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Abnormal Psychology Book Test #2 (Chapter 10,11,12)

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Heterosexual Behavior (Ch10)
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Sexual activity with members of the opposite gender
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Homosexual Behavior
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Sexual activity with members of the same gender
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Sexual dysfunction
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Sexual disorder in which the client finds it difficult to function adequately while having sex
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Male Hypoactive sexual desire disorder
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Dysfunction in which a man feels distress from having little or no sexual interests
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Female sexual interest/arousal disorder
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Recurrent inability in some women to attain or maintain adequate lubrication and sexual excitement swelling responses until completion of sexual activity
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erectile disorder
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Recurring inability in some men to attain or maintain adequate penile erection until completion of sexual activity.
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Delayed ejaculation
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Disorder in which a man achieves orgasm only with great difficulty.
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Female orgasmic disorder
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Recurring delay or absence of orgasm in some women following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to their prior experience and current stimulation.
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Premature ejaculation
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Recurring ejaculation before the person wishes it, with minimal sexual stimulation
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Genito-pelvic pain/ penetration disorder
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Sexual dysfunction in which a woman experiences pain or difficulty with penetration during intercourse; may include vaginismus
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vaginismus
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Recurring involuntary muscle spasms in the outer tried of the vagina that interfere with sexual intercourse
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Paraphilic Disorder
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Sexual disorders and deviations in which sexual arousal occurs almost exclusively in the context of inappropriate objects of individuals.
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Frotteuristic disorder
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in Which the person gains sexual gratification by rubbing against unwilling victims in crowds from which they cannot escape
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Fetishistic disorder
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Long-term, recurring, intense sexually arousing urges, fantasies, or behavior that involve the use of nonliving, unusual objects and that cause distress of impairment in life functioning
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Voyeuristic disorder
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In which sexual arousal is derived from observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked
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Exhibitionistic disorder
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Achieving sexual arousal and gratification by exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers
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Transvestite disorder
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In which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite sex
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Sexual Sadism
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In which sexual arousal is associated with inflicting pain or humiliation
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Sexual masochism
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In which sexual arousal is associated with experiencing pain or humiliation
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Pedophilia
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Involving strong sexual attraction toward children
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Incest
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Deviant sexual attraction directed toward a family member; often the attraction of a father toward a daughter who is maturing physically
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Covert sensitization
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Cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce unwanted behaviors by having clients imagine the extremely aversive consequences of the behaviors and establish negative rather than positive associations with them
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Orgasmic reconditioning
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Learning procedure to help clients strengthen appropriate patterns of sexual arousal by pairing appropriate stimuli with the pleasurable sensations of masturbation
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Gender dysphoria
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Psychological dissatisfaction with biological ender, a disturbance in the sense of identity as a male or female. The primary goal is not sexual arousal but rather to live the life of the opposite gender.
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Gender nonconformity
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A phenomenon in which pre-pubescent children do not identify with their biological sex, but instead identity strongly with the gender of the opposite sex and display varying degrees of behavior more characteristics of the opposite sex.
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Sex reassignment surgery
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Surgical procedures to alter a person’s physical anatomy to conform to that person’s psychological gender identity.
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Substance-related and addictive disorders(Ch11)
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Range of problems associated with the use and abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other substances people use to alter the way they think, feel, and behave. These are extremely costly in human and financial terms
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Impulse-control disordes
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disorder in which a person acts on an irresistible, but potentially harmful, impulse
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Polysubstance use
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Use of multiple mind-and behavior-altering substances, such as drugs
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Psychoactive substance
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Substances, such as drugs, that alter mood or behaviors
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Substance Use
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Ingestion of psychoactive substances in moderate amounts that does not significantly interfere with social , educational, or occupational functioning
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Substance intoxication
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Psychological reactions, such as impaired judgment and motor ability, as well as mood changes, resulting from the ingestion of psychoactive substances
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Substance Abuse
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Pattern of psychoactive substance use leading to significant distress or impairment in social and occupational roles and in hazardous situations
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Substance dependence
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Maladaptive pattern of substance use characterized by the need for increased amounts of achieve the desired effect, negative physical effects when the substance is withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and substantial effort expand to seek it or recover from its effects
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Tolerance
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Need for increased amounts of substance to achieve the desired effect, and a diminished effect with continued use of the same amount
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Withdrawal
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Severely negative physiological reaction to removal of a psychoactive substance, which can be alleviated by the same or a similar substance
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Depressants
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Psychoactive substances that result in behavioral sedation, including alcohol and the sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic drugs.
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Stimulants
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Psychoactive substances that elevate mood, activity, and alertness, including amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, and nicotine
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Opiates
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Additive psychoactive substances such as heroin, opium, and morphine that cause temporary euphoria and analgesia (Pain reduction)
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Hallucinogens
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Any Psychoactive substance such as LSD or marijuana that can produce delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, and altered sensory perceptions
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Other Drugs of abuse
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Other substances that are abused but do not fit neatly into one of the categories here include inhalants (For example, airplane glue), anabolic steroids, and other over-the-counter and prescription medications
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Alcohol-related disorders
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Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with alcohol use and abuse
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Alcohol
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By product of the fermentation of yeasts, sugar, and water; the most commonly used and abused depressant substance
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Withdrawal Delirium
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Frighting hallucinations and body tremors that result when a heavy drinker withdraws from alcohol
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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
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Organic brain syndrome resulting from prolonged heavy alcohol use, involving confusion, unintelligible speech, and loss of motor coordination. It may be caused by a deficiency of thiamine, a vitamin metabolized poorly by heavy drinkers
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Fetal alcohol syndrome
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pattern of problems including learning difficulties, behavior deficits, and characteristic physical flaws, resulting from heavy drinking by the victim’s mother when she was pregnant with the victim
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Alcohol dehydrogenase
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Enzyme that helps human metabolize alcohol. Different levels of its subtypes may account for different susceptibilities to disorders such as fatal alcohol syndrome
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Barbiturates
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Sedative drugs including Amytal, Seconal, and Nembutal that are used as sleep aids
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Benzodiazepines
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Anti anxiety drugs including Valium, Xanax, Dolman, and Halcyon also used to treat insomnia. Effective against anxiety, they show some side effects, such as some cognitive and motor impairment, and may result in substance dependence. Relapse rates are extremely high when the drug is discontinued
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Amphetaines
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Stimulant medication used to treat hypersomnia by keeping the person awake during the day, and to threat narcolepsy, including sudden onset episodes, by suppressing rapid eye movement sleep
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Cocaine
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Derivative of coca leaves used medically as a local anesthetic and narcotic; often a substance of abuse
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Tobacco-related disorders
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Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of nicotine
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Caffeine-related disorders
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Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of caffeine.
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Opioid-related disorders
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In some circumstances, Opioid can cause opioid-related disorders Opioid: natural chemicals in the opium poppy that have a narcotic effect
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Cannabis
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marijuana Dried flowers and leaves of the hemp plant’ a hallucinogen that is the most widely used illegal substance
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Cannabis use disorders
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impairments of memory, concentration, relationships with others, and employment may be negative outcomes of long term use.
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LSD (D-lysergic acid diethyl amide)
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Most common hallucinogenic drug; a synthetic version of the grain fungus ergot
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Hallucinogen use disorders
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Tolerance develops quickly to a number of hallucinogens, including LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline
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Agonist substitution
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Replacement of a drug on which a person i dependent with one that has a similar chemical makeup, an agonists. Used as the treatment for substance dependence
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Antagonist drug
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Medications that block or counteract the effects of psychoactive drugs
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Nicotine
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Toxic and addictive substance found in tobacco leaves
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Nicotine patch
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Patch placed on the skin that delivers nicotine to smokers without the carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Somewhat more successful than nicotine gum because it requires less effort by the wearer and delivers the drugs more consistently; should be coupled with counseling to stop smoking and avoid relapse
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Controlled drinking
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An extremely controversial treatment approach to alcohol dependence, in which severe abusers are taught to drink in moderation
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Relapse prevention
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Extending therapeutic progress by teaching the client how to cope with future doubling sitautions
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Gambling disorder
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Affects an increasing number of people, with a lifetime estimate of approximately 1.9 % of adult Americans
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Intermittent explosive disorder
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Episodes during which a person acts on aggressive impulses that result in serious assaults or destruction of property
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Kleptomania
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Recurrent failure to resist urges to steal things not needed for personal use or their monetary value
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Pyromania
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An impulse-control disorder that involves having an irresistible urge to set fires
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Personality Disorder(Chapter 12)
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Enduring maladaptive patterns for relating to the environment and self, exhibited in a range of contexts that cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress
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Paranoid Personality disorder
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Cluster A personality disorder involving pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent
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Schizoid personality disorder
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Cluster A personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and restricted range of expression of emotions.
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Schizotypal personality disorder
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Cluster A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of interpersonal deficits featuring acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behaviors
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Antisocial personality disorder
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Cluster B personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others
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Psychopathy
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Non-DSM-5 category similar to antisocial personality disorder but with less emphasis on overt behavior. Indicators include superficial charm, lack or remorse, and other personality characteristics
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Borderline personality disorder
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Cluster B personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects, and control over impulses
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Dialectical behavior therapy
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Promising treatment for borderline personality disorder that involves exposing the client to stressors in a controlled situation, as well as helping the client regulate emotions and cope with stressors that might trigger suicidal behavior
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Histrionic personality disorder
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Cluster B personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
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narcissistic personality disorder
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Cluster B personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of grandiosity in fantasy or behavior, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
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avoidant personality disorder
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Custer C personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feeling of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to criticism
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dependent personality disorder
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Cluster C personality disorder characterized by a person’s pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, a condition that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
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Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD)
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Cluster C personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency.