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Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Ch 1-4

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Biological Causes
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Genetic and environmental influences on physical functioning and mental functioning.
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Biopsychosocial Persepctive
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Individuals must change over time.
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Trephining
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Cutting holes in living peoples heads to release evil spirits.
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Overcrowding
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Reason for decline of mental institutions in the 1800’s
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Ridding Body of Excess Fluid
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Hippocrates Believed to cure mental illness
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Patterns of Symptoms
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Emil Kraepelin promoted system similar to medical diagnosis.
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Psychoanalysis
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Unconscious mind, early development, inhibited sexual impulses
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1950’s
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Pharmacological Treatments for Psychological Illnesses
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Deinstitutionalization
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1963 Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Cental Health Center Construction Act
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Positive Psychology
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Perspective that emphasizes the potential for growth and change throughout life
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Objectivity
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Scientific method for understanding and treatment of Abnormal Behavior
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Experimental Studies
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Studies that investigate differences among groups not determined by random assignment
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Survey
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Research tool used to gather information from a sample of people about a topic of concern
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Incidence
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The frequency of new cases of a disorder within a certain time period
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Concordance Rate
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The agreement ratio between people diagnosed with a disorder and their relatives
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Clinical Psychologist
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A trained specialist in psychology who usually has a doctoral degree; treats a variety of issues; cannot prescribe medicine.
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Psychiatrist
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Physician (MD) with medical training in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders
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DSM Diagnostic Manual
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Publication that contains descriptions of various psychological disorders.
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Reliability
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The consistency of measurements or diagnosis
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Axis
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“One-Dimension” in the DSM regarding an individual’s functioning
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Multi-Axial System
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DSM-5 Adheres to this
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
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An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
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Culturally Acceptable
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Mr. Kang, a recent immigrant from China, is extremely overwhelmed and distressed by the untimely death of his wife. His co-workers are concerned about his mental health because he believes he is in constant contact with her and can be seen talking to her on a regular basis. It is not likely that Mr. Kang would be diagnosed as having a mental disorder because his behavior
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Principal Diagnosis
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First step in the diagnostic process
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Drug/Alcohol Abuse
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Most common comorbid disorder associated with other psychiatric disorders
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Case Formulation
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Identification of the disorders that may have produced a disorder
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Immediate Goal
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Treating clients in crisis is to ensure that their symptoms are managed
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Community Mental Health Center
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Outpatient clinic that provides psychological services on a sliding fee scale to serve individuals who live within a certain geographic area.
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Halfway House
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A community treatment facility designed for deinstitutionalized clients leaving a hospital who are not yet ready for independent living
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Modality
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Form in which the clinician offers psychotherapy.
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Group Therapy
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Psychological treatment in which the therapist facilitates discussion among several clients who talk together about their problems.
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Family Therapy
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Psychological treatment in which the therapist works with several or all members of the family.
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Milieu Therapy
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A treatment approach, used in an inpatient psychiatric facility, in which all facets of the milieu, or environment, are components of the treatment
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Quality of the Relationship
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The most crucial determinant of whether or not therapy will succeed
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Psychological Assessment
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A broad range of measurement techniques, all of which provide scorable information about their psychological functioning
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Unstructured Interview
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A series of open-ended questions aimed at determining the client’s reasons for being in treatment
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Behavioral Observation
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A clinician watches a client through a one-way mirror and records the number of times he engages in self-injurious behavior. This assessment method is commonly referred to as a
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Structured Questions
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Advantage the structured interview has over the unstructured interview
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Mental Status Examination
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Assess’s a clients state of mind
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Evaluation of Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses
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Through intelligence testing, clinicians can obtain standardized scores that allow
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Rorschach Inkblot Test
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Most Famous Inkblot Technique
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Psychasthenia
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A person who tends to worry too much and has unreasonable fears would probably score high on which scale of the MMPI-2?
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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
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Pablo’s therapist is telling him to look at black-and-white drawings that portray people in a variety of ambiguous situations. Pablo’s task is to tell a story about what is happening in each scene, focusing on such details as what the characters in the picture are thinking and feeling. Pablo’s therapist is administering the
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Target Behaviors
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Behaviors of interest or concern that the client and clinician are trying to change
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Self-Monitoring
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Dr. Schwartz is requesting that his client keep a tally of the number of times per hour he says negative things to his wife. Which assessment technique is Dr. Schwartz employing?
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Behavioral Interviewing
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assessment process in which clinicians ask questions about the target behaviors frequency, antecedents, and consequences
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Multi-Cultural Assessment
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assessment process in which clinicians take into account the person cultural, ethnic, and racial background
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Clock Drawing Test
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Test that measures visuospatial ability
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Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV)
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Which neuropsychological test investigates a variety of memory functions that includes tests of working and long-term memory for visual and verbal stimuli?
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visual memory, working memory, executive function and planning, attention, verbal memory, and decision making and response control
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CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery) Consists of 22 subtests that assess
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CT Scan – CAT Scan
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Consists of a series of X-Rays taken from various angles around the body that integrated by a computer to produce a composite picture.
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fMRI – Functional Magnetic Resonance Image
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Brain Imaging Technique which constructs a picture of the actual activity in the brain
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Genotype
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The genetic makeup of an organism
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Phenotype
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The observed and measurable characteristic that results from the combination of environmental and genetic influences are referred to as the?
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Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
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Neurosurgeon implants a microelectrode that delivers a constant low electrical stimulation to a small region of the brain, powered by an implanted battery.
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
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Sandy suffers from Alzheimer’s disease. Her treatment includes that application of electrical shock to the head for the purpose of inducing therapeutically beneficial seizures. Which of the following treatments is Sandy being given?
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Libido
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The Id’s primal instincts are referred to as the?
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Attachment Style
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The way a person relates to a caregiver figure is referred to as
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Voluntary or Involuntary Behavior
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The difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in the case of
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Counter Conditioning
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The two primary components of systematic desensitization are relaxation training and?
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Token Economy
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A form of behavioral therapy that involves the principle of rewarding a client for desired behaviors and not providing rewards for undesired behavior
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Cognitive Restructuring
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Jackie fears that if he gets into a plane, it will crash. His clinician attempts to change his thoughts by questioning and challenging his dysfunctional attitudes and irrational beliefs. Identify the method employed by the clinician
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
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Which of the following is a treatment method in which clinicians focus on changing both maladaptive behaviors and maladaptive thoughts
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
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Wendy feels that she has let her children down by focusing on her career and her feelings of guilt have begun to affect her mental health. This has caused her to avoid all interaction with her children. Her clinician helps her to deal with her distressing thoughts and feelings and instead of avoiding her children encourages her to spend more time with them. The method used by the clinician is referred to as
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Carl Rogers
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Who developed the person-centered approach?
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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A method in client-centered therapy in which the clinician gives total acceptance of what the client says, does, & feels.
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Sociocultural
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Dr. Larry focuses on external factors like the influence of people and institutions that have an effect on the personality of his clients. The technique employed by Dr. Larry is referred to as the _______ perspective.
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Family Perspective
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Which of the following perspectives is primarily based on the underlying belief that abnormality is caused by disturbances in the patterns of interactions and relationships with siblings, parents, children, and partner?
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Milieu Therapy
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Daffodils, a mental healthcare unit, promotes positive functioning in clients by creating a therapeutic community. Every member of its staff, whether a therapist, a nurse, or paraprofessional, takes part in the overall mission of providing an environment that supports positive change. the underlying idea is that the pressure to conform to conventional social norms of behavior fosters more adaptive behavior on the part of individual clients. this is an example of