Abnormal Psychology Midterm

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Someone who made sure that he had his passport, airplane, ticket, and hotel reservation form exactly every five minutes for an entire day is exhibiting:
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checking compulsion
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According to behavioral theory, specific learned fears become a generalized anxiety disorder through the process of:
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classical conditioning
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Imagine that the researchers investigating a panic disorder gave you a drug that caused you to hyperventilate and your heart began to beat rapidly. You would have been given a(n):
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biological challenge test
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Panic disorder develops most often in:
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younger women
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The most common mental disorders in the United States are:
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anxiety disorders
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When a person focuses on a bad outcome, even when it is extremely unlikely, that person is demonstrating:
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intolerance of uncertainty
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According to cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to
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neutralize
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According to Freud, generalized anxiety disorder is most likely to result when:
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defense mechanisms are too weak to cope with anxiety
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If you therapist told you to \”Drop a cookie on the contaminated floor, pick it up, and eat it,\” you would be receiving what kind of therapeutic technique for your obsessive-compulsive disorder?
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exposure and response prevention
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Davon watched his father recoil from snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snakes. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of:
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modeling
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Object relation therapists:
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use psychodynamic techniques to helps patients work through childhood relationship problems
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Sally is never sure of the right thing to do. She married Todd and has been wondering for years if that was the right thing to do. She is exhibiting:
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obsessive doubts
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Which of the following is true about specific phobias?
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Each year about 9% of people in the United States have symptoms of phobias
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Which of the following therapies is an effective long-term, nonpharmacological treatment for panic attack that involves teaching patients to interpret their physical sensations accurately?
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cognitive
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Which theorist would be most likely to agree that children who fail to receive unconditional positive regard develop threatening self-judgments that lead to anxiety.
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humanist
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Of the following, those likely to experience specific phobias are:
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Hispanic American females
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Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
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obsessive compulsive disorder
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A person who constantly feels upset and nervous, so much that it interferes with work is experiencing:
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a generalized anxiety disorder
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A friend asks you whether to try relaxation training or biofeedback to reduce anxiety, Based upon present research, you best answer is:
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\”Try relaxation training; biofeedback doesn’t work.\”
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Which of the following groups would be most at risk for developing an anxiety disorder?
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low income, African American women
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The DSM-IV-TR, the most widely used classification system of mental disorders, divides the categories along five separate axes. The Axis I disorder are disorders:
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that cause significant impairment and that may emerge and end at various points in the life cycle
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Studies show that most therapists these days are most likely to learn about the latest information on treatment of psychological disorders from:
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talking with professional colleagues
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When the dean comes to visit a professor’s class, the professor often behaves much differently, probably due to:
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reactivity
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A clinical interviewer says in part, \”How do you feel about yourself today? How do you feel what’s going on in your life?\” Most likely, that clinical interviewer’s orientation is:
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humanistic
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If a clinician wanted to know more detailed information about a person’s functioning in a specific area, the clinician would use:
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a response inventory
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A strength of intelligence tests includes their:
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large standardization sample
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If someone asked you how effective DSM-IV-TR is, which of the following would be your least accurate response?
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The problems with validity and reliability that earlier DSM versions had seem to have become worse rather than better
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Deciding that a client’s psychological problems represent a particular disorder is called:
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diagnosis
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A new assessment tool does a good job of differentiating those who will later be depressed and those who will not be depressed, and it produces results similar to those of other tools measuring depression. Therefore, the new assessment tool has good:
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predictive validity
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When a person has organic brain impairment, that person would most likely have difficulty completing the/a:
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Bender-Gestalt
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The single most effective treatment for schizophrenia is:
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drug therapy
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Which of the following factors leads to increased respect for assessment and diagnosis?
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increased assessment research
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Symptoms such as sadness, loss of appetite, and low energy cluster together to form a:
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classification system
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An 18-year-old completing a neuropsychological test has difficulty remembering and drawing some designs. his person is performing at:
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an average level on the Bender-Gestalt
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A clinical diagnostician is dissatisfied with tests that cannot specify the type of brain damage or brain impairment clients have. Your best suggestion for that diagnostician would be to use:
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a battery of neuropsychological tests
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If a new test for assessing anorectic tendencies produces scores comparable to those of other tests for assessing anorectic tendencies, then the new test has high:
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concurrent validity
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DSM-IV-TR is the classification system for abnormal behaviors that is:
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used for most widely used in the United States
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The term used to refer to a psychologist’s comprehensive view of the causes and stimuli sustaining a person’s abnormal behavior is:
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clinical picture
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Binet and Simon are known for their work in creating a(n):
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intelligence test
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What kind of validity is most important to clinicians in evaluating the utility of a classification system?
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predictive validity
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Currently clinical assessment is characterized by:
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reliance on clinical experience over research
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The test that reports one’s results on clinical scales such as \”hypochondriasis\” (HS) and \”Psychopathic deviate\” (PD) is the:
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
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The concept of \”negative emotionality\” is an example of a:
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dimension of functioning
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A campus newspaper publishes an\” Exam Anxiety\” test, which was put together by the newspaper staff one evening just before their publishing deadline. Despite is hasty construction, the test most likely has:
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face validity
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The test with the highest validity in identifying psychological disturbances is the:
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Test
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An inventory that asks about one’s level of anxiety, depression, and anger is a(n):
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affective
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George is consumed with concern that his house will burn down. Before he leaves, he makes sure that all his appliances are unplugged. He often has to go back home and check to make sure he did not leave any plugged in. Which MMPI-2 scale would he most likely score high in?
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psychasthenia
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A test is constructed to identify people who will develop schizophrenia. Of the 100 people the test identifies, 93 show signs of schizophrenia within five years. The test may be said to have high:
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predictive validity
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The assumption behind the use of projective tests as an assessment tools is that:
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the responses come from the client’s unconscious
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A clinician who is using naturalistic observation would be most likely to do which of the following?
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observe parent-child interactions in the family’s home
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Culturally-based disorders such as windigo, susto, and koro are most closely related to:
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anorexia nervosa
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If a professional were seeking to learn as much as possible about an individual patient, that professional would be using:
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an ideographic approach
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Which of the following is the most legitimate criticism of self monitoring?
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validity is often a problem
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In the back of an ambulance, I sometimes ask patients what day it is, where they are, and who they are, in an attempt to assess their:
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mental status
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Which of the following would be most likely to have been in therapy at some point in their lives?
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women with postgraduate education
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A typical caller to an urban suicide prevention center is:
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young,female, African American
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About how many deaths occur by suicide each year around the world?
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700,000
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The fact that very angry people are not significantly more suicidal than other people argues most strongly against which explanation for suicide?
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psychodynamic
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According to Edwin Shneidman, people who commit suicide with clarity and commitment, yet who believe that they are simply facilitating a process that is already under way, are called:
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death initiators
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Biological researchers have found a link between suicide and:
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low levels of serotonin
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Peak suicide rates occur among:
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older adult white Americans and young adult African Americans
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The mood and thoughts of suicidal people are most often characterized as:
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sad and hopeless
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Which of the following statements is true regarding suicide rates for people 65 or older in the United States, taking into account gender and race?
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Only white American males have a substantially higher suicide rate after the age of 65 than they did between the ages of 35 and 44
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Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all of the following except:
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being in therapy
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Among teenagers who attempt suicide:
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about 3% succeed the first time, and about half will try again
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When answering the telephone of a suicide hot line, the first step for the counselor is to:
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establish a positive relationship
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What is the critical way in which the death seeker differs from the death darer, according to Shneidman? Death seekers:
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intend to end their lives with their action
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Which one of the following is the most likely reason for the relationship between alcohol use and suicide?
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Alcohol lowers inhibitions and impairs judgement
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An individual has just been put in jail, and it is that individual’s birthday. The suicide risk for the individual is:
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no higher than normal because it is that individual’s birthday
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Which of the following statements is not true regarding gender and suicide?
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women succeed at committing suicide more often than men
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Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is most accurate?
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most therapies are of limited effectiveness, and progress slowly
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Which of the following statements is not generally true of those with antisocial personality disorder?
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They care for no one’s safety,except theirs and their children’s
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If you wanted to write a book about a fictional character who is a \”typical\” example of antisocial personality disorder, you might have the character exhibiting all of the following except:
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periods of very high anxiety
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A \”doctor\” in a TV drama suggests using antidepressant medication in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Based on the most current research, you know:
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that is mediocre advice:use of antidepressants for borderline personality disorder may help, but may increase suicidal tendencies
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Among the criticisms of the way personality disorders are classified are all of the following except:
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the view of most clinicians that personality disorders don’t really exist and should be dropped as as a diagnostic category
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Avoidant personality disorder seems most closely related to:
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social phobias
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If a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would most appropriately conclude that the person is experiencing:
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avoidant personality disorder
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The person most likely to exhibit strong symptoms of borderline personality disorder is:
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young adult women
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The most common impulse-control disorder is:
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pathological gambling
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A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like \”You’ve got to get them before they get you,\” and \”People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden.\” If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be least surprised would have which theoretical position?
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cognitive
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The fact that children learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for:
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behavioral theory
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Everyone else is enjoying the warmth of ealy spring day except one college student, who seems irritable, even angry. Yesterday, when it was cold and dreary, the same student seemed unusually excitable. This student’s behavior is most similar to that of someone with which personality disorder?
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borderline personality disorder
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The personality disorder that is characterized as undying love and admiration for oneself is:
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narcissistic
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All of the following are problems in the use of DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders except:
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the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used
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One who sets fire primarily for the pleasure or tension relief the fire setting provides is a(n):
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pyromaniac
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Sarah respects none of society’s boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She experiences:
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antisocial personality disorder
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All of the following characterize schizotypal personality personality disorder except:
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backward masking
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The term \”borderline\” derives from the initial idea that people with borderline personality disorder:
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are on the borderline between odd and dramatic personality disorders
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The fact that those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder often were neglected, rejected or sexually abused as children is best predicted by which view?
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psychodynamic
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\”Let’s try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system.\” Someone saying this would most likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?
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cognitive-behavioral approach
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Which interpersonal problem area identified by interpersonal psychotherapists is most like the cause of depression suggested by psychodynamic therapists?
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interpersonal loss
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The action of SSRIs is based on the observation that in people who are depressed:
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too little norepinephrine and serotonin are produced
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A person taking which of the following medications would have to avoid cheese, wine, and bananas in order not to develop serious side effects?
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Nardil
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The treatment of what disease has led to the development of MAO inhibitors?
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tuberculosis
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Seasonal affective disorder is thought to be due to:
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increased levels of melatonin
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A depressed individual recieving therapy is told that many-even most- of the negative thought that individual experiences and records have no basis in fact. Most likely, the therapist is:
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challenging automatic thoughts
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Depression is more common in women because they experience more taing in life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs, than men. This is the:
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quality-of-life theory
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Which of the following is true about the research on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating unipolar depression?
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It nearly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50-60% of the cases
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One of the most effective treatments for seasonal affective disorder has been shown to be:
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a melatonin pill
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As countries become Westernized, the symptoms of depressed people in those countries generally:
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shift to become more psychological
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One of the side effects of ECT is:
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Memory Loss
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ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has changed over the years. Patients given this treatment now may receive:
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higher levels of current.
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Free association, interpretation of associations, and dream interpretation are all techniques used primarily by:
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psychodynamic therapists.
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Which of the following would provide the best evidence for the cognitive explanation for depression?
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a finding that people show negative thoughts only after they become depressed
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Someone who looks at the influence of race, living conditions, marital status, and roles on the development of depression would most likely represent which theoretical orientation?
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sociocultural
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Seligman has developed a theory based on the idea that depression results from:
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a belief that one has no control over the events in one’s life.
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The person associated with the learned helplessness theory of depression is:
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Seligman.
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Which of the following is an example of effective adjunctive therapy for bipolar disorder?
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individual or group therapy
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The instrument called the \”Pleasant Events Schedule\” is most likely to be a part of a ______ therapy program.
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behavioral
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A man has withdrawn from most social contacts because he never seems to be able to say the right thing. He just doesn’t seem to fit in. His comments are always misinterpreted. He feels alone and is depressed. This is an example of what interpersonal psychotherapists refer to as:
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an interpersonal deficit.
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Which of the following is not a part of Beck’s cognitive therapy for unipolar depression?
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discussion with family members about their maladaptive thoughts
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Which of the following is the best example of an analogue study?
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the creation of depression in animals by manipulating their levels of serotonin
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Pierre feels terrible. He is sad, tired, and depressed, but he refuses to show it. This is consistent with:
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social pressure.
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To be classified as a major depressive episode, depression must last for a period of at least:
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two weeks.
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In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective?
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psychodynamic
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A young woman swings between periods of bottomless depressions and high-flying enthusiasm. She never hits the middle. Her physician is most likely to recommend treatment with:
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lithium.
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Cerletti, the first psychiatrist to use ECT effectively, later abandoned the procedure, most likely because of:
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the likelihood that convulsions caused by it would result in broken bones and dislocated joints.
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A man just saw his best friend shot and killed by a gunman who was driving through his neighborhood. A month later he is in a psychologist’s office complaining that he cannot work and it all seems hopeless. There are several other symptoms consistent with these. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be:
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reactive depression.
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Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found:
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a higher than chance rate of depression among the families of depressed patients.
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The best evidence for the effectiveness of the psychodynamic approach comes from:
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case study reports.
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Hypertension is more common among African Americans than among white Americans. If someone believes this is because African Americans are more likely to live in dangerous areas, work at unsatisfying jobs, and suffer discrimination, one is emphasizing the role of ______ factors in the development of the disorder.
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sociocultural
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A person’s levels of cortisol and norepinephrine are in the normal range. Most likely, that person is experiencing:
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no stress disorder.
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Helping survivors talk about their feelings and fears regarding a disaster is designed to:
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help people express anxiety, anger, and frustration.
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Dorian was only 10 miles away when Mt. St. Helens exploded with one of the largest blasts in history. There was ash and lava everywhere, and he was sure he was going to die. He was terrified to the core of his being. When rescue teams found him a week later, he was cold, hungry, and scared. More than a year later he still has nightmares and wakes up in a cold sweat. This description best fits:
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a posttraumatic stress disorder.
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I am generally a calm, relaxed person. If you are generally a tense, excitable person, we differ in
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Trait anxiety
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Poor health is best described as a:
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Stressor
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If you have a high level of cytokines, we know that:
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your immune system is unusually healthy.
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A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to gain attention. You think that the ailment fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:
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conversion disorder.
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A teammate of a basketball player says, \”Congratulations on making those game-winning free throws. Weren’t you bothered by the fans waving their arms behind the basket?\” The basketball player replies, \”Thanks. I felt a little nervous, but to tell the truth, I didn’t even notice the fans.\” Most likely, the player who made the foul shots has:
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low trait anxiety, but high situational anxiety.
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Disorders that are thought to have both biological and psychosocial causes are:
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psychophysiological.
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Which of the following would you not find on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
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exercise
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Obesity and lack of exercise have been linked most closely to which of the following psychophysiological disorders?
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coronary heart disease
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A person who witnessed a horrible accident and then became unusually anxious and depressed for 3 weeks is probably experiencing:
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acute stress disorder.
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A combat veteran receiving the best treatment for a stress disorder would be likely to experience all of the following except:
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antipsychotic medication.
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Which of the following accurately describes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway of the stress response?
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the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to produce a stress hormone that causes the adrenal gland to release corticosteroids
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Which of the following is the best example of a psychophysical disorder?
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Asthma
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The group of hormones that appears to be most involved in arousal and fear reaction are the:
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corticosteroids.
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Foreign invaders of the body that stimulate a response from the immune system are called:
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lymphocytes.
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Activation of the parasympathetic division of the nervous system leads to ______, while activation of the sympathetic division of the nervous system leads to ______.
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overall calming; general arousal
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A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who has symptoms of derealization and dissociation is:
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reexperiencing the traumatic event.
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Research suggests that which of the following is best related to a person’s risk for developing a stress disorder?
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generally being describes as lacking in resiliency
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Imagine that you just had a \”close call\” while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?
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parasympathetic nervous system
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Which of the following people is experiencing the most stress as measured by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
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one whose spouse has just died
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The effect of norepinephrine and corticosteroids on a body experiencing stress is:
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initially to stimulate the immune system, then to inhibit it.
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Posttraumatic stress disorders:
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last longer than a month.
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\”‘Abnormal’ behaviors—indeed, all behaviors—are acquired through learning.\” Which model of abnormality does this quote most closely represent?
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behaviorial
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The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the ______ model.
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humanistic-existential
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The model most likely to use terms such as \”resistance\” and \”transference\” is the ______ model.
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psychodynamic
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According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, at birth the child is in the:
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oral stage
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The treatment a patient would be least likely to receive is:
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\”talk therapy.\”
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Which of the following is true of psychological conflicts according to psychoanalysis?
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They are unconscious, and therefore not a factor in conscious experience.
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If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to:
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show unconditional positive regard for her statements.
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\”The force that operates on the ‘reality principle’ is an independent, powerful force in human functioning.\” The kind of theorist who would agree most strongly with this statement would be a(n) ______ therapist.
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ego
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The model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client’s family structure, societal norms, and a client’s roles in society is:
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sociocultural.
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The models or paradigms an investigator uses influences:
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the questions and observations the investigator uses.
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A cognitive therapist would be most likely to say which of the following?
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Please say the first thing that comes into your mind when I say a word.
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Animals and humans learn without reinforcement. They learn just by watching. This form of learning is called:
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Modeling
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Which of the following explanations for the higher levels of anorexia nervosa in Western cultures is consistent with a multicultural model?
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If you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. The lemon is an example of:
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an unconditioned stimulus.
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If you picked a clinical psychologist at random from a phonebook, you would be most likely to find one who practices (that is, the most common type of practice is):
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an eclectic approach.
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A gender-sensitive therapy would:
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be geared to the special pressures of being a woman in Western society.
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In science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known as:
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paradigms.
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A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?
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systematic desensitization
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Theory focused on learned responses to the environment is usually described as:
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sociocultural.
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Which of the following phrases would one be most likely to hear in a self-help group?
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\”Try this. It worked for me.\”
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If parents go to a mental health professional and seek to have their son committed, and the mental health professional agrees and involuntarily commits the son without a hearing or the opportunity for the son to contest the decision, we know that the son is probably:
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experiencing repeated mental problems.
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Across the United States, an institutionalized patient would have the right to refuse some forms of treatment. Which of the following answers correctly lists forms of treatment in order from the one easiest to refuse to the one most difficult to refuse?
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psychosurgery, ECT, psychotherapy
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Recently in the United States and elsewhere, \”Mad Pride\” has surfaced, especially on-line. A major objective of Mad Pride in the United States is:
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acceptance of those with psychological disorders, and the federal government has provided support.
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Imagine that you are a therapist treating another therapist for a disorder. What is the therapist most likely to exhibit?
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depression or anxiety
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Members of a patient advocacy group wish to investigate possible patient maltreatment at a state mental hospital. Do they have that right?
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??
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Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of:
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mass madness.
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The man who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the United States was:
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Benjamin Rush
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In many areas, asylums of the 1500s, such as Bethlehem asylum in London, became:
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tourist attractions.
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Teaching people coping skills that protect them from stress is a part of:
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..
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In preparation for a study of the effectiveness of an antischizophrenia drug, an assistant puts all drugs into capsules of the same color and codes them. The assistant will have no part in administering the drug. Neither the subjects nor the experimenter will know who gets which drug. This is an example of a:
answer

Double Blind Design
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There were ten new cases of schizophrenia in a small town in the Midwest this week. This observation refers to the ______ of schizophrenia in this small population.
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Incidence
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Imagine that a longitudinal study found that children raised by schizophrenics are more likely to commit crimes later. This result tells us:
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that children of schizophrenics are at higher risk for criminal behavior.
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If you were receiving multicultural therapy, you could expect all of the following except:
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a focus on healthy feelings and actions rather than on problems.
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The policy of deinstitutionalization forces attention to:
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outpatient psychological services.
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Recent findings suggest a connection between home foreclosures and depression in the former homeowners. Which of these is the most appropriate conclusion?
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Losing your job probably causes both home foreclosures and depression.
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Treatments for somatoform disorders are most similar to treatments for:
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personality disorders.
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Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:
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repression
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Which of the following is an example of malingering?
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intentionally faking back problems because the person likes being a patient
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A mother is attacked in the street and her young daughter is kidnapped. Eventually, the police find her daughter and she is returned to her mother. However, the mother is unable to recall events that have occurred since the attack. She is even unable to retain new information; she remembers what happened before the attack but cannot remember new and ongoing experiences. This is a classic example of:
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localized amnesia.
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Imagine that you are a therapist treating Iraqi war veterans. If you encountered a veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder, you would also be likely to find:
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A dissociation disorder
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Conversion disorders most often appear in:
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adolescence.
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Munchausen syndrome by proxy:
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an innocent person, often a child, is harmed.
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Ancient Greeks thought that hysterical disorders were caused by:
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the wandering uterus of a sexually ungratified woman.
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Laurent has three subpersonalities. Jackie emerges when Laurent is in an awkward social situation, Grace surfaces during sporting events, and Carlos appears when Laurent is angry. The therapist believes that the mood and conditions under which each subpersonality appears are critical to understanding this disorder, demonstrating a belief in:
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state-dependent learning.
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According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disorder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called:
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primary gain.
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Which of the following hypotheses used to explain dissociative disorders is shared by psychodynamic and behavioral theorists?
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The attempts at forgetting are purposeful from the beginning.`
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With respect to the causes of somatoform disorders:
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the causes are poorly understood with no theory predominating.
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The chief sources of data used to support the theories of psychodynamic and behavioral clinicians are:
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question

Combat veterans are most likely to report symptoms of:
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Continuous Amneia
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If a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would likely be:
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somatization disorder.
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Psychodynamic therapy may be particularly effective in the treatment of dissociative disorders because:
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most other forms of therapy take several years to improve functioning of those with these disorders.
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In the past, dissociative identity disorder was most likely \”misdiagnosed\” as:
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schizophrenia.
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\”An abused child’s thoughts occasionally drift to other, less anxiety-arousing, topics; this anxiety reduction thus serves to strengthen ‘other’ thoughts, while weakening the thoughts about abuse.\” A psychologist with which theoretical background would be most likely to offer this quotation as an explanation for the development of dissociative disorders?
answer

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A child in an extremely abusive family situation often seems to become deaf to the verbal abuse, and insensitive to the physical abuse, as if the child simply wasn’t there experiencing the abuse. One explanation of this behavior is:
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self-hypnosis.
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If you were receiving the most effective medication for body dysmorphic disorder, you would be receiving:
answer

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