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Abnormal Psychology Kring Ch 1

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Anal Stage
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In psychoanalytic theory, the second psychosexual stage, which occurs during the second year of life when the anus is considered the principle erogenous zone.
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Analytical Psychology
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A variation of Freud’s psychoanalysis introduced by Carl Jung, focusing less on biological drives and more on factors such as self-fulfilment, the collective unconscious, and religious symbolism.
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Asylums
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Refuges established in 15th century to confine and provide for thee tally ill – forerunners to the mental hospital.
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Behavior therapy
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A branch of psychotherapy conceived narrowly as the application of classical and operant conditioning to the alteration of clinical problems but more broadly as applied experimental psychology in a clinical context.
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Behaviorism
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The school of psychology originally associated with John B. Watson, who proposed that observable behavior, not consciousness, is the proper subject matter for psychology. Contemporary behaviorists do use mediational concepts, provided that they are firmly anchored to observables.
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Cathartic method
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A therapeutic procedure to relieve emotional suffering introduced by Breuer and developed further by Freud in the late 19th century, whereby a patient recalls and relives an earlier emotional catastrophe and reexperiences the tension and unhappiness.
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Classical conditioning
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(Pavlov) A basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response.
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Clinical psychologist
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An individual who has earned a PhD or PsyD degree in psychology and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic.
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Collective unconscious
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Jung’s concept that every human being caries within the wisdom, ideas and strivings of those who have come before.
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Conditioned response (CR)
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(Pavlov) A basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response.
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Conditioned stimulus (CS)
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(Pavlov) A basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response.
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Counseling psychologist
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A doctoral-level mental health professional whose training is similar to a clinical psychologist with less emphasis on research and more on psychopathology.
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Defense mechanism
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In psychoanalytic theory, reality-distorting strategies unconsciously adopted to protect the ego from anxiety.
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Demonology
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The doctrine that a persons abnormal behavior is caused by an autonomous evil spirit.
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Ego
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In psychoanalytic theory, the predominantly conscious part of the personality, responsible for decision making and dealing with reality.
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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A treatment that produces a convulsion by passing electric current through the brain; despite public concerns, it can be useful in treating depression.
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Exorcism
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The casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture.
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Extinction
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The elimination on a classically conditioned response by the omission of the unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning, the elimination of a conditioned response by the omission of reinforcement.
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Fixation
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In psychoanalytic theory, the arrest of psychosexual development at a particular stage through too much or too little gratification at that stage.
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Free association
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A psychoanalytic procedure in which the person is encouraged to give free rein to his or her thoughts and feelings, verbalizing whatever comes into the mind without monitoring its content. The assumption is that over time, repressed material will come forth for examination by both the person and the psychologist.
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General Paresis
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Infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponema pallidum,which destroys brain tissue; marked by eye disturbances, tremors, and disordered speech as well as severe intellectual deterioration and psychotic symptoms.
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Genital stage
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In psychoanalytic theory, the final psychosexual stage reached in adulthood, which heterosexual interests predominate
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Harmful dysfunction
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Proposed definition of mental disorder that contains both a value judgement (harmful) and a putatively objective scientific component.
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Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
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A cognitive-restructuring behavior therapy introduced by Albert Ellis and based on the assumption that much disordered behavior is rooted in absolutistic, unrealistic demands and goals.
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Reality principle
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In psychoanalytic theory, the manner in which the ego delays gratification and otherwise deals with the environment in a planned, rational fashion.
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Social Worker
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A mental health professional that hold a Masters of Social Work degree (M.S.W.)
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Stigma
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The pernicious belief s and attitudes held by a society, ascribed to groups considered deviant in some manner.
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Superego
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In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that acts as the conscience and reflects societies moral standards as learned from parents and teachers.
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Systematic desentization
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A major behavior therapy procedure that has the fearful person, while deeply relaxed, imagine a series of progressively more fearful situations, such that the fear is dispelled as a response incomparable with relaxation; helps with anxiety.
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Transference
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The venting of the persons emotions, either positive or negative, by treating the psychoanalyst as the symbolic representative of someone important in the past.
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Unconscious
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A state of unawareness without sensation or thought; in psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality, in particular the id impulses or energy, of which the ego is unaware.
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Id
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In psychoanalytic theory, that part of the personality present at birth, comprising all the energy of the psyche and expressed as biological urges the strive continually for gratification.
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Individual psychology
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A variation of Freud’s psychoanalysis introduced by Alfred Adler, focusing less on psychological drives and more on factors like people’s conscious beliefs and goals for self betterment.
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Interpretation
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In psychoanalysis, a key procedure in which the psychoanalyst points out to the analysand where resistance exists and what certain dreams and verbalisations reveal about impulses repressed in the unconscious; more generally by a therapist that construes the clients problem in a new way.
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Latency period
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In psychoanalytic theory, the years between 6-12, during with Id impulses play a minor role in motivation.
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Law of effect
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A principle of learning that holds that behaviour is acquired by the virtue of its consequences.
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Libido
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A Freudian term for the life integrating instinct or force if the Id; sometimes equated to sexual drive.
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Marriage and family therapist
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A mental health professional who specializes in treating couples and families and how these relationships impact mental health. Training can be masters and PhD level and some MSW’s.
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Mental disorder
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The DSM-IV-TR defines mental disorders a clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or patterns. The definition includes a number of key features including distress, disability, or impaired functioning, violation of social norms and dysfunction.
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Modeling
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Learning by observing and imitating behavior of others or teaching by demonstrating and providing opportunities for imitation.
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Moral treatment
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A therapeutic regimen, introduced by Philippe Pinel during the French Revolution, where by mentally ill patients were released from their restraints and were treated with compassion and dignity rather than with contempt and denigration.
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Negative reinforcement
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The strengthening of a tendency to exhibit desired behavior by rewarding responses in that situation with the removal of an aversive stimulus.
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Operant conditioning
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The acquisition or elimination of a response as a function of the environmental contingencies of reinforcement and punishment.
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Oral stage
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In psychoanalytic theory, the first psychosexual stage which extends into the second year; during it the mouth is the principle erogenous zone.
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Phallic stage
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In psychoanalytic theory, the third psychosexual stage, extending from ages 3-5 or 6 during with maximal gratification is obtained by genital stimulation.
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Pleasure princple
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In psychoanalytic theory, the demanding manner by which the Id operates, seeking immediate gratification for its needs.
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Positive reinforcement
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The strengthening of a tendency to exhibit desired behavior by rewarding responses in a situation with a desired reward.
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Psyche
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In psychoanalytic theory, the totality of the id, ego, and superego, including both conscious and unconscious components.
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Psychiatric nurse
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A nurse, typically with a bachelor’s degree, who receives specialized training in mental illness. A nurse practitioner may prescribe psychiatric medications.
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Psychiatrist
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A physician (MD) who has taken specialized post doctoral training, called residency, in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental disorders.
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Psychoactive Medications
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Prescribed chemical compounds-for example Prozac-having a psychological effect that alters the mood or thought process.
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Psychoanalysis
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Primarily the therapy procedures pioneered by Freud, entailing free association, dream analysis, and working through transference neurosis. More recent ally the term has come to encompass the numerous variations on basic Freudian therapy.
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Psychoanalytic theory
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Theory originating with Freud the psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual.
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Psychopathology
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The field concerned with the nature and development of mental disorders.
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Psychotherapy
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A primary verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behavior to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction.
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Unconditioned response (UCR)
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(Pavlov) A basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response.
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Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
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(Pavlov) A basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response.