Abnormal Psychology Chapters 4-6, Core Concepts, Butcher, Mineka, Hooley. – Flashcards

question
A field of psychology is concerned with the effects of stress and other psychological factors on the development and maintenance of physical problems.
answer
Health Psychology
question
is an approach to physical illness is concerned with psychological factors that may predispose an individual to medical problems.
answer
Behavioral Medicine
question
When we experience or perceive challenges to our physical or emotional well-being that exceed our coping resources and abilities
answer
Stress
question
External demands.
answer
Stressors
question
Efforts to deal with stress.
answer
Coping Strategies
question
a negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal.
answer
Distress
question
is linked to how likely it was that people would become depressed in the face of life stress.
answer
5HTTLPR gene
question
A person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.
answer
Stress tolerance
question
When a stressful situation threatens to exceed or exceeds the adaptive capacities of a person or a group.
answer
Crisis
question
This is designed to mobilize resources and prepare for a fight-or-flight response.
answer
The Sympathetic Adrenomedullary
question
Where the stress response begins.
answer
Hypothalamus
question
In addition to stimulating the SNS, the hypothalamus releases a hormone called "corticotropin-releasing hormone" (or CRH). Traveling in the blood, this hormone stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary then secretes adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). This induces the adrenal cortex (the outer portion of the adrenal gland) to produce the stress hormones called "glucocorticoids." In humans, the stress glucocorticoid that is produced is called cortisol.
answer
Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system
question
It prepares the body for fight or flight. It also inhibits the innate immune response. This means that if an injury does occur, the body's inflammatory response to it is delayed
answer
Cortisol
question
The biological cost of adapting to stress.
answer
Allostatic load
question
is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system.
answer
Psychoneuroimmunology
question
This school of psychology focuses on human traits and resources that might have direct implications for our physical and mental well-being.
answer
Positive Psychology
question
Having a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher.
answer
Hypertension
question
A persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found.
answer
Essential hypertension.
question
This is characterized by excessive competitive drive, extreme commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility.
answer
Type A behavior pattern
question
A behavior pattern marked by chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions. Often feeling insecure and anxious.
answer
Type D behavior pattern
question
Trigger the growth of plaques in the blood vessels as well as make it more likely that those plaques will rupture and cause a heart attack.
answer
Pro-inflammatory cytokines
question
A way of coping with stress through writing or talking about the situation.
answer
Emotional Disclosure
question
A clinical technique used to help a person learn to relax by monitoring muscle tension, heart rate, brainwave activity, or other body activities.
answer
Biofeedback
question
A psychological response to a common stressor (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job) that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional symptoms.
answer
Adjustment Disorder
question
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened.
answer
Post-Tramatic Stress Disorder
question
A behaviorally-oriented treatment strategy in which the patient is asked to vividly recount the traumatic event over and over until there is a decrease his or her emotional responses.
answer
Prolonged Exposure
question
Allows a person to discuss their experiences with others, usually shortly after the trauma has subsided.
answer
Debriefing Session
question
The use of cognitive-behavioral techniques to help people manage potentially stressful situations or difficult events.
answer
Stress-inoculation training
question
Anxiety about being in places from which escape might be difficult/embarrassing, or in which help may not be available in the event of a panic attack.
answer
Agoraphobia
question
An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month.
answer
Acute Stress Disorder
question
mental disorders in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does eperience subjective distress; a category dropped from DSM-III
answer
Neurotic Disorders
question
Involves a general feeling of apprehension about possible future danger and fear is an alarm reaction that occurs in response to immediate danger.
answer
Anxiety
question
When the fear response occurs in the absence of any obvious external danger.
answer
Panic Attack
question
Helps the individual understand his or her distorted patterns of thinking about anxiety-related situations and how these patterns can be changed.
answer
Cognitive-Restructuring Techniques
question
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
answer
Phobias
question
A fear that excessive or unreasonable and is triggered by the presence of a specific object or situation.
answer
Specific Phobia
question
Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
answer
Blood-injection-injury phobia
question
Human evolutionary history has affected which stimuli we are most likely to come to fear.
answer
Prepared Learning
question
Marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny of others.
answer
Social Phobias
question
Is a collection of nuclei in front of the hippocampus in the limbic system of the brain that is critically involved in the emotion of fear.
answer
Amygdala
question
process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks
answer
Interoceptive conditioning
question
A conditioning that associates panic attacks with certain external cues
answer
Exteroceptive conditioning
question
This is a trait-like belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences.
answer
Anxiety sensitivity
question
A therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
answer
Cognitive Restructuring
question
Exposure to interoceptive cues, cognitive therapy, relaxation/breathing.
answer
Panic control treatment.
question
A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
answer
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
question
When a person is in a relatively constant future-oriented mood, chronic tension, worry, and diffuse uneasiness that they cannot control. They also frequently show marked vigilance for possible signs of threat in the environment and frequently engage in certain subtle avoidance activities such as procrastination, checking, or calling a loved one frequently to see if s/he is safe.
answer
Anxious apprehension
question
Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced at some time as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety or distress
answer
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
question
Can involve either overt repetitive behaviors that are performed as lengthy rituals (such as hand washing, checking, or ordering over and over again) or more covert mental rituals (such as counting, praying, or saying certain words silently over and over again)
answer
Compulsions
question
A variety of biological challenge procedures that provoke panic attacks at higher rates in people with panic disorder than in people without panic disorder
answer
Panic provocation procedures
question
A psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
answer
Mood Disorders
question
Often characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria.
answer
Mania
question
Feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection.
answer
Depression
question
The person experiences rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, euphoria, and irritability, all within the same episode of illness.
answer
Mixed Episode
question
The person experiences only depressive episodes
answer
Unipolar depressive disorders
question
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
answer
Bipolar disorder
question
Occurs when a person is be markedly depressed (and/or show a marked loss of interest in pleasurable activities) for most of every day and for most days for at least 2 weeks.
answer
A Major Depressive Episode
question
Occurs when the person shows markedly elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence—particularly when others refuse to go along with the manic person's wishes and schemes.
answer
Manic Episode
question
Occurs when a person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 4 days.
answer
Hypomanic Episode
question
Occurs when a person experiences a persistently mild depressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years
answer
Dysthymic disorder
question
Beliefs that are , Negative beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive (that a person is usually not consciously aware of). For example, "If She doesn't love me, my life is worthless."
answer
Dysfunctional beliefs
question
Certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions.
answer
Beck's Cognitive Model of Depression
question
Involves a tendency to think in extremes. ( "If I can't achieve 100%, then there's no point in doing it all").
answer
Dichotomous or all-or-nothing thinking
question
Involves a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other elements of the situation.
answer
Selective Abstraction
question
Involves jumping to a conclusion based on minimal or no evidence.
answer
Arbitrary Inference
question
Defined as a less serious version of full-blown bipolar disorder because it is minus certain extreme symptoms and psychotic features such as delusions and the marked impairment caused by full-blown manic or major depressive episodes.
answer
Cyclothymia
question
A mood disorder in which a person has episodes of mania (excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior) and also periods of deep depression.
answer
Bipolar I Disorder
question
When a person does not experience full-blown manic (or mixed) episodes but has experienced clear-cut hypomanic episodes, as well as major depressive episodes as in bipolar I disorder.
answer
Bipolar II Disorder
question
A class of antidepressant drugs that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that breaks down or degrades them in the synapse.
answer
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
question
focusing on how bad we feel and endlessly analyzing the causes and consequences of our problems. It is known to likely to maintain or exacerbate depression.
answer
Rummination
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question
A field of psychology is concerned with the effects of stress and other psychological factors on the development and maintenance of physical problems.
answer
Health Psychology
question
is an approach to physical illness is concerned with psychological factors that may predispose an individual to medical problems.
answer
Behavioral Medicine
question
When we experience or perceive challenges to our physical or emotional well-being that exceed our coping resources and abilities
answer
Stress
question
External demands.
answer
Stressors
question
Efforts to deal with stress.
answer
Coping Strategies
question
a negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal.
answer
Distress
question
is linked to how likely it was that people would become depressed in the face of life stress.
answer
5HTTLPR gene
question
A person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.
answer
Stress tolerance
question
When a stressful situation threatens to exceed or exceeds the adaptive capacities of a person or a group.
answer
Crisis
question
This is designed to mobilize resources and prepare for a fight-or-flight response.
answer
The Sympathetic Adrenomedullary
question
Where the stress response begins.
answer
Hypothalamus
question
In addition to stimulating the SNS, the hypothalamus releases a hormone called "corticotropin-releasing hormone" (or CRH). Traveling in the blood, this hormone stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary then secretes adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). This induces the adrenal cortex (the outer portion of the adrenal gland) to produce the stress hormones called "glucocorticoids." In humans, the stress glucocorticoid that is produced is called cortisol.
answer
Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system
question
It prepares the body for fight or flight. It also inhibits the innate immune response. This means that if an injury does occur, the body's inflammatory response to it is delayed
answer
Cortisol
question
The biological cost of adapting to stress.
answer
Allostatic load
question
is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system.
answer
Psychoneuroimmunology
question
This school of psychology focuses on human traits and resources that might have direct implications for our physical and mental well-being.
answer
Positive Psychology
question
Having a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher.
answer
Hypertension
question
A persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found.
answer
Essential hypertension.
question
This is characterized by excessive competitive drive, extreme commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility.
answer
Type A behavior pattern
question
A behavior pattern marked by chronic emotional distress combined with a tendency to suppress negative emotions. Often feeling insecure and anxious.
answer
Type D behavior pattern
question
Trigger the growth of plaques in the blood vessels as well as make it more likely that those plaques will rupture and cause a heart attack.
answer
Pro-inflammatory cytokines
question
A way of coping with stress through writing or talking about the situation.
answer
Emotional Disclosure
question
A clinical technique used to help a person learn to relax by monitoring muscle tension, heart rate, brainwave activity, or other body activities.
answer
Biofeedback
question
A psychological response to a common stressor (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job) that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional symptoms.
answer
Adjustment Disorder
question
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened.
answer
Post-Tramatic Stress Disorder
question
A behaviorally-oriented treatment strategy in which the patient is asked to vividly recount the traumatic event over and over until there is a decrease his or her emotional responses.
answer
Prolonged Exposure
question
Allows a person to discuss their experiences with others, usually shortly after the trauma has subsided.
answer
Debriefing Session
question
The use of cognitive-behavioral techniques to help people manage potentially stressful situations or difficult events.
answer
Stress-inoculation training
question
Anxiety about being in places from which escape might be difficult/embarrassing, or in which help may not be available in the event of a panic attack.
answer
Agoraphobia
question
An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month.
answer
Acute Stress Disorder
question
mental disorders in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does eperience subjective distress; a category dropped from DSM-III
answer
Neurotic Disorders
question
Involves a general feeling of apprehension about possible future danger and fear is an alarm reaction that occurs in response to immediate danger.
answer
Anxiety
question
When the fear response occurs in the absence of any obvious external danger.
answer
Panic Attack
question
Helps the individual understand his or her distorted patterns of thinking about anxiety-related situations and how these patterns can be changed.
answer
Cognitive-Restructuring Techniques
question
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
answer
Phobias
question
A fear that excessive or unreasonable and is triggered by the presence of a specific object or situation.
answer
Specific Phobia
question
Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
answer
Blood-injection-injury phobia
question
Human evolutionary history has affected which stimuli we are most likely to come to fear.
answer
Prepared Learning
question
Marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny of others.
answer
Social Phobias
question
Is a collection of nuclei in front of the hippocampus in the limbic system of the brain that is critically involved in the emotion of fear.
answer
Amygdala
question
process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks
answer
Interoceptive conditioning
question
A conditioning that associates panic attacks with certain external cues
answer
Exteroceptive conditioning
question
This is a trait-like belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences.
answer
Anxiety sensitivity
question
A therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
answer
Cognitive Restructuring
question
Exposure to interoceptive cues, cognitive therapy, relaxation/breathing.
answer
Panic control treatment.
question
A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
answer
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
question
When a person is in a relatively constant future-oriented mood, chronic tension, worry, and diffuse uneasiness that they cannot control. They also frequently show marked vigilance for possible signs of threat in the environment and frequently engage in certain subtle avoidance activities such as procrastination, checking, or calling a loved one frequently to see if s/he is safe.
answer
Anxious apprehension
question
Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced at some time as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety or distress
answer
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
question
Can involve either overt repetitive behaviors that are performed as lengthy rituals (such as hand washing, checking, or ordering over and over again) or more covert mental rituals (such as counting, praying, or saying certain words silently over and over again)
answer
Compulsions
question
A variety of biological challenge procedures that provoke panic attacks at higher rates in people with panic disorder than in people without panic disorder
answer
Panic provocation procedures
question
A psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
answer
Mood Disorders
question
Often characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria.
answer
Mania
question
Feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection.
answer
Depression
question
The person experiences rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, euphoria, and irritability, all within the same episode of illness.
answer
Mixed Episode
question
The person experiences only depressive episodes
answer
Unipolar depressive disorders
question
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
answer
Bipolar disorder
question
Occurs when a person is be markedly depressed (and/or show a marked loss of interest in pleasurable activities) for most of every day and for most days for at least 2 weeks.
answer
A Major Depressive Episode
question
Occurs when the person shows markedly elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence—particularly when others refuse to go along with the manic person's wishes and schemes.
answer
Manic Episode
question
Occurs when a person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 4 days.
answer
Hypomanic Episode
question
Occurs when a person experiences a persistently mild depressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years
answer
Dysthymic disorder
question
Beliefs that are , Negative beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive (that a person is usually not consciously aware of). For example, "If She doesn't love me, my life is worthless."
answer
Dysfunctional beliefs
question
Certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions.
answer
Beck's Cognitive Model of Depression
question
Involves a tendency to think in extremes. ( "If I can't achieve 100%, then there's no point in doing it all").
answer
Dichotomous or all-or-nothing thinking
question
Involves a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other elements of the situation.
answer
Selective Abstraction
question
Involves jumping to a conclusion based on minimal or no evidence.
answer
Arbitrary Inference
question
Defined as a less serious version of full-blown bipolar disorder because it is minus certain extreme symptoms and psychotic features such as delusions and the marked impairment caused by full-blown manic or major depressive episodes.
answer
Cyclothymia
question
A mood disorder in which a person has episodes of mania (excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior) and also periods of deep depression.
answer
Bipolar I Disorder
question
When a person does not experience full-blown manic (or mixed) episodes but has experienced clear-cut hypomanic episodes, as well as major depressive episodes as in bipolar I disorder.
answer
Bipolar II Disorder
question
A class of antidepressant drugs that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that breaks down or degrades them in the synapse.
answer
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
question
focusing on how bad we feel and endlessly analyzing the causes and consequences of our problems. It is known to likely to maintain or exacerbate depression.
answer
Rummination