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Abnormal Psychology Midterm 1

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mental hygiene movement
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movement to treat mental patients more humanely and to view mental disorders as medical diseases
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psychopathology
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symptoms that cause mental, emotional, and/or physical pain
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continuum model of abnormality
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model of abnormality that views mental disorders not as categorically different from “normal” experiences but as lying somewhere along a continuum from healthy, functional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings to unhealthy, dysfunctional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings
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cultural relativism
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view that norms among cultures set the standard for what counts as normal behavior, which implies that abnormal behavior can only be defined relative to these norms and that no universal definition of abnormality is therefore possible; only definitions of abnormality relative to a specific culture are possible
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unusualness
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criterion for abnormality that suggests that abnormal behaviors are rare or unexpected
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distress
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in defining abnormality, the view that behaviors should be considered abnormal only if the individual suffers distress and wishes to be rid of the behaviors
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mental illness
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phrase used to refer to a physical illness that causes severe abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings
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biological theories
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theories of abnormality that focus on biological causes of abnormal behaviors
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supernatural theories
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theories that see mental disorders as the result of supernatural forces, such as divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and/or personal sins; mental disorders then can be cured through religious rituals, exorcisms, confessions, and/or death
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psychological theories
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theories that view mental disorders as caused by psychological processes, such as beliefs, thinking styles, and coping styles
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trephination
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procedure in which holes were drilled in the skulls of people displaying abnormal behavior, presumably to allow evil spirits to depart their bodies; performed in the Stone Age
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psychic epidemics
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phenomena in which large numbers of people begin to engage in unusual behaviors that appear to have a psychological origin
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moral treatment
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type of treatment delivered in mental hospitals in which patients were treated with respect and dignity and were encouraged to exercise self-control
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general paresis
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disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death; discovery of this disease helped establish a connection between biological diseases and mental disorders
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mesmerism
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treatment for hysterical patients based on the idea that magnetic fluids in the patients’ bodies are affected by the magnetic forces of other people and objects; the patients’ magnetic forces are thought to be realigned by the practitioner through his or her own magnetic force
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psychoanalysis
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form of treatment for psychopathology involving alleviating unconscious conflicts driving psychological symptoms by helping people gain insight into their conflicts and finding ways of resolving these conflicts
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behaviorism
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study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behavior
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cognitions
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thoughts or beliefs
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self-efficacy beliefs
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beliefs that one can engage in the behaviors necessary to overcome a situation
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patients’ rights movement
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movement to ensure that mental patients retain their basic rights and to remove them from institutions and care for them in the community
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deinstitutionalization
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movement in which thousands of mental patients were released from mental institutions; a result of the patients’ rights movement, which was aimed at stopping the dehumanization of mental patients and at restoring their basic legal rights
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community mental health movement
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movement launched in 1963 that attempted to provide coordinated mental health services to people in community-based treatment centers
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community mental health centers
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institutions for the treatment of people with mental health problems in the community; may include teams of social workers, therapists, and physicians who coordinate care
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halfway houses
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living facilities that offer people with long-term mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment while they are trying to reestablish employment and ties to family and friends
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day treatment centers
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mental health facilities that allow people to obtain treatment, along with occupational and rehabilitative therapies, during the day but to live at home at night
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managed care
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health care system in which all necessary services for an individual patient are supposed to be coordinated by a primary care provider; the goals are to coordinate services for an existing medical problem and to prevent future medical problems
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theory
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set of assumptions about the likely causes of abnormality and appropriate treatments
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biological approach
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view that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality
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psychological approaches
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approaches to abnormality that focus on personality, behavior, and ways of thinking as possible causes of abnormality
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sociocultural approach
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approach to psychopathology focusing on the role of the environment, stress, and culture in producing psychopathology
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biopsychosocial approach
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approach to psychopathology that seeks to integrate biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding and treating psychopathology
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diathesis-stress models
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models that assert that only when a diathesis or vulnerability interacts with a stress or trigger will a disorder emerge
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cerebral cortex
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part of the brain that regulates complex activities, such as speech and analytical thinking
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thalamus
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structure of the brain that directs incoming information from sense receptors (such as vision and hearing) to the cerebrum
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hypothalamus
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component of the brain that regulates eating, drinking, sex, and basic emotions; abnormal behaviors involving any of these activities may be the result of dysfunction in the hypothalamus
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limbic system
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part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted
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amygdala
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structure of the limbic system critical in emotions such as fear
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hippocampus
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structure of the brain involved in memory and in the stress response
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neurotransmitters
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biochemicals, released from a sending neuron, that transmit messages to a receiving neuron in the brain and nervous system
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synapse
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space between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron into which neurotransmitters are first released (also known as the synaptic gap)
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receptors
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molecules on the membranes of neurons to which neurotransmitters bind
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reuptake
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process in which a sending neuron reabsorbs some of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, decreasing the amount left in the synapse
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degradation
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process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down neurotransmitters into other biochemicals
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endocrine system
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system of glands that produces many different hormones
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hormone
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chemical that carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a person’s mood, level of energy, and reaction to stress
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pituitary
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major endocrine gland that lies partly on the outgrowth of the brain and just below the hypothalamus; produces the largest number of different hormones and controls the secretions of other endocrine glands
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behavior genetics
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study of the processes by which genes affect behavior and the extent to which personality and abnormality are genetically inherited
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polygenic
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combination of many genes, each of which makes a small contribution to an inherited trait
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epigenetics
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study of how environmental conditions can change the expression of genes without changing the gene sequence
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking
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antidepressant drugs
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drugs used to treat the symptoms of depression, such as sad mood, negative thinking, and disturbances of sleep and appetite; common types are tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
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lithium
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drug used to treat manic and depressive symptoms
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anticonvulsants
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drugs used to treat mania and depression
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antianxiety drugs
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drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and other psychological symptoms
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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treatment for depression that involves the induction of a brain seizure by passing electrical current through the patient’s brain while he or she is anesthetized
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psychosurgery
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rare treatment for mental disorders in which a neurosurgeon attempts to destroy small areas of the brain thought to be involved in a patient’s symptoms
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behavioral approaches
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approaches to psychopathology that focus on the influence of reinforcements and punishments in producing behavior; the two core principles or processes of learning according to behaviorism are classical conditioning and operant conditioning
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classical conditioning
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form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, thereby making the neutral stimulus itself sufficient to elicit the same response
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unconditioned stimulus (US)
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in classical conditioning, stimulus that naturally elicits a reaction, as food elicits salivation in dogs
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unconditioned response (UR)
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in classical conditioning, response that naturally follows when a certain stimulus appears, such as a dog salivating when it smells food
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conditioned stimulus (CS)
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in classical conditioning, previously neutral stimulus that, through pairing with a natural stimulus, becomes sufficient to elicit a response
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conditioned response (CR)
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in classical conditioning, response that first followed a natural stimulus but that now follows a conditioned stimulus
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operant conditioning
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form of learning in which behaviors lead to consequences that either reinforce or punish the organism, leading to an increased or a decreased probability of a future response
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modeling
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process of learning behaviors by imitating others, especially authority figures or people like oneself
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observational learning
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learning that occurs when a person observes the rewards and punishments of another’s behavior and then behaves in accordance with the same rewards and punishments
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behavioral therapies
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psychotherapeutic approaches that focus on identifying the reinforcements and punishments contributing to a person’s maladaptive behaviors and on changing specific behaviors
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systematic desensitization therapy
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type of behavior therapy that attempts to reduce client anxiety through relaxation techniques and progressive exposure to feared stimuli
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cognitive theories
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theories that focus on belief systems and ways of thinking as the causes of abnormal behavior
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cognitions
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thoughts or beliefs
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causal attribution
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explanation for why an event occurred
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global assumptions
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fundamental beliefs that encompass all types of situations
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cognitive therapies
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therapeutic approaches that focus on changing people’s maladaptive thought patterns
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cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
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treatment focused on changing negative patterns of thinking and solving concrete problems through brief sessions in which a therapist helps a client challenge negative thoughts, consider alternative perspectives, and take effective actions
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psychodynamic theories
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theories developed by Freud’s followers but usually differing somewhat from Freud’s original theories
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psychoanalysis
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form of treatment for psychopathology involving alleviating unconscious conflicts driving psychological symptoms by helping people gain insight into their conflicts and finding ways of resolving these conflicts
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catharsis
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expression of emotions connected to memories and conflicts, which, according to Freud, leads to the release of energy used to keep these memories in the unconscious
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repression
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defense mechanism in which the ego pushes anxiety-provoking material back into the unconscious
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libido
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according to Freud, psychical energy derived from physiological drives
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id
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according to Freud, most primitive part of the unconscious; consists of drives and impulses seeking immediate gratification
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ego
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part of the psyche that channels libido to be acceptable to the superego and within the constraints of reality
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superego
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part of the unconscious that consists of absolute moral standards internalized from one’s parents during childhood and from one’s culture
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unconscious
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area of the psyche where memories, wishes, and needs are stored and where conflicts among the id, ego, and superego are played out
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preconscious
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according to Freud, area of the psyche that contains material from the unconscious before it reaches the conscious mind
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conscious
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refers to mental contents and processes of which we are actively aware
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defense mechanisms
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strategies the ego uses to disguise or transform unconscious wishes
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psychosexual stages
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according to Freud, stages in the developmental process children pass through; in each stage, sex drives are focused on the stimulation of certain areas of the body, and particular psychological issues can arouse anxiety
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ego psychology
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branch of psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the individual’s ability to regulate defenses in ways that allow healthy functioning within the realities of society
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object relations
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view held by a group of modern psychodynamic theorists that one develops a self-concept and appraisals of others in a four-stage process during childhood and retains them throughout adulthood; psychopathology consists of an incomplete progression through these stages or an acquisition of poor self- and other concepts
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collective unconscious
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according to Carl Jung, the wisdom accumulated by a society over hundreds of years of human existence and stored in the memories of individuals
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psychodynamic therapies
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therapies focused on uncovering and resolving unconscious conflicts that drive psychological symptoms
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free association
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method of uncovering unconscious conflicts in which the client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, without censoring any thoughts
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resistance
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in psychodynamic therapy, when a client finds it difficult or impossible to address certain material, the client’s resistance signals an unconscious conflict, which the therapist then tries to interpret
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transference
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in psychodynamic therapies, the client’s reaction to the therapist as if the therapist were an important person in his or her early development; the client’s feelings and beliefs about this other person are transferred onto the therapist
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working through
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method used in psychodynamic therapies in which the client repeatedly goes over and over painful memories and difficult issues as a way to understand and accept them
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interpersonal therapy (IPT)
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more structured, short term version of psychodynamic therapies
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humanistic theories
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views that people strive to develop their innate potential for goodness and self-actualization; abnormality arises as a result of societal pressures to conform to unchosen dictates that clash with a person’s self-actualization needs and from an inability to satisfy more basic needs, such as hunger
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self-actualization
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fulfillment of one’s potential for love, creativity, and meaning
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humanistic therapy
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type of therapy in which the goal is to help the client discover his or her place in the world and to accomplish self-actualization through self-exploration; based on the assumption that the natural tendency for humans is toward growth (also called person-centered therapy)
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client-centered therapy (CCT)
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Carl Rogers’s form of psychotherapy, which consists of an equal relationship between therapist and client as the client searches for his or her inner self, receiving unconditional positive regard and an empathic understanding from the therapist
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reflection
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method of responding in which a therapist expresses his or her attempt to understand what the client is experiencing and trying to communicate
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family systems theories
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theories that see the family as a complex system that works to maintain the status quo
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family systems therapy
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psychotherapy that focuses on the family, rather than the individual, as the source of problems; family therapists challenge communication styles, disrupt pathological family dynamics, and challenge defensive conceptions in order to harmonize relationships among all members and within each member
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emotion-focused approaches
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theories of disorders that view poor regulation of emotions as being at the core of many types of psychopathology, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and most of the personality disorders
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primary prevention
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prevention of the development of psychological disorders before they start
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secondary prevention
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detection of psychological disorders in their earliest stages and treatment designed to reduce their development
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tertiary prevention
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program focusing on people who already have a disease with the aim of preventing relapse and reducing the impact of the disease on the person’s quality of life
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assessment
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process of gathering information about a person’s symptoms and their possible causes
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diagnosis
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label given to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together
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validity
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degree of correspondence between a measurement and the phenomenon under study
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reliability
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degree of consistency in a measurement- that is, the extent to which it yields accurate measurements of a phenomenon across several trials, across different populations, and in different forms
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structured interview
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meeting between a clinician and a client or a client’s associate(s) in which the clinician asks questions that are standardized and are usually designed to determine whether a diagnosis is warranted
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symptom questionnaire
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questionnaire that assesses what symptoms a person is experiencing
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personality inventories
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questionnaires that assess people’s typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving; used to obtain information about people’s wellbeing, self-concept, attitudes, and beliefs
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behavioral observation
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method for assessing the frequency of a client’s behaviors and the specific situations in which they occur
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self-monitoring
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method of assessment in which a client records the number of times per day that he or she engages in a specific behavior and the conditions surrounding the behavior
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intelligence tests
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tests that assess a person’s intellectual strengths and weaknesses
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neuropsychological tests
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tests of cognitive, sensory, and/or motor skills that attempt to differentiate people with deficits in these areas from normal subjects
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computerized tomography (CT)
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method of analyzing brain structure by passing narrow X-ray beams through a person’s head from several angles to produce measurements from which a computer can construct an image of the brain
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positron-emission tomography (PET)
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method of localizing and measuring brain activity by detecting photons that result from the metabolization of an injected isotope
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single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
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procedure to assess brain functioning in which a tracer substance is injected into the bloodstream and then travels to the brain, where it can indicate the activity level of specific areas of the brain when viewed through a SPECT scanner
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magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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method of measuring both brain structure and brain function through the construction of a magnetic field that affects hydrogen atoms in the brain, emitting signals that a computer then records and uses to produce a three-dimensional image of the brain
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psychophysiological tests
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tests in which instruments are attached to the periphery of the body to record changes due to activity in the nervous system
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electroencephalogram (EEG)
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procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect low voltage electrical current produced by the firing of specific neurons in the brain
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projective test
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presentation of an ambiguous stimulus, such as an inkblot, to a client, who then projects unconscious motives and issues onto the stimulus in his or her interpretation of its content
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syndrome
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set of symptoms that tend to occur together
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classification system
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set of syndromes and the rules for determining whether an individual’s symptoms are part of one of these syndromes
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
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official manual for diagnosing mental disorders in the United States, containing a list of specific criteria for each disorder, how long a person’s symptoms must be present to qualify for a diagnosis, and requirements that the symptoms interfere with daily functioning in order to be called disorders
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scientific method
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systematic method of obtaining and evaluating information relevant to a problem
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hypothesis
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testable statement about two or more variables and the relationship between them
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null hypothesis
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alternative to a primary hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable
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variable
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measurable factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual, between individuals, or both
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dependent variable
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factor that an experimenter seeks to predict
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independent variable
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factor that is manipulated by an experimenter or used to predict the dependent variable
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operationalization
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specific manner in which variables in a study are measured or manipulated
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case studies
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in-depth analyses of individuals
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generalizability
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extent to which the results of a study generalize to, or inform us about, people other than those who were studied
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correlational studies
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method in which researchers assess only the relationship between two variables and do not manipulate one variable to determine its effects on another variable
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continuous variable
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factor that is measured along a continuum (such as 0-100) rather than falling into a discrete category (such as “diagnosed with depression”)
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group comparison study
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study that compares two or more distinct groups on a variable of interest
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cross-sectional
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type of research examining people at one point in time but not following them over time
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longitudinal
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type of research evaluating the same group(s) of people for an extended period of time
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correlation coefficient
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statistic used to indicate the degree of relationship between two variables
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statistical significance
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likelihood that a study’s results have occurred only by chance
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third variable problem
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possibility that variables not measured in a study are the real cause of the relationship between the variables measured in the study
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sample
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group of people taken from a population of interest to participate in a study
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cohort effect
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effect that occurs when people born in one historical period are at different risk for a disorder than are people born in another historical period
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external validity
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extent to which a study’s results can be generalized to phenomena in real life
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epidemiology
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study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders, in a population
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prevalence
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proportion of the population who have a specific disorder at a given point or period in time
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incidence
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number of new cases of a specific disorder that develop during a specific period of time
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risk factors
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conditions or variables associated with a higher risk of having a disorder
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experimental studies
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studies in which the independent variables are directly manipulated and the effects on the dependent variable are examined
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human laboratory study
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experimental study involving human participants
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internal validity
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extent to which all factors that could extraneously affect a study’s results are controlled within a laboratory study
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control group
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in an experimental study, group of subjects whose experience resembles that of the experimental group in all ways except that they do not receive the key manipulation
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experimental group
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in an experimental study, group of participants that receive the key manipulation
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random assignment
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assignment of participants in an experiment to groups based on a random process
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demand characteristics
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factors in an experiment that suggest to participants how the experimenter would like them to behave
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double-blind experiment
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study in which both the researchers and the participants are unaware of which experimental condition the participants are in, in order to prevent demand effects
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therapy outcome studies
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experimental studies that assess the effects of an intervention designed to reduce psychopathology in an experimental group, while performing no intervention or a different type of intervention on another group
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wait list control group
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in a therapy outcome study, group of people that functions as a control group while an experimental group receives an intervention and then receives the intervention itself after a waiting period
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placebo control group
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in a therapy outcome study, group of people whose treatment is an inactive substance (to compare with the effects of a drug) or a nontheory-based therapy providing social support (to compare with the effects of psychotherapy)
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efficacy
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in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in highly controlled settings with a narrowly defined group of people
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effectiveness
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in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in real-world settings
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single-case experimental design
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experimental design in which an individual or a small number of individuals are studied intensively; the individual is put through some sort of manipulation or intervention, and his or her behavior is examined before and after this manipulation to determine the effects
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ABAB (reversal) design
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type of experimental design in which an intervention is introduced, withdrawn, and then reinstated, and the behavior of a participant is examined on and off the treatment
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multiple baseline design
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type of study in which an intervention is given to the same individual but begun in different settings or is given to different individuals but at different points in time and in which the effects of the intervention are systematically observed
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animal studies
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studies that attempt to test theories of psychopathology using animals
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family history study
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study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people with the disorder and people without the disorder and then determining the disorder’s frequency within each person’s family
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monozygotic (MZ) twins
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twins who share 100 percent of their genes because they developed from a single fertilized egg
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dizygotic (DZ) twins
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twins who average only 50 percent of their genes in common because they developed from two separate fertilized eggs
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twin studies
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studies of the heritability of a disorder by comparing concordance rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twins
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concordance rate
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probability that both twins will develop a disorder if one twin has the disorder.
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adoption study
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study of the heritability of a disorder by finding adopted people with a disorder and then determining the prevalence of the disorder among their biological and adoptive relatives, in order to separate out contributing genetic and environmental factors
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molecular genetic studies
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studies of the structure and function of genes that help in understanding how genetic mutations can lead to disease
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association studies
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genetic studies in which researchers identify physical disorders associated with a target psychological disorder for which genetic abnormalities or markers are known; the DNA of individuals with the psychological disorder and their first-degree relatives is then examined to determine if they also have this genetic marker (one form of molecular genetic studies)
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linkage analysis
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genetic study that looks for associations between psychological disorders and physical disorders for which genetic causes are known
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meta-analysis
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statistical technique for summarizing results across several studies
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fight-or-flight response
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physiological changes in the human body that occur in response to a perceived threat, including the secretion of glucose, endorphins, and hormones as well as the elevation of heart rate, metabolism, blood pressure, breathing, and muscle tension
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cortisol
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hormone that helps the body respond to stressors, inducing the fight-or-flight response
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anxiety
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state of apprehension, tension, and worry
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post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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anxiety disorder characterized by (1) repeated mental images of experiencing a traumatic event, (2) emotional numbing and detachment, and (3) hypervigilance and chronic arousal
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acute stress disorder
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disorder similar to post-traumatic stress disorder but occurs within 1 month of exposure to the stressor and does not last more than 4 weeks; often involves dissociative symptoms
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adjustment disorder
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stress-related disorder that involves emotional and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and/or antisocial behaviors) that arise within 3 months of the onset of a stressor
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stress-management interventions
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strategies that teach clients to overcome the problems in their lives that are increasing their stress
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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
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class of antidepressant drugs
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panic attacks
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short, intense periods during which an individual experiences physiological and cognitive symptoms of anxiety, characterized by intense fear and discomfort
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panic disorder
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disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
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agoraphobia
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anxiety disorder characterized by fear of places and situations in which it would be difficult to escape, such as enclosed places, open spaces, and crowds
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limbic system
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part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted
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locus ceruleus
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area of the brain stem that plays a part in the emergency response and may be involved in panic attacks
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anxiety sensitivity
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belief that bodily symptoms have harmful consequences
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interoceptive conditioning
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process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks
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conditioned avoidance response
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behavior that is reinforced because it allows individuals to avoid situations that cause anxiety
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specific phobias
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extreme fears of specific objects or situations that cause an individual to routinely avoid those objects or situations
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animal type phobias
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extreme fears of specific animals that may induce immediate and intense panic attacks and cause the individual to go to great lengths to avoid the animals
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natural environment type phobias
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extreme fears of events or situations in the natural environment that cause impairment in one’s ability to function normally
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situational type phobias
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extreme fears of situations such as public transportation, tunnels, bridges, elevators, flying, driving, or enclosed spaces
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blood-injection-injury type phobias
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extreme fears of seeing blood or an injury or of receiving an injection or another invasive medical procedure, which cause a drop in heart rate and blood pressure and fainting
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social phobia
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extreme fear of being judged or embarrassed in front of people, causing the individual to avoid social situations
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negative reinforcement
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process in which people avoid being exposed to feared objects and their avoidance is reinforced by the subsequent reduction of their anxiety
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prepared classical conditioning
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theory that evolution has prepared people to be easily conditioned to fear objects or situations that were dangerous in ancient times
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applied tension technique
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technique used to treat blood-injection-injury type phobias in which the therapist teaches the client to increase his or her blood pressure and heart rate, thus preventing the client from fainting
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modeling
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process of learning behaviors by imitating others, especially authority figures or people like oneself
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flooding
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behavioral technique in which a client is intensively exposed to a feared object until the anxiety diminishes (also called implosive therapy)
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generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety in daily life
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obsessions
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uncontrollable, persistent thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that an individual feels intrude on his or her consciousness and that cause significant anxiety or distress
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compulsions
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repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform
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obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
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anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions (persistent thoughts) and compulsions (rituals)
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exposure and response prevention
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type of therapy in which individuals with anxiety symptoms are exposed repeatedly to the focus of their anxiety but prevented from avoiding it or engaging in compulsive responses to the anxiety
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somatoform disorders
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disorders marked by unpleasant or painful physical symptoms that have no apparent organic cause and that often are not physiologically possible, suggesting that psychological factors are involved
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psychosomatic disorders
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syndromes marked by identifiable physical illness or defect caused at least partly by psychological factors
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malingering
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feigning of a symptom or a disorder for the purpose of avoiding an unwanted situation, such as military service
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dissociation
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process whereby different facets of an individual’s sense of self, memories, or consciousness become split off from one another
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factitious disorders
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disorders marked by deliberately faking physical or mental illness to gain medical attention
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factitious disorder by proxy
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disorder in which the individual creates an illness in another individual in order to gain attention
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conversion disorder
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syndrome marked by a sudden loss of functioning in a part of the body, usually following an extreme psychological stressor
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glove anesthesia
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state in which people lose all feeling in one hand, as if they were wearing a glove that wiped out all physical symptoms
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somatization disorder
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syndrome marked by the chronic experience of unpleasant or painful physical symptoms for which no organic cause can be found
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pain disorder
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syndrome marked by the chronic experience of acute pain that appears to have no physical cause
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hypochondriasis
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syndrome marked by chronic worry that one has a physical symptom or disease that one clearly does not have
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body dysmorphic disorder
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syndrome involving obsessive concern over a part of the body the individual believes is defective
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dissociative identity disorder (DID)
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syndrome in which a person develops more than one distinct identity or personality, each of which can have distinct facial and verbal expressions, gestures, interpersonal styles, attitudes, and even physiological responses
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dissociative fugue
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disorder in which a person moves away and assumes a new identity, with amnesia for the previous identity
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dissociative amnesia
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loss of memory for important facts about a person’s own life and personal identity, usually including the awareness of this memory loss
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organic amnesia
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loss of memory caused by brain injury resulting from disease, drugs, accidents (blows to head), or surgery
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anterograde amnesia
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deficit in the ability to learn new information
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psychogenic amnesia
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loss of memory in the absence of any brain injury or disease and thought to have psychological causes
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retrograde amnesia
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deficit in the ability to recall previously learned information or past events
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depersonalization disorder
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syndrome marked by frequent episodes of feeling detached from one’s own body and mental processes, as if one were an outside observer of oneself; symptoms must cause significant distress or interference with one’s ability to function