Please enter something

Abnormal Psychology Chapters 1-6

question

Clinical Depression
answer

A depression in mood (versus a clinical syndrome in clinical depression)
question

Mania
answer

Involves a disturbance in mood (predominantly euphoric) • Symptoms include exaggerated feelings of physical and emotional well-being, inflated self-esteem, pressured speech, and racing thoughts (euphoria is an exaggerated feeling of physical/emotional well being)
question

Major Depressive Disorder
answer

The experience of at least one major depressive episode (at least two weeks) without any manic episodes; often multiple discrete episodes
question

Bipolar I Disorder
answer

Person has experienced at least one manic episode
question

Bipolar II Disorder
answer

Hypomania (Less severe period of increased energy, and shorter in duration), at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (no full-blown manic episodes)
question

Cyclothymia
answer

is a chronic but less severe mood swings; at least two years in which the person experiences numerous hypomanic episodes and numerous depression periods but no major episodes either way.
question

Dysthymia
answer

Less severe symptoms but predominantly depressed mood for at least two years; most individuals experience two or more of the following (poor appetite or overeat, insomnia, low energy/self-esteem/concentration/decision making (Persistent Depressive Disorder)
question

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
answer

is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation
question

Cognitive therapy
answer

focused on recognizing, challenging, and overcoming cognitive distortions and errors in logic; patients encouraged to replace self-defeating cognitions with more rational self-statements.
question

Interpersonal Therapy
answer

Focuses on interpersonal factors in current relationships that cause/maintain depression. Treatment focuses on communication and problem-solving skills.
question

Medication for Depression/Bipolar
answer

SSRIs, Tricyclics, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
question

Seasonal Affective disorder
answer

Light therapy is used, exposure to broad-spectrum bright light used for one-two hours per day. Improvement found, unclear what mechanism, tied to hormonal.
question

Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
answer

Individuals are preoccupied with, and/or persistently avoidant of, thoughts or situations that provoke fear or anxiety
question

Anxiety
answer

More diffuse and general, out of proportion to threats from environment; adaptive at low levels, maladaptive when excessive (pessimism and negative self-evaluation at higher levels)
question

Panic Attack
answer

Sudden, overwhelming experiences of terror or fright; can be distinguished from anxiety in four major ways: more focused, less diffuse, more intense and sudden onset
question

Specific Phobia
answer

Fear that is excessive or unreasonable, related to a specific object or situation
question

Social Anxiety Disorder
answer

Social phobia, similar to specific but berformance or interactions in social situations are the focus of fear
question

Agoraphobia
answer

(With or without panic attacks) Anxiety about being in situations from which escape might either be difficult or embarrassing
question

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
answer

Excessive anxiety and worry about a number of distinct events or activities that are debilitating over a period of at least six months; the worry should not be focused on a fear of panic attacks or being embarrassed
question

Panic Disorder
answer

Recurrent unexpected panic attacks
question

Systematic Desensitization
answer

Teach relaxation, present items of a fier hierarchy while patient is in relaxed state; some evidence that direct exposures are better
question

Situational Exposure
answer

Repeatedly confronting previously avoided situations
question

Interoceptive Exposure
answer

Actions that induce the physical sensations that occur in actual panic attacks
question

Cognitive Therapy
answer

Useful for anxiety disorders, accompanied by a behavioral approach (recognize faulty logic)
question

Benzodiazepines
answer

Reduce vigilance and somatic symptoms, less effective for worry and rumination; effective for GAD and social phobias, not specific phobias
question

Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
answer

One of the most debilitating mental illnesses in the world
question

Obsessions
answer

Repetitive, unwarranted, intrusive cognitive events in the form of thoughts, images, or urges and are often nonsensical and involve something socially unacceptable or horrific
question

Compulsions
answer

Repetitive behaviors or mental acts done to reduce anxiety
question

Response-Prevention
answer

___________ and exposure use prolonged exposure to a situation that increases anxiety, while preventing a compulsive response (MOST EFFECTIVE)
question

Abnormal Behavior
answer

The application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders
question

Psychopathology
answer

Pathology of the mind; The symptoms and signs of mental disorders including such phenomena as depressed mood, panic attacks, and bizarre beliefs.
question

DSM V
answer

Defines mental disorders associated (APA, 2013)
question

Epidemiology
answer

The scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population.
question

Clinical Psychologists
answer

Concerned with the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders. They complete either a Ph.D. or a Psy.D. (4 years + internship)
question

Comorbidity
answer

Refers to the presence of more than one condition within the same period of time
question

Psychiatry
answer

The branch of medicine that concerns itself with studying and treating mental disorders. A psychiatrist is a physician (medical doctor) who specializes in treating mental disorders.
question

Social Work
answer

Another profession concerned with helping people achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning.
question

Counselors
answer

Typically masters-level professionals and consist of marriage/family therapist, psychiatric nurses, etc.
question

Etiology
answer

The cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition
question

Biopsychosocial Model
answer

An approach that integrates evidence from across biological, psychological, and social dimensions of behavior
question

Paradigm
answer

is a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory.
question

Biochemical Paradigm
answer

Discovery of general paresis (caused by syphilis – STD) is an important example. It looks for biological abnormalities that cause abnormal behavior (brain disease/injuries/genetic disorders).
question

Psychodynamic Paradigm
answer

An outgrowth of Sigmund Freud’s (1956-1939) theories, asserts that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious mental conflicts that have roots in early experience.
question

Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm
answer

Views abnormal behavior as a product of learning. Traced to 19th century (1879) with Wilhelm Wundt, who introduced psychology phenomena (study of). Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner were also early scientist who made lasting substantive contributions to learning theory and research
question

Humanistic Paradigm
answer

(Opposes Biological/psychoanalytic/behavior explanations) Emphasizes free will, views human nature as inherently good and posits a natural movement towards self-actualization
question

Diathesis
answer

is a predisposition to develop a disorder (typically a hereditary factor)
question

Psychotherapy
answer

Treatments grouped into the four major paradigms 1. Biological (mental illness) 2. Psychodynamic (Promotes insight to unconscious motivation) 3. Cognitive-behavioral (new ways of thinking/acting to produce adaptive function 4. Humanistic (increase emotional awareness and genuine emotional expression
question

Evidence Based Treatments
answer

Some more effective, client’s problem should identify approach, clients should be informed about evidence • Psychopharmacology • ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy • Psychosurgery, Psychodynamic • Contingency management • Social skills training • Cognitive techniques • Humanistic therapies (alternative)
question

Biological Treatments
answer

Traced back to the discovery of the cause and cure for general paresis. Often alleviate symptoms rather than cure disorders, however. (Treating psychological disorders)
question

Psychopharmacology
answer

the study of the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances (psychotropic generally safe, but no cure and unpleasant side effects)
question

Psychoanalysis
answer

A set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others.
question

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
answer

teaches new ways of thinking and acting to produce more adaptive functioning • Focuses on behavior change in present versus dynamics of personality • Encourages collaborative relationship with therapist • Outcome oriented versus theoretical • Classical conditioning is used o Systematic desensitization • In vivo desensitization: is a gradual/real life exposure to feared stimulus while maintaining relaxed state • Flooding is exposure to feared stimulus at full intensity while preventing avoidance until response is distinguished • Aversion therapy: creates an unpleasant response to an undesirable behavior • Contingency management (control awards) • Social skills training – desirable behaviors rewarded • Cognitive techniques (attribution, self-instruction, cognitive therapy, rational emotive therapy.
question

In Vivo Desensitization
answer

is a gradual/real life exposure to feared stimulus while maintaining relaxed state
question

Flooding
answer

Exposure to feared stimulus at full intensity while preventing avoidance until response is distinguished
question

Aversion Therapy
answer

creates an unpleasant response to an undesirable behavior
question

Contingency Managment
answer

Awards controlled to teach
question

Dialectic Behavioral Therapy
answer

emphasizes mindfulness – increased awareness of feelings, thoughts and motivations.
question

Humanistic Therapy
answer

goal is to increase emotional awareness and genuine emotional expression and to help people take responsibility for life choices
question

Classification
answer

• International Classification of Diseases (ICD), by the World Health Organization (ICD-10) • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5)
question

Diagnosis
answer

is important because it enables the clinician to refer to the knowledge of a particular set of problems, but doesn’t necessarily provide any information about the cause.
question

Limitations to Classical System
answer

• Optimal diagnoses threshold: Too vague • Categorical, however many disorders appear dimensional • Additional questions center around whether DSM-5 organization is optimal for designing treatments for research • Failure to make better use of information • Absence of specific definition of social impairment • No clinical problems into syndromes in the simples and most beneficial way.
question

Clinical Assessment
answer

Used to collect/interpret information that will be used to understand a person and make a diagnosis. • Primary goals include making predictions, interventions and evaluating interventions • Provides guideposts to measure treatment progress
question

Projective Personality Tests
answer

a) Present with ambiguous stimuli (picture or inkblot) and asked to generate response b) Assumes responses contain meaningful clinical information c) Intuitive scoring looks for recurrent themes (focus on form not content) d) Advantage: Useful info that might reveal aspects of person’s outlook of world and unconscious motives e) Limitations include poor reliability/validity/standardization in scoring/administration, limited normative data associated
question

Rorschach Test
answer

1921, 10 inkblots used to assess personality characteristics and psychopathology
question

Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
answer

Consists of a series of drawings that depict human figures in various ambiguous situations
question

Brain Imaging Techniques
answer

examine the brain through X-RAY type procedures
question

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
answer

Magnetic resonance imaging provides clearer images, which can be more easily transformed into three dimensions
question

FMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
answer

Functional MRI highlights brain functioning as it is occurring. Rapid images of changes in brain activity are obtained via measurement of oxygen flow, can measure momentary changes in brain activity
question

CT (Computed Tomography)
answer

can provide a static image of specific brain structures; usually MRI has replace the use of this technique In most facilities
question

PET (Positron Emission Tomography Scanning)
answer

is a very expensive procedure that shows detailed images of the brain and reflects changes in the activity of brain regions