Please enter something

Abnormal Psychology Ch. 7, Abnormal Psychology Ch. 9, Abnormal Psychology Ch. 8

question

An important difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is…
answer

The severity and duration of the problem
question

What is the current incidence of severe unipolar depression in the United States?
answer

5-10%
question

In the united states, the prevalence of the unipolar depression in boys is…
answer

The same as it is for girls, but the prevalence for men is lower than it is for women
question

The experience of constant weeping would be considered a(n) _____ symptoms of depression
answer

Emotional
question

A man diagnosed with major depressive disorder exhibited his first diagnosable symptoms when he was about 40 years old. Among those experiencing major depressive disorder, his case is…
answer

Very uncommon, most people with this diagnosis are women in their mid- to late 20s
question

A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self-worth is not showing what symptom?
answer

Behavioral symptoms
question

A depressed person who is confused, unable to remember things, and unable to solve problems is suffering from ____ symptoms
answer

Behavioral
question

What is a physical symptom of depression?
answer

Sleeping poorly
question

What would be the most appropriate diagnosis for a person who experienced a major depressive episode, without having any history of mania, and is either immobile or excessively active>
answer

Catatonic depression
question

To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, catatonic, an individual must display…
answer

Motor immobility or lack of excessive activity
question

To receive a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, melancholic, an individual must display…
answer

Almost no emotional response to pleasurable events
question

To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic syndrome, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least…
answer

2 years
question

Judith is currently experiencing a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to go to work and to take care of her children. it has lasted for three weeks, and she has experienced similar episodes in the past. What type of major depression would she most likely be diagnosed with?
answer

Persistent
question

A woman experiences recurrent thoughts of suicide, great sadness, and sleep disturbance. These symptoms began a week after she gave birth and have lasted more than six months. This woman is experiencing…
answer

Postpartum depression
question

A woman being treated for postpartum depression after the birth of her first child is most likely to…
answer

Have up to a 50% chance of experiencing postpartum depression with her next child
question

Jamal is experiencing major depressive episode that appears to have begun three weeks ago. He is miserable and suffers from at least five symptoms of depression. No unusually stressful events have occurred in the past year. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be…
answer

Endogenous Depression
question

Sohila has been deteriorating for more than a year. She is always tired (she does not sleep), she is losing weight (she eats poorly), she is sad, she feels terrible, and she feels like it will never get any better. When she responds to questions, it is clear that nothing in particular has happened. Based on the data, the diagnosis would most likely be…
answer

Endogenous Depression
question

Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found..
answer

A higher than chance rate of depression among the families of depressed patients
question

What are the chances that researchers will develop a specific, gene-based explanation for unipolar depression in the near future?
answer

Low– so far, specific genes on half or more of chromosomes have been linked to unipolar depression
question

There are several factors related to unipolar depression– reduced positive reinforcers, gene abnormalities, and life stress, to name a few. How do these factors relate to depression? The most recent research shows that…
answer

Some factors may cause depression, while other factors may maintain depression
question

If people with unipolar depression were found to have higher levels of cortisol, such a finding would support the influence of the…
answer

Biochemical orientation
question

Assume that a new study suggests the corpus callosum may cause unipolar depression by moving messages too slowly from one cerebral hemisphere to another. This study would be…
answer

Very unusual; previous studies have most strongly connected another brain area to depression
question

The belief that the prefrontal cortex has a very important part to play in the development of depression is probably…
answer

Correct, lower activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with depression
question

Recent research indicated that all of the following brain structures or regions are part of the brain circuits involved in unipolar depression except…
answer

The corpus callosum
question

According to Freudian theory, depression results in part from…
answer

Regression to the oral stage
question

The clinician who would be most likely to say, “Tell me about any early losses you experienced ” is a…
answer

Psychodynamic clinician
question

Which theoretical model is supported by finding monkeys separated from their mothers at birth show signs of depression?
answer

Psychodynamic
question

Studies show that less than 10% of individuals who experience major losses become depressed. This finding provides what level of support for a psychodynamic explanation of depression?
answer

Almost none- about 10% of adults in the United States experience some level of clinical depression each year
question

Behaviorists explain the downward spiral of depression by theorizing that
answer

Depressed behavior leads to even fewer opportunities for social rewards
question

Which theoretical orientation would support the finding that there is a significant relationship between positive life events and feelings of life satisfaction and happiness?
answer

Behavioral
question

A decrease in social rewards, especially a decrease in social support such as that is found in a happy marriage, may precede the onset of depression, providing evidence for which theoretical perspectives?
answer

Behavioral and sociocultural
question

Cognitive theorists explain depression in terms of a person’s
answer

Negative interpretation of events
question

The individual associated with developing a cognitive theory of depression based on negative and maladaptive thinking was…
answer

Beck
question

The dean of academic affairs visit a professor’s class as part of a tenure review. At the conclusion of the lecture, the dean exists hurriedly, without saying a word to the professor. The professor, who is prone to depression, concludes, “The dean hated my class so much he was too embarrassed to speak with me”. This is an example of a..
answer

Arbitrary inference
question

Which research finding provides the most direct support for Beck’s cognitive theory of depression
answer

Depressed women make even more errors in logic when interpreting a paragraph than do nondepressed women
question

If I’m in a depressed mood and all I do is think about my mood without trying to change it, I’m making what kind of response?
answer

Ruminative
question

What are the two most influential cognitive explanations for unipolar depression?
answer

Theory of negative thinking and the theory of learned helplessness
question

There person associated with the learned helplessness theory of depression is…
answer

Seligman
question

According to Martin Seligman’s theory, who would be most likely to develop learned helplessness?
answer

Someone who had experienced uncontrollable negative events and then a controllable negative event
question

Many victims of spousal abuse stay with their abusers, even though it is obvious to others that they should, and actually could, leave. A good explanation for their behavior is…
answer

Learned helplessness
question

Darius thinks that his poor performance in math was due to a bad teacher. He also believes that he is good in language-based subjects, Darius is sure that he will do better in math next year. This is an example of…
answer

External, specific, and unstable attrition
question

The clinician who would be most likely to ask “Do you believe you will always feel like this in all situations?” is a …
answer

Cognitive Clinician
question

One who looks at the influence of race, living conditions, marital status, and roles on the development of depression would most likely represent which theoretical orientation?
answer

Sociocultural
question

In the United States, the highest depression rate is found in..
answer

Divorced people
question

What statement is not generally accurate regarding gender and depression?
answer

Men respond less successfully to therapy for depression
question

Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs than men. This is the…
answer

Life stress theory
question

Artifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests…
answer

Women and men are equally likely to develop depression
question

The DSM-5 has added premenstrual dysphoric disorder as a diagnosis given to certain women who repeatedly experience a clinically significant depressive and related symptoms during the week before menstruation. Why has this been an ongoing controversy?
answer

The diagnosis pathologizes severe cases of premenstrual syndrom
question

What theoretical orientation would support the finding that Westerners experience more psychological symptoms of depression than do others around the world?
answer

Sociocultural
question

Which of these people is most likely to be diagnosed with depression?
answer

A woman from the United States who has lived all of her life on an American Indian reservation
question

Which is an accurate description of the symptoms of mania?
answer

They don’t include a sense of the impact of one’s actions on others
question

People who talk rapidly, dress flambouyantly, and get involved in dangerous activities are showing ____ symptoms of maina.
answer

Behavioral
question

According to the DSM-5, all of the following are considered symptoms of a manic episode EXCEPT
answer

Suicidal ideation
question

On an impulse, David decides to throw a huge party. It takes four days of round-the-clock work to get everything ready, and then David welcomes more than 200 guests. When the police stop by because David has blocked a public road to have room for the party, he flies into a rage. Most likely, David is experiencing…
answer

Manic phase of bipolar 1 disorder
question

The difference between bipolar 1 disorder and bipolar 2 disorder is…
answer

The severity of the manic episodes
question

A friend of yours wishes to be a highly creative artist. What is the best advice you could give your friend regarding mood disorders?
answer

“Mild mood disorders are related to greater activity than severe disorders”
question

Assume you have a friend who is a talented artist and has occasional short-term hypomania. What is the best thing, in terms of being a creative, productive artist, that your friend could do?
answer

Do nothing: sometimes, hypomania increases artistic creativity and produtivity
question

A milder pattern of mood swings that does not reach the severity of bipolar disorder but does inclue brief depressive and manic episodes is called ______ disorder
answer

Cyclothymic
question

Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder focus on all of the following except…
answer

Hormonal functioning
question

Abnormal “ion activity” has been fond in many people suffering from bipolar disorder. This ion activity is responsible for transmitting messages
answer

Down the length of a neuron
question

The strongest evidence for the cause of bipolar disorders BEST supports which theoretical perspective?
answer

Biological
question

Which risk percentage pattern BEST supports the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder —(1) in the general population , (2) among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and (3) among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder?
answer

1% 10% 40%
question

If we ultimately find that people with unipolar depression have certain biochemical characteristics, certain cognitive characteristics, and certain life stressors then we will have evidence that…
answer

An interaction between factors causes depression
question

About how many deaths occur by suicide each year around the world?
answer

1,000,000
question

Compared to heart disease and cancer, suicide accounts for ____ in the United States
answer

<10% of deaths
question

Why do many people think that estimates of the rates of suicide are inaccurate?
answer

Less than one-tenth of the deaths
question

In his definition of suicide, Edwin Schneidman includes all factors EXCEPT that it…
answer

Results from depression or emotional distress
question

According to Schneidman, the critical way in which the death seeker differs from the death darer is..
answer

Death seekers intend to end their lives with their action
question

Cecil and Jeanne, teenagers, made a love pact, jumping from a cliff to be with each other for eternity. Cecil and Jeanne are examples of what Edwin Schneidman refers to as…
answer

Death ignorers
question

Ernest Hemingway was a physically strong, proud man who developed great concerns about his failing body. Depressed about his progressive illness, he intentionally ended his life. Edwin Schneidman would term Hemingway a…
answer

Death Initiator
question

According to Schneidman, how do death ignorers primarily differ from other categories?
answer

They believe death will not end their exsistance
question

Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful or barbiturate save herself and her family from the final painful months of life. Bonnie is an example of what Edwin Schneidman refers to as a..
answer

Death initiator
question

A teenager’s hands and arms are covered with self-inflicted burns, and the teenager almost seems addicted to this destructive behavior. The self-inflicted burns would most likely be classified as…
answer

Self-Injury, a variety of Edwin Scheidman’s “subinentional death” classification
question

Retrospective analysis of suicide typically would include…
answer

Interviews with people who knew the person who committed suicide
question

What is the best example of retrospective analysis?
answer

Therapists who had patients who committed suicide are interviewed to gain information on suicide
question

One of the factors that is believed to account for differences in the suicide rates of different countries is…
answer

Religious affiliation and beliefs
question

What statement about the relationship between religion and suicide is accurate?
answer

The degree of one’s devoutness is a more important predictor of suicide than one’s specific religion
question

What statement is not true regarding gender and suicide?
answer

Women succeed at committing suicide more often than do men
question

What would be the most surprising example of suicide because it does not fit into the pattern that current research results have identified?
answer

A woman who stabbed then hanged herself
question

According to current estimates, the suicide rate is highest in the United States among….
answer

American Indians
question

Assume that a community is made up of almost exactly equal numbers of these four groups: African American, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans< and white Americans, and that everyone is of the same socioeconomic status. Approximately what percent of suicides would you expect to be committed by white Americans?
answer

40%- about double the rates for the other groups
question

How likely are women to use a gun to commit suicide?
answer

About 30% of women who commit suicide use guns
question

Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all except…
answer

Being in therapy
question

What is a long-term stressor particularly common among those who attempt suicide?
answer

Divorce
question

Which occupation has a particularly high rate of suicide?
answer

Psychologists
question

The mood and thoughts of suicidal people are most often characterized as
answer

Sad and hopelessness
question

An increase in what emotion is most often linked to suicide?
answer

Sadness
question

A friend of yours wants certain heavy metal songs banned because, your friend says, listening to them will encourage suicidal tendencies. Your best reply, based on research would be…
answer

“It probably won’t work; experts don’t agree with you, and the courts have not found musicians liable”
question

The current rating system for CD and music download lyrics was instituted…
answer

In part to address people’s concerns about links between listening to music and suicide attempts
question

A person who sees life in “right or wrong”, “all or none” terms is engaging in..
answer

Dichotomous thinking
question

Of people who use alcohol just before committing suicide, what percentage are actually intoxicated?
answer

25%
question

Which is mot likely reason for the relationship between alcohol use and suicide?
answer

Alcohol lowers inhibitions and impairs judgement
question

A friends asks, “Why is there such a strong connection between alcohol abuse and suicide risk?” Based on the best available research, you reply:
answer

“No one knows for sure”
question

It is common that the majority of people who commit suicidal acts also have another psychological disorder. Which would be the most common disorder associated with suicidal attempts?
answer

Mood disorders
question

Assume that a recent local suicide attempt was clearly a case of modeling. The person who would most likely model another’s suicide would be an:
answer

Teenager
question

What is the beat example of the social contagion effect…
answer

If you had a close relative or friend who committed suicide, your risk of committing suicide is greater
question

As a political protest, two activities leap from a bridge in a highly publicized double suicide. Those most at risk for modeling these suicides are…
answer

People with a history of emotional problems
question

Suicides that are carried out in bizarre ways for political reasons are most likely to trigger..
answer

Those with emotional problems to commit suicide in the same manner
question

The leading theories designed to explain suicide…
answer

Are not supported by a significant body of research
question

Research supporting a Freudian view of suicide has shown that later suicidal behavior is related to…
answer

Both real and symbolic losses of childhood
question

If the psychodynamic explanation for suicide is correct, then suicide rates should…
answer

Be lower in those who experienced symbolic loss as children
question

Emile Durkheim’s theory of suicide fits to the…
answer

Sociocultural model
question

A society that loses its basic family and religious core values, experiences large-scale immigration of people with very different value, and fails to provide meaning for the life of its people is in danger of an increase in what Durkheim calls
answer

Anomic suicide
question

Juan is an atheist, does what he wants, and is alienated from others. He feels life isn’t worth living and kills himself. According to Durkheim, he would be classified as an…
answer

Egoistic Suicide
question

Carols died by intentionally stepping in from of a bullet intended for another young man, for whom Carlos, as head of platoon of soldier in the Persian gulf war, was responsible. Emile Durkheim would call this an example of…
answer

Altruistic Suicide
question

A young man whose father and uncle committed suicide at about his age also commits suicide. What explanation of suicide most easily explains the young man’s suicide?
answer

Biological
question

The strongest direct support for a biological explanation for suicide comes from…
answer

Studies of neurotransmitter levels
question

In research on the relationship between serotonin and suicide, serotonin seems most related to…
answer

Aggression
question

Which statement best reflects the relationship between serotonin and suicide?
answer

Low levels of serotonin are related to high levels of aggression and impulsivity
question

The age group least likely to commit suicide in the United States is…
answer

Children
question

The “typical” child who commits suicide is a…
answer

Boy who understands what death really is
question

In what way do adolescent studies not differ from suicides at other age levels?
answer

Many experience significant loss before the suicide
question

Teenagers are different from people who are older than they are who commit suicide because teenagers are…
answer

More impulsive and have poorer problem solving skills
question

Among teenagers who commit suicide..
answer

Less than 1% succeed the first time, and about half will try again
question

What best supports the idea that teenagers who attempt suicide are more uncertain about killing themselves than elderly people are…
answer

Teenagers succeed at suicide only in about 1 in 200 attempts
question

What statement is true? 1. More teenagers than people in any other age group commit suicide 2. Suicide is the leading cause of death among teenagers 3. African American teenage boys commit suicide at a higher rate than European American boys 4. More teenagers attempt suicide than actually kill themselves
answer

4
question

Research prompted by the “black box” controversy about using second-generation antidepressants with younger patients shows that taking second-generation antidepressants…
answer

Decreases younger patient suicide rates overall, although some individuals are more likely to commit suicide
question

The percentage of successful suicide attempts among the elderly is about…
answer

50 times as high as the percentage of successful suicide attempts among adolescents
question

For teenagers, the highest suicide rates are found among..
answer

White Americans and American Indians
question

The age group most likely to commit suicide in the US is…
answer

The elderly
question

A couple has been married for almost 50 years, and then one of them dies. The probability that the surviving spouse will commit suicide…
answer

Is much higher than normal
question

Which factor does not contribute to the high suicide rate among the elderly?
answer

Geographical location
question

In 1997, Oregon passed the “Death with Dignity Act” which allows doctor-assisted suicide for persons with terminal illness. Since 1997, on average, how many Oregonians with terminal illness have ended their lives each year?
answer

About 500
question

“What works best to keep suicidal people from following through?” asks a friend. Which would be the correct answer to this question?
answer

Try cognitive behavioral therapy
question

Suicide prevention programs
answer

Offer crisis interventions
question

When answering the telephone of a suicide hotline, the first step is for the counselor to
answer

Establish a positive relationship
question

At a suicide prevention center, you hear a counselor say, “will you promise me that you will call again if you ever feel like killing yourself again?” Which one of the goals and techniques of suicide prevention does this question best represent?
answer

Formulating a plan
question

Reports indicate that if someone is a member of an “online community” and threatens to commit suicide online, the other members of the community will:
answer

Respond in many different ways, including urging the person to commit suicide and contacting 911 services
question

What statement about the successes of suicide prevention programs is accurate?
answer

Of those who call, fewer commit suicide than those who don’t call who are in a similar risk group
question

Suicide education programs typically focus on…
answer

Students and teachers
question

The most well-developed understanding of the causes of suicide come from the…
answer

Sociocultural model
question

A therapist using free association and dream interpretation discovers that as a small child her patient had been left alone by her mother on several occasions and concludes that the patient is experiencing unipolar depression. The therapist is most likely from which orientation?
answer

Psychodynamic
question

Which statement about psychodynamic theory in treating unipolar depression is accurate?
answer

Long-term therapy is only occasionally helpful to those with unipolar depression
question

What do psychodynamic therapists believe is the cause of unipolar depression?
answer

Unconscious grieving over real or imagined loss
question

Free association, interpretation of associations, and dream interpretation are all techniques used primarily by…
answer

Psychodynamic therapists
question

If your therapist tried to reintroduce you to pleasurable activities, reinforce non depressive actions, and improve your social skills, your therapist would be using..
answer

Behavioral Therapy
question

Behavioral therapy for the treatment of unipolar depression may include…
answer

Reinforcing nondepressed behavior
question

What is the best example of the therapy technique known as behavioral activation?
answer

Adding positive activities to the patients life
question

A therapist turns on a buzzer when a client speaks slowly and laboriously. She turns it off when the client speaks more rapidly. In other cases, the therapist instructs the client’s spouse to ignore his mat when she complains or acts in a self-deprecating manner. This is an example of…
answer

Behavioral therapy
question

Focusing on the addition of positive activities of the life of a patient with depression is a behavioral technique known as..
answer

Behavioral activation
question

Jose is depressed. His therapist told him that reading a book each month would help. He should also visit friends, go bowling, do the laundry, mow the lawn, and ear meals with his wife. In short, he should increase his positive activity. His therapist most likely reflects the ____ orientation.
answer

Behavioral
question

The contingency management approach is an example of the application of ___ to the treatment of depresson
answer

Reinforcement
question

What kind of unipolar depression is behavioral treatment most effective in treating?
answer

Mild depression
question

What is the correct match of person and approach?
answer

Beck and cognitive therapy
question

Which statement is true about the research in the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating unipolar depression?
answer

It nearly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50 to 60 % of the cases
question

A person experiencing unipolar depression writes in an activity schedule, “Go to store; doctor’s appointment; visit museum; read novel; clean room” What treatment approach is this person most likely receiving?
answer

Cognitive therapy
question

An individual with depression who is receiving therapy is told that many, even most of the negative thoughts that an individual experiences and records have no basis in fact. Most likely, the therapist is…
answer

Challenging automatic thoughts
question

What would a cognitive therapist be least likely to say to you?
answer

Try to evaluate what happens to you in “black and white” terms
question

Clients who test their assumptions about what is causing their depression are working in which phase of Beck’s treatment program?
answer

Changing primary attitudes
question

What statement is most consistent with the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression?
answer

Accepting the negative thoughts and working with them is preferably to rejecting them entirely
question

Which is not a goal of the cultural-sensitive therapy movement?
answer

Therapy for minority clients delivered exclusively by minority therapists
question

Which is the best example of interpersonal role transition?
answer

Going away to college for the first time
question

If your therapist encouraged you to explore your roles in life and how they might be changing or how your expectations might be different from someone else’s, you therapist would be using…
answer

Interpersonal therapy
question

A person who displays extreme shyness and insensitivity to others is showing signs of…
answer

Interpersonal deficits
question

Tony just does not feel close to anyone. He feels alone because although he can get to know someone (a woman) quite well on a friendship level, he doesn’t know how to get beyond that to a more intimate level. This is depressing him. This is an example of what interpersonal psychotherapists refer to as an…
answer

Interpersonal deficit
question

According to research studies, the success rate for interpersonal therapy is about the same as that for…
answer

Cognitive therapy
question

If the focus of your therapist is primarily on how communication and problem-solving difficulties with your partner are contributing to your depression, your therapist is using…
answer

Couple therapy
question

When is couple therapy preferable to individual therapy?
answer

When relationship conflicts and role transitions are paramount
question

What is the average length of time for the treatment of major depressive disorder using ECT?
answer

2-4 weeks
question

In the bilateral ECT, the electrical current passes through…
answer

Both sides of the brain