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Test Questions on Abnormal Psychology Chapter 2 Questions And

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Paradigm
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Goal: Study abnormal behavior scientifically. Science aims for objectivity. “Perspective or conceptual framework from within which a scientist operates
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List the Paradigms
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Genetic, Neuroscience, Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral
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Genetic Paradigm
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Heredity plays a role in most behavior. Relationship between genes and environment is bidirectional (Nature via Nurture)
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Gene Expression
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Proteins influence whether the action of a specific gene will occur
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Heritability
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Extent to which variability in behavior is due to genetic factors. Heritability estimate ranges from 0.00 to 1.00. Group, rather than, individual indicator
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Shared Environment
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Events and experiences that family members have in common
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Non-Shared Environment
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Events and experiences that are unique to each family member
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Behavior Genetics
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Study of the degree to which genes and environmental factors influence behavior
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Molecular Genetics
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Identifies particular genes and their functions (by studying alleles and polymorphism)
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Diathesis-Stress Model
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Inherit vulnerability tendency (“diathesis”). Tendencies activated by life events (“stress”) (Eg: Schizophrenia, substance abuse, blood-injection injury phobia)
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Knockout Studies
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Removing specific genes in animals to observe effect on behavior
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Epigenetics
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Study of how the environment can alter gene expression or function (eg. Cross-fostering adoptee method: Rats born to mothers with low parenting skills who were raised by mothers with high parenting skills showed lower levels of stress reactivity)
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Reciprocal Gene-Environment Interaction
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Genes predispose individuals to seek out situations that increase the likelihood of developing a disorder. (eg. Adolescent girls with genetic vulnerability for depression more likely to experience events that can trigger depression)
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Linkage Analysis
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Uses DNA blood testing to examine the influence of genetics in mental disorders.
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Neuroscience Paradigm
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Examines the contribution of brain structure and function to psychopathology. Mental disorders are linked to aberrant processes in the brain.
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Neurochemistry behind mental disorders
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Too much or too little of a specific neurotransmitter owing to changes in synthesis of the transmitter. Too much of a specific neurotransmitter owing to changes in reuptake of the transmitter. Too many or too few receptors on the postsynaptic neuron membrane. Neurotransmitter imbalances in different, interacting neural circuits
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Reuptake
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Reabsorption of leftover neurotransmitter by presynaptic neuron
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Neurotransmitter
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Chemicals that allow neurons to send a signal across the synapse (gap) to another neuron.
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Serotonin & Dopamine
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Depression, mania, and schizophrenia
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Norepinephrine
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Anxiety and other stress related disorders
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GABA
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Anxiety
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Frontal Lobe
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used for reasoning and other higher mental processes
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Parietal Lobe
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Receiving center for sensations of the skin and bodily positions
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Temporal Lobe
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Primary auditory and general association areas
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Occipital Lobe
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Reception and analysis of visual information
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HPA Axis
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Involved in stress, hypothalamus
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Sympathetic Nervous System
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Excitatory. Heartbeat acceleration, pupil dilation, gastrointestinal inhibition, electrodermal activity increases. Part of Autonomic nervous system (involved in anxiety like panic and PTSD)
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Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Quiescent. Heartbeat deceleration, pupil constriction, gastrointestinal activation. Part of Autonomic nervous system
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Psychodynamic Paradigm
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Greatest contribution to psychology is treatment. Doesn’t help with empirical understanding of the causes of psychopathology. Abnormal behavior reflects unconscious conflicts within the person. Developed by Freud.
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Ego Analysis
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Views the ego as capable of controlling id impulses and the external environment. Form of psychoanalysis.
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Brief Therapy
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Focuses on a few specific problems and involves few sessions. Form of psychoanalysis.
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Interpersonal Therapy
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Focuses on current personal problems. Therapist uses empathic listening and makes suggestions for improvement. Form of psychoanalysis.
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Pathogenic Beliefs
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Beliefs that occur outside of conscious awareness. Trigger maladaptive thoughts and emotions
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Implicit Memory
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Cognitive neuroscience paradigm. The unconscious may reflect efficient information processing rather than a repository for troubling material
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Object Relations Theory
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Longstanding patterns of relating to others
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Attachment Theory
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Type and style of infant’s attachment to caregivers can influence later psychological functioning.
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Relational Self
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Individuals will describe themselves differently depending upon which close relationships are told to think about.
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Problems with Freud’s paradigm and theories
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Freud had no scientific data to support his theories. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed. Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact. Observations not representative of population.
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Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm
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Roots in learning principles and cognitive science. Behavior is reinforced by consequences (Attention, Escape or avoidance, Sensory stimulation, Access to desirable objects or events). Focuses on observable behaviors.
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Systematic Desensitization
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Relaxation plus exposure. Important for anxiety disorders.
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Cognition
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A mental process which includes: Perceiving, judging, reasoning, conceiving, & recognizing
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Behavioral Therapies
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Systematic desensitization, flooding, aversion conditioning.
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Schema
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Organized network of previously accumulated knowledge. We actively interpret new information.
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Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
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Initially developed for depression. Depression caused by distorted thoughts. Help patients recognize and change maladaptive thought patterns.
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Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
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Irrational beliefs: Internal, repetitive thoughts that reflect assumptions about self. Musts or shoulds: Unrealistic demands we place on self, others, and the world
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Humanistic Approach
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Theorists argue we are driven to self-actualize, that is, to fulfill our potential for goodness and growth. Carl Rogers.
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Factors Common to Paradigms
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Emotion (Expressive, Experiential, Physiological) Most psychopathology includes disturbances of one or more component. Sociocultural Factors: Culture, ethnicity, gender, & social relationships (May increase vulnerability to psychopathology: e.g., women more likely to experience depression than men)