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Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1, 2, 3, 5- Exam 1 Essay

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How do psychologists define a psychological disorder?
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A psychological disorder is anything that interferes with a persons way of life over an extended period of time
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What is a scientist- practitioner?
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they practice treatment delivery and research mutually. They focus on current research in the field. They evaluate their own assessment and treatment and conduct research.
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What supernatural influences were formerly believed to explain abnormal behavior?
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People believed that abnormal people were either possessed by the devil or touched by God
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How do psychological approaches including psychoanalysis, humanism, and behaviorism explain abnormal behavior?
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Psychological disorder
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psychological dysfunction associated with distress and or impairment in functioning -Behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress and or impairment in functioning or increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or impairment
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What is mental disorder often associated with?
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Harmful dysfunction
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Distress
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can be normal in some situations, becomes dysfunctional when a person is at the extreme
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Impairment
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must be pervasive and or significant to classify as a mental disorder
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How does culture influence what is considered a psychological disorder or not?
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Different behaviors are accepted in some cultures but not in others, may be considered normal in a European country but a mental disorder in Africa.
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Psychopathology
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scientific study of psychological dysfunction
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Who can Diagnose?
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PhD, PsyD, MD (psychiatrist), psychiatric nurses (masters) , LICSW, Master’s level counselors
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LICSW
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licensed clinical social worker (trained in delivering treatment)
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PsyD
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“Doctor of psychology” does clinical and counseling
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Describe a Clinical Description
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Begins with a description of the symptoms, describes prevalence and incidence of disorders. distinguishes the clinical dysfunction from common experience, describes onset, course of disorder, and prognosis
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Prevalence
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how many people in a population have the disorder
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Incidence
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the number of new cases over a period of time (year)
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Acute onset
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immediate start of symptoms
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Insidious onset
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has been going on for a long time/ gradual start of symptoms (ex Schizophrenia)
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Episodic
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symptoms come and go
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Time-Limited
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symptoms come and stay for a period of time, and then you think you are cured, but they come back again and again ex) depression typically has a 9 month cycle
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Developmental psychology
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the study of changes in behavior over time
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developmental psychopathology
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the study of changes in abnormal behavior over time
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life-span developmental psychopathology
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includes not just childhood and adolescence, but adulthood and old age abnormal behavior study
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How does age of onset affect presentation of a disorder?
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The age of the patient will impact how they describe the problem, and different disorders are more likely to begin at different stages of life ex) 25% of people with schizophrenia have one episode, and are unaffected for the rest of their lives
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Etiology
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how illness is caused
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Treatment for psychological disorders?
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Includes pharmacological, psychosocial, and/or combined treatments
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Psychological suffering has a larger negative impact on the body than what?
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physical suffering ex) emotional abuse is worse than physical abuse
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What are the three historical dominant traditions used to explain abnormal behavior?
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1) supernatural 2)biological 3)psychological
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Supernatural tradition
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Good vs Evil -possession, or touched by God -people would be tortured, exorcised, etc.
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“stress and melancholy”=?
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anxiety and depression
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insanity is caused by what
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emotional stress
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What was Saint Vitus’s Dance/ Tarantism?
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in medieval times, people would randomly dance in the streets
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What is tarantism known as today?
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mass hysteria
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Mob psychology
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people do more extreme and dangerous things when they are in a group than when they are alone –> emotion contagion
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Where did the term lunatic come from?
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people used to believe the moon led to crazy behavior, this came from a swiss physician, Paracelsus, who suggested mental health issues were caused by the pull of the moon and stars
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Who was Paracelsus?
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the swiss physician who suggested that mental health problems are affected by the pull of the moon stars -built a hospital with angles to prevent moonlight from affecting patients
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What did Saint Vitus’s Dance assist with the belief in?
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demonic possession
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Who was the father of modern western medicine?
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Hippocrates
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What is moral therapy?
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treat patients as normally as possible, humanely, encourage and reinforce social interaction -moral referred to psychological and emotional factors -became popular in the first half of the 19th century
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Who were the main proponents of moral therapy?
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Philippe Pinel, Benjamin Rush, and Dorothea Dix
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Phillipe Pinel & Jean-Baptiste Pussin
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argued that patients shouldn’t be restrained
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Benjamin Rush
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led reforms in the US, signed the Declaration of Independence, and founded American Psychiatry
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Dorthea Dix
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mental hygiene movement
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What happened when asylum reform occurred?
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Moral therapy declined because there were too many patients and not enough staff
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“Competitive alternative models”
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behaviorism, psychoanalysis -they competed with moral therapy
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Freudian theory
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(of the structure and function of the mind) emotional problems are caused by psychological stressors. You can control these problems by talking to people
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Unconscious
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where most emotional problems arise but we are unable to be aware of it (Freudian theory)
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Catharsis
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helpful release of emotion
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What are the components of the structure of the mind according to Freudian theory?
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Id, Superego, and Ego
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Id
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pleasure principle, illogical, emotional, irrational, no consequence thought -develops first
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superego
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enemy of the ed, controlling aspect of the mind, knows moral principals
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ego
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the rational, mediates between the id and the superego, compromiser, problem solver
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What were Freud’s proposed mental stages based on sexual pleasure?
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Oral 0-1 Anal 1-3 Phallic 3-6 Latent 6-12 Genital 12-life very complex theory, but most subject to disagreement conflicts arise at each stage and must be resolved
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What are defense mechanisms according to freudian theory?
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The ego’s attempt to manage anxiety resulting from the id/superego conflict
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What are the types of defense mechanisms?
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displacement and denial, rationalization, reaction formation, projection, repression, and sublimation
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Displacement
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emotion ends up on a new target ex) kick dog when angry with boss
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reaction formation
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behave the opposite of your feelings because it is more acceptable
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Projection
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attribute your emotions to someone else
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Sublimation
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channel emotions into something productive ex) work out when feeling angry
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Repression
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minimizing what happened?
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Denial
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pretending the emotion does not exist
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When are defense mechanisms unhealthy?
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too frequently used or too rigid
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Psychosexual stages
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as a child grows up, the focus shifts between different sources of need and pleasure
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Object relations theory
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Children’s personalities and understanding of the world is largely influenced by their relationships with important people (like parents) and what they learn from those relationships (like safety)
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Who was Alfred Adler?
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a freudian follower who believed in free will and personal growth throughout their lives -almost every school of modern therapy traces their roots to adler, not freud _individual psychotherpay
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Gungi
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practically freud’s son, had a nervous breakdown when he disagreed with him over the nature of the unconscious, he believed that people grew and developed throughout their whole lives
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Watson
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believed psychology is a science
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BF Skinner
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operant conditioning
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Humanistic psychology
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people have free will
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Cognitive therapy
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came 10 years after humanism, and focused on the brain/ cognition -thinking is one of the major determinants of how we feel and behave -most widely used therapy
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One dimensional models
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explain behavior in terms of a single cause, tend to ignore info from other areas ex) Obsessive compulsive disorder being explained as a result of family history alone
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Multidimensional model
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interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative, draws upon information from several sources, abnormal behavior occurs on the basis of multiple factors
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what are some examples of dimensions?
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genetic, social, biological, learning/behavioral, cultural, and environmental
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Polygentic
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many genes –> one outcome
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T or F environment trumps genetics
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mostly true
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what is epigenetics?
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changes in the way genes are expressed based on environmental factors
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Diathesis-stress model
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Disorders are the result of underlying risk factors combining with life stressors that cause a disorder to emerge
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Neuroscience
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studies the role of the nervous system in disease and behavior
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CNS
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central nervous system brain & spinal cord
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PNS
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peripheral nervous system somatic and autonomic branches
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What are the parts of a neuron?
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soma, dendrites, axon, axon terminals, synapses
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soma
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cell body
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dendrites
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branches that receive information from other neurons
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axon
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the trunk of a neuron that sends messages to other neurons
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axon terminals
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buds at the end of axon from which chemical messages are sent
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synapses
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small gaps that separate neurons
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synaptic cleft
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a small space that exists between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another
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Neuron
Neuron
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a nerve cell that operates electrically but communicates chemically
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neurotransmitters
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the chemical messengers between neurons
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Structure of the brain
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forebrain, brain stem
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Brain stem
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basic functions (breathing) contains: hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus
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Forebrain
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higher-order functions, more modern part of the brain contains: limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex -this is what separates humans from other species
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Hindbrain
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regulates automatic processes -medulla -pons -cerebellum
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medulla
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heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
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pons
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regulates sleep stages, awareness, and sleep health
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cerebellum
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involved in physical coordination, has a lot of surface area. Coordinates muscle movement
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midbrain
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coordinates movement with sensory input ex) hot stove = pull stand back -contains part of the RAS
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RAS
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reticular activating system, sleep and active cycle
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Limbic system
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involved in emotional processing, aggression, includes thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
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Basal ganglia
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thought to partially control motor activity
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Thalamus
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receives and integrates sensory information, sensory relay station
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Hypothalamus
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eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity, controls the endocrine system, and the pituitary gland four F’s: feeding, fighting, fleeing, and f***ing
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amygdala
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emotion
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Hippocampus
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memory
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Cerebral Cortex
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contains two specialized hemispheres brain operates best when it coordinates both of these
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Right brain
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spatial awareness, music, positive emotions
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left brain
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language, problem solving
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Lobes of the cerebral cortex and some of their functions
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frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
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Frontal
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thinking and reasoning abilities, memory
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PArietal
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touch recognition
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Occipital
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integrates visual input
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Temporal
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recognition of sights and sounds, long term memory storage
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The divisions of the brain
The divisions of the brain
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Somatic branch of the PNS
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controls voluntary muscles and movement
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autonomic branch of the PNS
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involuntary processes, 2 branches
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what are the two branches of the Autonomic branch of the PNS?
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sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
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sympathetic branch
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arousal mechanism, tells your body what to do in the event of the crisis -increases heart rate, dilates eyes, increases lung capacity, mobilizes fat storage for quick energy
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parasympathetic branch
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restores equilibrium from the actions of the sympathetic branch after a crisis regulates cardiovascular system and body temperature
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The endocrine system
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regulates release of hormones
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Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenalcortical axis (HPA)
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integration of endocrine and nervous system function
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What are types of chemicals in the brain other than neurotransmitters?
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agonists, inverse agonists, antagonists
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Agonists
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increase the activity of a neurotransmitter by mimicking its effects
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antagonists
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inhibit or block the production of neurotransmitter or function indirectly to prevent the chemical from reaching the next neuron by closing or occupying the receptors
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inverse agonists
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produce effects opposite to a given neurotransmitter
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Glutamate
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major excitatory neurotransmitter, very common
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GABA
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main inhibitory neurotransmitter Gamma aminobutyric acid
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Norepinphrine
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noradrenaline, speeds up the heart, too much can be PTSD or panic disorders
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Serotonin
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(5-HT) influences information processing behavior, mood, and thoughts has widespread complex circuits (6) in the brain Dysregulated serotonin may contribute to depression
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low serotonin is linked to what?
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instability and impulsivity, aggression, overreacting, mood disorders
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SSRI
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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, only work with a few receptors
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Beta blockers
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block the norepinphrine receptors and slow the heart down
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Dopamine
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implicated in depression and ADHD, regulates other neurotransmitters, too little dopamine is related to Parkinson’s -reward circuits in the brain -at least 5 different receptor sites in the brain
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What suggests that psychosocial influences affect brain function?
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the fact that neurological activity may change as a result of psychotherapy –> successful therapy changes the brain structure and normalizes the brain
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What is the importance of environment on development?
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more stimulating environments appear to promote neurodevelopment, and sense of control over environment appears important
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Explain the psychosocial monkey experiment
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Monkeys were given neurochemical designed to trigger extreme anxiety Monkeys raised in uncontrollable environment responded with panic Monkeys raised in controllable environment responded with aggression Perceived control changes reaction
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Operant conditioning
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your behavior is controlled by the rewards or punishment that come with it
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Who discovered learned helplessness?
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Marty Saligman
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learned helplessness
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first demonstrated in animal models, but may contribute to depression in humans
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Learned optimism
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people with positive views of themselves that live live longer than those without
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Social Learning
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based on the research of Albert Bandura, modeling and observational learning, you learn from watching others
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Prepared learning
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it is easier to learn associations that would have been helpful to our ancestors ex) fear of spiders -women do prepared learning easier than men do
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implicit memory
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acting on the basis of experiences that are not recalled ex) stroop test done with fearful words times are slower
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Blind sight
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some people who are blind can still sense objects that would be in their visual field even if they do not experience sight
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How does anger impact your heart?
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chronic hostility increases risk for heart disease
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What is Sass’ Law?
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never treat a diagnosis, treat a person
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Standardization
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is a process by which a set of standards or norms is established for a technique to ensure its consistency across different measurements
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Mental status exam
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an assessment of the major cognitive and emotional systems of the patient – an examination of the cognitive and emotional systems of a patitent
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semi-structured (most common clinical assessment method)
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having an outline of questions that are followed but some flexibility to ask about certain areas more or less
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affect
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specific reactions to specific types of questions (over or under reactions)
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Sensorium
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the patient’s general orientation, ex) do they know where they are and what they’re doing
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Components of Mental Status Exam
Components of Mental Status Exam
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ABCs of observation
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Antecedents, behavior, consequences
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self-monitoring
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individual observes self
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reactivity problem
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simply observing a behavior may cause it to change due to the individual’s knowledge of being observed
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Psychological testing
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specific tools for assessment: cognition, emotion, behavior
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Projective tests
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used to access the unconscious processes, unique to each respondant
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Rorschach Test
Rorschach Test
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Objective tests
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standardized, reliable, and valid, roots in empirical tradition, require minimal clinical inference in scoring and interpretation
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Personality Tests
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MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory) is best for telling if a personality disorder is present extensive validity, reliability, and normative database
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Name four types of anxiety disorders
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Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder
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What do anxiety disorders have in common?
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anxiety and fear play a large role
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What type of disorder is PTSD?
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Trauma and stressor related disorders
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Which disorders are obsessive compulsive?
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OCD, body dysmorphic disorder
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Fear
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immediate, present oriented, sympathetic nervous system activated
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Anxiety
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apprehensive, future oriented, somatic symptoms: muscle tension, restlessness, elevated heart rate
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Panic attack
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abrupt experience of intense fear with both physical and cognitive symptoms Physical: heart palpitations, chest pain, dizziness, sweating, chills Cognitive: fear of losing control, dying, or going crazy expected and unexpected -occur very suddenly
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What are the DSM 5 symptoms for panic attack?
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(four or more) 1. Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate 2. Sweating 3. Trembling or shaking 5. Feeling of choking 6. Chest pain or discomfort 7. Nausea or abdominal distress 8. Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint 9. Chills or heat sensations 10. Paresthesias 11. Derealization 12. Fear of losing control or going crazy 13. Fear of dying
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There are biological contributions to anxiety. Discuss
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Increased physiological vulnerability, polygenetic influences, corticotropin releasing factor neurotransmitters: GABA, noradrenergic, serotonergic
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CRF
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corticotropin releasing factor activates the HPA and impacts anxiety
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GABA levels associated with what
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low levels –> anxiety
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Noradrenergic and serotenergic systems
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problems with these symptoms lead to greater anxiety
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What types of stressful life events may contribute to anxiety?
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family, interpersonal, occupational, educational
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What is the comorbidity rate between anxiety and related disorders?
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55-76%
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Comorbidity
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meeting diagnostic criteria for multiple disorders at the same time
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Generalized anxiety disorder DSM 5
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Excessive anxiety and worry occurring more days than not for at least 6 months Difficulty controlling the worry Anxiety and worry associated with other physical symptoms Anxiety causes clinically significant distress or impairment Not due to substance use or medical condition Not better explained by another mental disorder
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GAD in children
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only need one physical symptom for physical diagnosis
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Neuroticism
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tendency to experience more frequent and more intense negative affect and react to this affect with avoidant coping
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Treatments of GAD?
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pharmacological, benzodiapines, antidepressants
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Benzodiazepines
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provide fast acting relief but may not be used over time and the disorder will return
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PTSD
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major trauma, can cause hippocampus to shrink PTSD is more likely with severe trauma generalized psychological vulnerability (beliefs about uncontrollability and unpredictability of threatening situations) social support helps!
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Neurobiological model of PTSD
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threatening cues activate CRF system and activates fear and anxiety areas, hippocampus shrinks
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Obsessions vs compulsions?
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Obsessions -Intrusive and nonsensical -Thoughts, images, or urges -Attempts to resist or eliminate, repetitive Compulsions -Thoughts or actions -Provide relief from obsessive thoughts
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What are the four major categories of compulsions?
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Checking, ordering, arranging, and washing/c;eaning