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Test Questions on Abnormal Psych

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normal sexuality
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defined by sociocultural factors/tradition
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gender roles/social attitudes
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guide the judgements about what is normal and acceptable behavior
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family, culture, social group, religion
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these impact the expression of sexuality
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expression of sexuality
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varied and not necessarily linked to sexual orientation
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orgasm
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gender difference that says this is necessary for males but not females
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behavior
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does not provide definition of heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality
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gender dysphoria
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(transgender) a person will believe that they were born in the wrong body and should be the other sex
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transgender
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-want to remove their primary and secondary sex characteristics -feel uncomfortable wearing the clothing associated with their biological sex and may cross dress
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gender dysphoria
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sexual disorder related to identity
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transsexual fetish
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no sexual arousal related to stress
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intersex
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a person is born with ambiguous or multiple sex characteristics
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hypothalamus
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abnormalities in this can cause gender identity disorder
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native american tribes
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honored the tradition of “two spirit” people until the 1880s
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the muxe
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the third gender in Mexico that the Zapotec culture includes
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Samoa
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specific role for male = female transgender individuals as Fa’afafine
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psychotherapeutic intervention
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required before sexual reassignment surgery is allowed
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1 year
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must spend this long living as the sex they believe they should be before reassignment surgery
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sexual dysfunctions
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disorders in which people can’t respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning
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31%, 41%
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______ percent of men and ______ of women in the US could be diagnosed with a dysfunction
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sexual dysfunction
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causes considerable distress that results in sexual frustration, guilt, lower self esteem, and problems with interpersonal relationships
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human sexual response cycle
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four phases include: 1. desire 2. excitement 3. orgasm 4. resolution
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dysfunction
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can effect 1+ of the first three phases
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acquired type
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some experience normal sexual functioning before developing a disorder
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lifelong type
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some people struggle with sexual dysfunction for their whole life
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generalized type
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when dysfunction is present during all sexual situations
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situational type
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some cases are tied to particular instances
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desire phase
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consists of urge to have sex, sexual fantasies, and experience of sexual attraction to others; physiological and psychological components
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male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
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a general lack of interest in sex and a low level of sexual activity
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male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
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-about 16% of men -persistent deficiency of sexual thoughts and desire for at least 6 months -significant distress or impairment -physical responses may be normal
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female sexual interest/arousal disorder
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lack of sexual interest and/or arousal for 6+ months with at least three of the following: absent/reduced frequency of: -sexual interest -sexual thoughts or fantasies -sexual initiation or receptiveness to a partner’s sexual encounters -responsiveness to sexual cues -genital and non genital sensations during almost all sexual encounters
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vaginismus
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characterized by involuntary contractions of the muscles of the outer third layer of the vagina
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vaginismus
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severe cases of this disorder can prevent women from having intercourse
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20%
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percentage of women that occasionally have pain during intercourse
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5%
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percentage of women with vaginismus
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learned fear response
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doctors believe that vaginismus is a _________ that can be caused by anxiety, ignorance about intercourse, trauma caused by an unskilled partner, and childhood sexual abuse
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rational vaginismus
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painful intercourse can be caused by infection or disease
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dyspareunia
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severe pain in the genitals during sexual activity
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dyspareunia
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-sexual disorder seen in about 15% of women and 3% of men -for women, usually a physical cause such as injury during childbirth
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causes of sex dysfunctions
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psychological and physical factors -socially transmitted negative attitudes -relationship difficulties -predisposition to develop performance anxiety
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human sex drive
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determined by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in combination
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low levels of sexual desire
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-usually caused by and/or complicated by sociocultural and psychological factors -biological conditions -effects of stress, anxiety, or depression
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hormones
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a number of ______ interact to produce sexual desire and behavior
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abnormalities
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________ in hormone secretion and activity can result in lower sex drive
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hormones
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include prolactin, testosterone, ad estrogen for both men and women
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biological causes of decrease in sexual desire
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-excessive dopamine and serotonin -chronic illness, some medication, some psychotropic drugs, and illegal drugs negatively impact sex drive and performance
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psychological causes of decrease in sexual desire
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-increase in anxiety or anger may reduce sex desire for both men and women -fears, attitudes, and memories -psychological disorders, including depression and OCD
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sociocultural causes of decrease in sexual desire
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-social context -cultural standards (family messages, media, religion)
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social context
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impacts attitudes, fears, and psychological disorders
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situational pressures
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many with desire disorders are experiencing _________ such as divorce, death, job stress, infertility, relationship difficulties
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biological causes of arousal disorders
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-hormone imbalances that can cause hyperactive sexual desire and can produce ED -certain medications and substances -vascular problems
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ED
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can be caused by damage to the nervous system from diseases, disorders, or injuries
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NPT
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nocturnal penile tumescene is when men have erections during REM sleep
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abnormal or absent
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_________ nigt time erections usually indicate a physical basis for erectile dysfunction
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psychological causes of ED
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-depression -performance anxiety -spectator role -these causes of hypoactive sexual desire
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90%
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percentage of men with severe depression that suffer from some form of ED
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cognitive explanation for ED
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performance anxiety and the spectator role provide __________
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performance anxiety
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when a man begins to have erectile difficulties, he becomes worried during sexual encounters. he becomes the spectator and judge instead of being the participant
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cycle of sexual dysfunction
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fear of failure dominates the situation and the original cause of the problem becomes less important
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sociocultural causes of ED
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-these causes of hypoactive sexual desire -employment problems and marital problems
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premature ejaculation
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-most common among young, sexually inexperienced men -may be related to anxiety -often related to a history of hurried masterbation experiences
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behavioral explanations
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_______ of this disorder have more research support than other theories
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biological causes of male orgasmic disorder
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-low testosterone, neurological disease, and head/spinal injury -medications, including antidepressants, and drugs that slow down the CNS can affect ejaculation
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psychological causes of male orgasmic disorder
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-performance anxiety and spectator role (same cognitive factors involved in ED)
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biological causes female orgasmic disorder
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-physiological conditions can affect arousal and orgasm (i.e. diabetes, MS) -medication and illegal substances -postmenopausal changes
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psychological causes female orgasmic disorder
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-causes of hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion -memories of childhood trauma and relationship distress
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sociocultural causes female orgasmic disorder
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-unusually stressful events, traumas, or relationships -fears, memories, attitudes -emotional intimacy
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equally common
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sexually restrictive histories are _ _________ in women with and without disorders
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female orgasmic disorder
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leading theory was that it resulted from sexually restrictive cultural message, but messages are changing and dysfunction stays constant
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paraphilia
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sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations
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paraphilia
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-may or may not act on urges -urges, fantasies, or behaviors must also cause great distress or impairment -at least 6 months -rates of diagnosis are low -biological intervention shows promise
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nature of paraphilia
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-sexual attraction and arousal -socially inappropriate people or objects -multiple paraphilia often occur in one client -high comorbidy
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fetishism
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recurrent intense sexual urges, sexually arousing fantasies, or behaviors that involves use of a non living object
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adolescence
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fetishism usually begins in _______
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classical conditioning
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fetishism is believed to be learned through ____________
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voyeurism
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repeated and intense sexual desires to observe people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse
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voyeurism
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-may involve acting upon these desires -person may masturbate during or after the act -risk of discovery adds to excitement -possibly first stage of some rapists
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power
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some propose that voyeurs are seeking ______,
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voyeurism
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some have explained it as an attempt to reduce fears of castration
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learned behavior
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voyeurism is explained as a _________ that can be traced to a chance and secret observation of a sexually arousing scene
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exhibitionism
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arousal is sought and experienced from expose of genital in a public setting (i.e. flashing)
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sexual contact
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______ neither initiated or desired in exhibitionism
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males
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exhibitionism is most common in _______ and is usually onset before 18
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transvestic fetishism
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fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving dressing up in the clothing of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal
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transvestism
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-typically heterosexual male who began cross dressing in childhood or adolescence -NOT the same as gender identity disorder
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operant conditioning
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development of transvestism seems to follow the behavioral principles of ________
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interviews, medical, psychosociological
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ways of assessing sexual behavior
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interviews
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assess multiple dimensions: -sexual attitudes -behaviors -sexual response cycle -relationship issues -physical health psychological disorders
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medical assessment
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tests: -medication side effects -physical conditions
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comfort
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clinicians must demonstrate ______ to produce normalcy
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psychosociological assessment
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-exposure to erotic material -sexual arousal response
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psychodynamic therapy
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therapy focused on gaining insight and making broad personality changes; generally unhelpful
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sexual dysfunction
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in the early 20th century, they believed ______ was caused by failure to negotiate the stages of psychosexual development
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behavioral therapy
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-1950’s and 1960’s -therapists attempted to reduce fear by applying relaxation training and systematic desensitization -moderately successful
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cognitive or psychoeducational
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behavioral therapy failed to work in cases where key problems were ______________
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sex therapy
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-1970 -includes techniques from cognitive, behavioral, couples, and family systems therapy
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biological interventions
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recently have been incorporated into sex therapy
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modern sex therapy
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includes: -assessing and conceptualizing the problem -assigning mutual responsibility for the problem -EDUCATION ABOUT SEXUALITY -attitude changes -elimination of performance anxiety -helping people learn to discuss sex -increasing general communication skills -changing destructive lifestyles and marital interactions -addressing physical and medical factors
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sex therapy
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human sexual inadequacy revolutionized treatment
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modern sex therapy
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therapy is short term and instructive
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psycho-educational component
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aspect of modern sex therapy that includes instruction about sexual functioning
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specific sexual problems
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modern sex therapy is focused on ________ rather than on broad personality issues
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hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion
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among the most difficult to treat because many issues are involved
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hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion
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therapy for this typically included a combination of techniques: -awareness of feelings -self instruction training -behavioral techniques -insight oriented exercises -biological interventions (hormone treatments)
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erectile dysfunction
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treatments for ________ focus on reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing his stimulation -may include sensate-focus exercises such as teasing technique -biological approaches (viagra, gels, penile injections, etc.)
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male orgasmic disorder treatment
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-techniques to reduce performance anxiety and increase stimulation -when cause is physical, a drug may increase arousal of the nervous system
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premature ejaculation treatment
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-start/stop or pause technique -prozac and other serotonin enhancing antidepressants
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antidepressants
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reduce sexual arousal or orgasm
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female arousal and orgasmic disorder treatment
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-techniques include self exploration, enhancement of body awareness, and directed masturbation training
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vaginismus treatment
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-practice tightening and releasing the muscles of the vagina to gain more voluntary control -use vagina dilators to increase comfort with penetration -overcome fear of intercourse through gradual behavioral exposure treatment
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determining the cause
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the first stage of dyspareunia treatment
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dyspareunia treatment
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given that most cases are caused by physical problems, medication intervention is usually necessary
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fetishism
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treated with behavioral treatments such as: -aversion therapy -convert sensitization -imaginal exposure -masturbatory satiation -orgasmic reorientation
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masturbatory satiation
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clients masturbate to boredom while imagining the fetish object
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orgasmic reorientation
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teaches individuals to respond to more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation
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exhibitionism treatments
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generally includes: -aversion therapy -masturbatory satiation -may be combined with orgasmic reorientation, social skills training, or psychodynamic therapy