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Abnormal Psychology Chapters 4-6, Core Concepts, Butcher, Mineka, Hooley.

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Health Psychology
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A field of psychology is concerned with the effects of stress and other psychological factors on the development and maintenance of physical problems.
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Behavioral Medicine
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is an approach to physical illness is concerned with psychological factors that may predispose an individual to medical problems.
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Stress
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When we experience or perceive challenges to our physical or emotional well-being that exceed our coping resources and abilities
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Stressors
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External demands.
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Coping Strategies
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Efforts to deal with stress.
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Distress
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a negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal.
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5HTTLPR gene
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is linked to how likely it was that people would become depressed in the face of life stress.
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Stress tolerance
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A person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.
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Crisis
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When a stressful situation threatens to exceed or exceeds the adaptive capacities of a person or a group.
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The Sympathetic Adrenomedullary
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This is designed to mobilize resources and prepare for a fight-or-flight response.
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Hypothalamus
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Where the stress response begins.
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Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system
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In addition to stimulating the SNS, the hypothalamus releases a hormone called “corticotropin-releasing hormone” (or CRH). Traveling in the blood, this hormone stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary then secretes adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). This induces the adrenal cortex (the outer portion of the adrenal gland) to produce the stress hormones called “glucocorticoids.” In humans, the stress glucocorticoid that is produced is called cortisol.
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Cortisol
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It prepares the body for fight or flight. It also inhibits the innate immune response. This means that if an injury does occur, the body’s inflammatory response to it is delayed
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Allostatic load
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The biological cost of adapting to stress.
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Psychoneuroimmunology
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is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system.
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Positive Psychology
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This school of psychology focuses on human traits and resources that might have direct implications for our physical and mental well-being.
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Hypertension
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Having a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher.
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Essential hypertension.
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A persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found.
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Type A behavior pattern
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This is characterized by excessive competitive drive, extreme commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility.
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Type D behavior pattern
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A behavior pattern marked by chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions. Often feeling insecure and anxious.
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Pro-inflammatory cytokines
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Trigger the growth of plaques in the blood vessels as well as make it more likely that those plaques will rupture and cause a heart attack.
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Emotional Disclosure
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A way of coping with stress through writing or talking about the situation.
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Biofeedback
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A clinical technique used to help a person learn to relax by monitoring muscle tension, heart rate, brainwave activity, or other body activities.
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Adjustment Disorder
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A psychological response to a common stressor (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job) that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional symptoms.
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Post-Tramatic Stress Disorder
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened.
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Prolonged Exposure
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A behaviorally-oriented treatment strategy in which the patient is asked to vividly recount the traumatic event over and over until there is a decrease his or her emotional responses.
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Debriefing Session
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Allows a person to discuss their experiences with others, usually shortly after the trauma has subsided.
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Stress-inoculation training
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The use of cognitive-behavioral techniques to help people manage potentially stressful situations or difficult events.
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Agoraphobia
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Anxiety about being in places from which escape might be difficult/embarrassing, or in which help may not be available in the event of a panic attack.
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Acute Stress Disorder
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An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month.
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Neurotic Disorders
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mental disorders in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does eperience subjective distress; a category dropped from DSM-III
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Anxiety
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Involves a general feeling of apprehension about possible future danger and fear is an alarm reaction that occurs in response to immediate danger.
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Panic Attack
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When the fear response occurs in the absence of any obvious external danger.
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Cognitive-Restructuring Techniques
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Helps the individual understand his or her distorted patterns of thinking about anxiety-related situations and how these patterns can be changed.
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Phobias
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an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
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Specific Phobia
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A fear that excessive or unreasonable and is triggered by the presence of a specific object or situation.
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Blood-injection-injury phobia
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Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
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Prepared Learning
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Human evolutionary history has affected which stimuli we are most likely to come to fear.
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Social Phobias
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Marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny of others.
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Amygdala
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Is a collection of nuclei in front of the hippocampus in the limbic system of the brain that is critically involved in the emotion of fear.
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Interoceptive conditioning
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process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks
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Exteroceptive conditioning
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A conditioning that associates panic attacks with certain external cues
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Anxiety sensitivity
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This is a trait-like belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences.
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Cognitive Restructuring
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A therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
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Panic control treatment.
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Exposure to interoceptive cues, cognitive therapy, relaxation/breathing.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
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Anxious apprehension
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When a person is in a relatively constant future-oriented mood, chronic tension, worry, and diffuse uneasiness that they cannot control. They also frequently show marked vigilance for possible signs of threat in the environment and frequently engage in certain subtle avoidance activities such as procrastination, checking, or calling a loved one frequently to see if s/he is safe.
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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
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Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced at some time as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety or distress
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Compulsions
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Can involve either overt repetitive behaviors that are performed as lengthy rituals (such as hand washing, checking, or ordering over and over again) or more covert mental rituals (such as counting, praying, or saying certain words silently over and over again)
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Panic provocation procedures
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A variety of biological challenge procedures that provoke panic attacks at higher rates in people with panic disorder than in people without panic disorder
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Mood Disorders
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A psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
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Mania
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Often characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria.
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Depression
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Feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection.
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Mixed Episode
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The person experiences rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, euphoria, and irritability, all within the same episode of illness.
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Unipolar depressive disorders
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The person experiences only depressive episodes
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Bipolar disorder
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A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
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A Major Depressive Episode
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Occurs when a person is be markedly depressed (and/or show a marked loss of interest in pleasurable activities) for most of every day and for most days for at least 2 weeks.
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Manic Episode
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Occurs when the person shows markedly elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence—particularly when others refuse to go along with the manic person’s wishes and schemes.
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Hypomanic Episode
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Occurs when a person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 4 days.
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Dysthymic disorder
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Occurs when a person experiences a persistently mild depressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years
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Dysfunctional beliefs
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Beliefs that are , Negative beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive (that a person is usually not consciously aware of). For example, “If She doesn’t love me, my life is worthless.”
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Beck’s Cognitive Model of Depression
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Certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions.
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Dichotomous or all-or-nothing thinking
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Involves a tendency to think in extremes. ( “If I can’t achieve 100%, then there’s no point in doing it all”).
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Selective Abstraction
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Involves a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other elements of the situation.
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Arbitrary Inference
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Involves jumping to a conclusion based on minimal or no evidence.
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Cyclothymia
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Defined as a less serious version of full-blown bipolar disorder because it is minus certain extreme symptoms and psychotic features such as delusions and the marked impairment caused by full-blown manic or major depressive episodes.
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Bipolar I Disorder
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A mood disorder in which a person has episodes of mania (excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior) and also periods of deep depression.
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Bipolar II Disorder
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When a person does not experience full-blown manic (or mixed) episodes but has experienced clear-cut hypomanic episodes, as well as major depressive episodes as in bipolar I disorder.
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
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A class of antidepressant drugs that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that breaks down or degrades them in the synapse.
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Rummination
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focusing on how bad we feel and endlessly analyzing the causes and consequences of our problems. It is known to likely to maintain or exacerbate depression.