Abnormal Psychology Chap. 1

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Abnormal Psychology
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The field devoted to the scientific study of problems
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Clinical Scientists
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Gather information systematically so that they can describe, predict, and explain the phenomena
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Clinical Practitioners
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Role is to detect, assess, and treat abnormal patterns in functioning
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Deviant Behavior
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Behavior that is different, extreme, unusual, and maybe even bizarre, strays from norms
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Distressing Behavior
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Behavior that is unpleasant or unsettling to the person
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Dysfunctional Behavior
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Behavior that interferes with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
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Norms
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Stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
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Abnormal Behavior
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Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that break norms of psychological functioning. Varies from different societies based on norms
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Dangerous Behavior
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Behavior that is consistently careless, hostile, or confused; may put themselves and others around them at risk
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Thomas Szasz
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Clinical theorist; found the concept of mental illness to be a myth, and that deviations of norms in a society are just \”problems of living\”
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Eccentricity
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An unusual pattern with which others have no right to interfere
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Treatment/Therapy
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A procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
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Sufferer
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Seeks relief from the healer
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Healer
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Trained and socially accepted whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group
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Series of Contacts
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Between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer’s emotional state, attitudes, and behaviors
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Trephination
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Ancient treatment; a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to release \”evil spirits\” that would supposedly cause the abnormal behavior
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Hippocrates
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Taught that illnesses had natural causes and abnormal behavior came from disease arising from internal physical problems
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Humors
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Four fluids that flowed throughout the body
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Yellow Bile
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Part of the humors; an excess of this fluid was believed to cause mania
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Black Bile
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Part of the humors; an excess of this fluid was believed to cause melancholia
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Johann Weyer
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First physician to specialize in mental illness and believed that the mind was as susceptible to illness as the body was; considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology
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Gheel
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A famous religious shrine devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders, located in Belgium; forerunner of today’s community mental health programs
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Asylums
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Institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness; created with good intentions, but essentially became prisons where patients were held in filthy conditions and treated with unspeakable cruelty
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Philippe Pinel
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Known for bringing reforms to asylums and allowed patients to move freely around the hospital and gave them a comfortable setting and advice
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Somatogenic Perspective
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The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
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Psychogenic Perspective
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The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
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Emil Kraeplin
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Published a textbook arguing that physical factors are responsible for mental dysfunction
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Hypnotism
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A procedure in which a person is placed in a trancelike mental state during which he or she becomes extremely suggestible
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Mesmer
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Hypnotized his patients with hysterical disorders, developed hypnotism,
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Psychotrophic Medication
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Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
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Private Psychotherapy
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An arrangement by which an individual directly pays a psychotherapist for counseling services
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Positive Psychology
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The study of enhancement of positive feelings, positive traits, positive abilities, and group directed virtues

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