal methods to back up the organisation in surpassing their challengers in an industry ( Porter, 1979 ) . These two points could excite the organisation have to execute better activities than other rivals and make some alone advantages in the same industry. However, Taylor et Al ( 2008:128 ) commented that “a focused scheme requires a competitory place based on cost leading or differentiation” .

Wright and McMahon ( 1992: 295 ) gave a definition of SHRM as, “the form of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organisation to accomplish its goals” . The intent of SHRM was to take the best appropriate campaigner take portion in their ain organisation whilst increase the organisation selling section in the industry. Sport organisation was a good illustration, each athletics nines would wish to pull a celebrated manager or jock, like in National Basketball Association ( NBA ) . There was no uncertainty that NBA bill of exchange was the best chance to supply for each squad to take a possible participant in every twelvemonth. However, in the pattern of organisation, SHRM system did non merely concentrate on some basic HRM accomplishments, but besides extended the scope of relevant direction techniques, for case, high-commitment work system, the procedure of enlisting, leading doctrine and the development of procedure of the organisation ( Taylor et al, 2008 ) .

In brief, the present attack of SHRM still in the traditional HRM range ; it lacked practical circumstance for an organisation to run their public presentation in different state of affairss. Particularly in a athletics organisation, if it could unite the HRM rational theory and run the SHRM in a practical procedure of organisation, it would convey more results for the organisation ‘s long term development. In add-on, managerial leading was an indispensable portion in the SHRM. Hence, the following portion of the essay will look at the differences between direction and leading.

Differences of Management and Leadership

Sing the issue about relationship and the differentiation between direction and leading, different people will hold their different positions. In the early phase, a professor named John Adair ( 1988 ) made usage of etymological beginnings to explicate the difference in a magazine interview ; Adair revealed that “leadership” roots from an Anglo-Saxon word ; it means that a route, a manner, the way of a ship at sea, a common sense of way, whereas “management” was from a Latin word “manus” , it means a manus and it has to make with managing a blade, a ship, a Equus caballus. It is easy to remind people what entrepreneurial applied scientists and comptrollers were making when get downing and disposal concerns and how they gained the currency in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, since the leading development in recent old ages, more maps have been appeared, such as planning, forming and commanding work. These maps are similar to the maps of direction in my position. Directors ever make a program, form the activity and administer the bound resources to recognize some common aims ( Gill, 1997 ) . Meanwhile, directors could pass on with his or her employees, but leaders normally influence and animate his or her employees. Behind each leader there is a support squad and followings, nevertheless, directors merely have their subsidiaries. In my sentiment, direction focal points on implementing the whole program through the director ‘s ability and doing the uttermost of the managing resources, whereas leading emphases the single individual ‘s thought and imbues with the chief spirit to their employees. In brief, the concluding end for good direction or leading is to win the Black Marias and heads of their people.

Leadership Theory

Leadership was deemed as a procedure of a leader to leave alone thoughts to other people through his or her single managing scheme. Popper and Zakkai ( 1994:3 ) believed that “the kernel of leading is to do people make what you want them to with every bit much will, finding and enthusiasm as if they had decided for themselves.” From the past several old ages ‘ research, leading literature chiefly focuses on: which types of leading theory is close and more appropriate for present leader to exercise their leading map. Lewin et Al ( 1939 ) implied that the subsidiaries ‘ public presentation decides which sort of spirit of leading theory fits this organisation ; moreover, different sorts of developing programmes related with leading have emerged. Notably in the current state of affairs, outward edge development program is the most popular attack was adopted in most organisations. The remainder of this study will reexamine some major theories of leading and the intent is to analyses of the existent instance in the last portion so to suggest some recommendations for betterment.

fifty Trait Theory

Leadership traits theory is the original theory and it concentrate on the leader ‘s features. Cartwright and Zander ( 1968 ) stated that an effectual leader should possess the undermentioned certain qualities: intelligence, dependability, sense of duty, greater energy and societal activity. Sing these qualities ; it is easy to happen that most of them require the leader to maintain on cultivating himself in the hereafter non are congenital. The ‘Personality Era ‘ of ‘Great Man ‘ theories were proposed by Van Sters and Field ( 1990:29 ) who said that “effective leaders at one clip were believed to demo common features that cause them to act in certain ways.” However, this theory was challenged in the 2000 World Economic Forum study. The study indicated that many successful companies ever change their Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) to guarantee that their concern prospers. Whereas most CEOs win in their first organisation, they frequently fail when enter for a new organisation. This point demonstrates that in fact the leaders have non acquired all the leading traits and that is small connexion between CEO manner and organisational public presentation. Besides the trait theory was non to judge the leading state of affairs.

fifty Situational Leadership and Contingency Theory

Situational theory is more focussed on the state of affairs and the group of followings. This manner is more practical and good for the leader to admit their followings and state of affairss. This attack does non see the whole organisation or the current demands of the single leader ‘s group. Contingency theory of leading mainly analyses three factors between leaders and followings. The first 1 is Fiedler ( 1968 ) , who proposed the widening definition of the follower ‘s and of the work construction of the subsidiary. The 2nd 1 is how the leader uses his or her authorization and depends on his or her subsidiaries. The 3rd one is the bing relationship between the leader and followings. The leader ‘s personal appeal attracts the followings and the follower ‘s fear for the leader.

fifty Leadership Style Theories

Leadership manner theories are concerned with the leader ‘s behavior and make non pay attending to the single features of the leader. Through these theories, some research workers discovered that the director who considers the employee as the Centre may derive more consequences and effects than the director who focuses on undertakings. This point is evaluated by the leader ‘s public presentation value. If the leader views the state of affairs from the position of a foreman, he or she priorities the undertakings above the employees. However, if he takes the employee ‘s position into consideration, he or she values both the undertaking and the employee. So the ulterior attack is more across-the-board. Of class, as a leader, pay more attendings on the employee behavior can convey his or her work more benefits than merely concern with the undertaking as a Centre.

fifty Transactional Leadership

This sort of leading turns out to be more popular in most organisations. Popper and Zakkai ( 1994:6 ) accepted that “transactional leading contains a basic mechanism of exchange dealingss which becomes possible when there is no outstanding sense of impending menace or anxiety” .

Transactional leaders shall utilize management-by-exception, actively or with contingent wagess ( Gill, 1997 ) . By and large, the management-by-exception includes doing aims and ordinances, taking charge of the advancement and discovering errors and so heightening the effectivity of leading. However, transactional leading ignores the employees ‘ desires and motive ; it focuses on how to accomplish the end through the followings. Many empirical illustrations prove that transactional leading might do public presentation that meets outlooks ( Gill, 2003 ) .

fifty Transformational Leadership

This form of leading is a good attack in order to excite the followings and subsidiaries ‘ interested in carry throughing the end and heighten their self-development. Alderder ( 1972 ) agreed that transformational leading should pay more attending to the leader ‘s developmental demand. Furthermore, Bass ( 1991 ) revealed that there exist the following four facets of transformational leading behaviors.

  • Individualised consideration
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Inspirational motive
  • Idealised influence ( appeal )

Analysis of a Practical Sports Organisation Example

During a period as a athleticss trainee in Beijing, an illustration of a procedure of leading alteration was witnessed by the writer. This fittingness nine was set up in 2003 and it was been unfastened for 5 old ages.

In the early period, the former fittingness nine director ‘s original program was run a little concern and serve whiter collar workers and pupils around the university. Hence, his focal point point is how to pull more clients and increase sale volume instead than do an integrated direction system for his subsidiaries to heighten the whole degree of this fittingness nine service. He is a typical individualistic leader in the Black Marias of his employee. Popper and Zakkai ( 1994:3 ) claimed that “an effectual leader, harmonizing to the standards of this attack, is a sensitive psychological pathologist who accurately discerns subsidiaries ‘ demands and outlooks and responds to them accordingly.” In add-on, his behavior assesses the assorted theories. When the employee proposes their suggestions or inquiries during each hebdomadal meeting, the leader ever says these sentiments were right but ne’er realizes it. In footings of this point, several senior degree managers began to go forth whilst some old clients besides followed by their manager left this nine. These consequences led to the nine confronting insolvents and amalgamation by other big fitness corporation.

In 2005, this fittingness nine was taken over by the Bally Total Fitness Corporation. As the new leader was transferred to this nine, he brought a wholly new direction system. He used transformational leading theory, through working subsidiaries rational stimulation and inspirational motive to better employee vision. Transformational leading is more of import when the company faces unsure markets. A new recombination has to be innovated to stay in the competitory environment ( Gill, 1997 ) . First of wholly, he reformulated the current staff while cut downing the figure of staff. Second, he advised each manager to take ACE ( America Certificate Exercise ) certification to do usage of their personal clip. Third, he added some new reward ordinances, such as supplying a free nutritionary breakfast for early forenoon displacement employees. Furthermore, the company will form one outside athleticss event dwelling of employees and their household members to fall in in each twelvemonth on anniversary twenty-four hours. Apart from these, to maintain more regular clients and pull more possible clients, he adopted some sorts of exercising categories particularly arranged different managers for different ages. Another side is, he is a patient individual who can listen to each employee ‘s suggestions about the nine development and communicate with his employees often. For case, one employee proposed that the nine could print their ain wellness tips each month focal point on their current rank. After one month, this was realized and nine ‘s first month wellness tip circular was put up in the nine information saloon. The theory of motive, Horner ( 1997 ) stated that the grade of satisfaction of employees could be thought of as incentives ; merely one motive the employee could accomplish the end. Others motivation theories were concerned with what behaviour the leader needs to act upon their subsidiaries. Apart from that, Alderfer ( 1969:142 ) proposed that “there may be merely three demands: being demands, relatedness demands and growing demands in a hierarchy of concreteness, and people may be motivated by multiple demands at any one time.”

Since this new director uses a logical leading direction method, it consequences in gross fittingness nine turn booming and the graduated table began to widen. Of class, the selling portion besides rank at the top compared with other rivals. However, the most indispensable ground is the new director used a right leading theory and rationally applied the realisation.

Decision

To sum up the function of leading in a athletics and leisure organisations, the leader ‘s behavior could act upon each subsidiary ‘s psychological science, the leader ‘s direction method decides the company ‘s development tendency to success or failure. Through the writer ‘s experience of two leaders ‘ behavior in a existent athletics and leisure organisation, how to make more motives for their employees, how to promote their employees are more of import and practical than merely depend on some formal traditional leading theories. The important value for the leader is to allow the subsidiary follow your way of company development. Consequently, detecting more new direction techniques from experience are the most effectual ways to pull off modern organisations.

Mention:

Alderfer, C.P. ( 1972 ) .Being, Relatedness and Growth, HumanNeeds in Organizational Settings, New York, The Free Press.

Cartwright, D.C. and Zander, A. , ( 1968 ) .Group Dynamics. The 3rd edition. , London, Tavistock.

Chadwick, S and Beech, J. ( 2004 ) .The Business of Sport Management. Harlow, Prentice Hall.

Fiedler, F.E. , ( 1968 ) .Group Dynamics. 3rd edition. , London, Tavistock.

Parry, K. ( 1996 ) .Transformational Leadership. Melbourne, Pitman Publishing.

Taylor et Al. ( 2008 ) .Pull offing people in sport organisations: A strategic human resource direction position. Oxford, Butter worth- Heinemann.

Wunderer, R. and Grunwald, W. ( 1980 ) .Fuhrungslehre: Grundlagen der Fuhrung. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter.

Alderfer, C.P. ( 1969 ) . A new theory of human demands.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 142-175.

D.A. Van Sters and R.H.G.Field ( 1990 ) . The evoluation of leading theory.Journal of Organizational Change Management, 3 ( 3 ) , 29-45.

Grill, R. ( 1997 ) . New Directions in Leadership.Leadership Trust Foundation, 16 March, 1994.

Grill, R. ( 2003 ) . Towards a General Theory of Leadership.Leadership Trust, 31 January, 2003.

Horner, M. ( 1997 ) . Leadership theory: yesteryear, present and future.Team Performance Management, 3 ( 4 ) , 270-287.

Lewin, K et Al. ( 1939 ) . Patterns of aggressive behavior in by experimentation created societal climes.Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301.

Popper, M. and Zakkai, E. ( 1994 ) . Transactional, Charismatic and Transformational Leadership: Conditionss Conducive to their Predominance.Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 15 ( 6 ) , 3-7.

Poter, M.E. ( 1979 ) . How competitory forces form scheme.Harvard Business Review, 57 ( 2 ) , 137-145.

Strange, J.M. and Mumford, M.D. ( 2002 ) . The beginning of vision: magnetic versus ideological leading.The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 343-77.

Wright, P.M. and McMahon, G.C. ( 1992 ) . Theoretical position for strategic human resource direction. Journal of Management, 18 ( 2 ) , 295-320.

Heathfield, S.M. ( 2010 ) . [ on-line ] . Last accessed 23 March 2010 at: hypertext transfer protocol: //human resources.about.com/od/glossary/f/hr_management.htm.

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