Abnormal Psych Chapter 5 Anxiety Disorders

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physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one’s well being
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fear
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physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger
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anxiety
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what is the same between anxiety and fear?
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physiological symptoms
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what are the four reasons why it’s bad to have anxiety?
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too frequent, lasting too long, too severe, triggered too easily
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what is a major characteristic of people with anxiety, especially phobias?
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avoidance
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what is it called when you have one psychological disorder and are likely to have another?
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comorbidity
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what would be a good example of two comorbid mental disorders?
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anxiety and depression
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what are the 6 anxiety disorders?
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GAD, phobia, panic disorder, ocd, acute stress, ptsd
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free floating anxiety refers to which anxiety disorder?
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generalized anxiety disorder
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excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worrying about practically anything is part of?
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GAD
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what are 4 physical symptoms of GAD?
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restlessness, on edge, keyed up, muscle tension
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what are 4 behavioral symptoms of GAD?
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done
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which of the 4 d’s does one usually have to possess in order for them to be diagnosed with GAD?
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dysfunction, distress
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where is GAD most common?
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western societies
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what is the one year prevalence of GAD?
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4%
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what is the lifetime prevalence for GAD?
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6%
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how many people with GAD are currently in treatment?
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1/4
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what is the ratio of men to women with GAD?
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2:1
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when does GAD usually first appear?
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childhood, adolescence
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which perspective says that GAD may be caused by dangerous social conditions like community as a whole, concerned with poverty, crime rates, social class?
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sociocultural
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GAD rates are highest in what kind of socioeconomic groups?
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lower
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is GAD greater in white or black women?
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black
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what kind of factors play a very large role in GAD?
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social
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what were the three types of anxiety proposed by freud’s psychodynamic theory?
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realistic, neurotic, moral
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what did Freud say causes GAD?
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defense mechanisms not working or anxiety too high
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experiencing fear, being in actual danger, almost getting hit by a bus what cause what kind of anxiety according to freud?
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realistic anxiety
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according to freud, which kind of anxiety comes is a result of being prevented from expressing id?
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neurotic
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according to freud, what kind of anxiety is a result of id not getting expressed and you did something wrong, comes from superego
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moral
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what does the contemporary psychodynamic perspective say i the cause of GAD?
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inadequate parent to child relationships
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contemporary psychodynamic theory says that what leads to higher anxiety later in life?
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severe punishment
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what are two things that therapy for GAD under the psychodynamic theory say to do>
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help individual control id, settle early relationship problems
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What is a drawback of the therapy for the psychodynamic perspective?
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not supported by research
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what is the most common mental illness in the united states?
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anxiety disorders
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rogers and maslow followed which perspective?
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humanistic
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humanistic perspective used what kind of therapy?
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client centered
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which perspective suggest that people are not honest and accepting with themselves
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humanistic
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lack of unconditional positive regard
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humanistic
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who came up with client centered therapy?
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rogers
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what is wrong with client centered therapy?
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not enough research support
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dysfunctional thinking as a cause for GAD is under which perspective?
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cognitive
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maladaptive assumptions and unhealthy expectations are causes for GAD under which perspective>
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cognitive
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who focused on having too high of expectations for yourself and this leading to anxiety when you fail? part of cognitive perspective
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ellis
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who, under the cognitive perspective, focused on silent assumptions that imply imminent danger like new situations being dangerous until proving to not be dangerous?
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beck
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new wave cognitive explanations incorporated what two things?
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philosophy and buddha
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who was a new wave cognitive psychologist who thought that anxiety was all part of your general beliefs towards worrying?
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adrian wells
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adrian wells is responsible for what kind of cognitive theories?
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metacognitive
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which new wave cognitive theory says that negative events are unacceptable so we worry about them to come up with reasons to avoid them?
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intolerance of uncertainty theory
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which defense mechanism causes one to look at a traumatic event without any emotions attached? part of new way cognitive perspective
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intellectualization
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what new wave cognitive theory says that people get high blood pressure, high heart rate, and high body arousal so they worry to reduce that arousal?
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avoidance theory
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which theory uses therapy that focuses on changing maladaptive and irrational thoughts to rational thoughts?
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new wave cognitive
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rational emotive theory was presented by whom>
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ellis
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what type of cognitive therapy teaches client about disorder so they know what it does to them and are able to identify what is the disorder and what is real?
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psychoeducation
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what kind of cognitive therapy teaches clients how to monitor bodily responses to anxiety and teaches them how to calm down?
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psychoeducation
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biological relatives have what percent concordance with eachother with GAD?
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15%
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general population percentage with GAD?
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6%
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what is an explanation for biologically related people to have a higher chance of GAD?
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similar upbringing
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benzodiazepene are excitatory or inhibitory?
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inhibitory?
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benzodiazepene is related to which neurotransmitter?
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GABA
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which neurotransmitter inhibits the fear response?
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GABA
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which came first, barbituates or benzodiazepines?
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barbituates
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sedative hypnotic
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barbituates
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pre 1950’s antianxiety drug?
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barbituates
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Post 1950’s antianxiety drug?
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benzodiazepines
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which perspective encourages relaxation training?
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biological
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electromyography, EMS are used for
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biofeedback
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getting info on how body is relaxing and learning to deal with it has to do with
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biofeedback
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persistent and unreasonable fears of objects, activities, situations are called?
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phobias
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how are phobias different from fear?
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more persistent, more intense, interfere with functioning
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what are the 5 most common phobias?
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animals or insects, height, enclosed spaces, thunderstorms, blood
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what is the one year prevalence for phobias?
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9%
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what is the lifetime prevalence for phobias>
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12%
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is comorbidity with another phobia common?
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yes
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what is the ratio of men to women with phobias?
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2:1
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do many people seek treatment for phobias?
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no
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what is the behavioral explanation for phobias?
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classical conditioning and modeling
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what two things are paired together to create a phobia through classical conditioning?
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neutral object and natural fear response
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seeing a dog be aggressive on tv and then fearing dogs is an example of?
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modeling
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why does fear continue after acquired?
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avoidance
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stimulus generalization in phobias can lead to
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GAD
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who’s experiment showed how to instill phobias in someone but not how they are instilled in real life?
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bandura
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species being born with a specific biological predisposition is called
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preparedness
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what explains why some phobias are more common than others?
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preparedness
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what is a question we have about preparedness>
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is it due to environment or evolution
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what is the percent of people who are currently seeking treatment for phobias?
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19%
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what treatment is most effective on phobias?
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behavioral
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preparedness, an element of phobias, is part of which explanation?
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behavioral-biological
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what treatment for phobias is up and coming?
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virtual reality
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who came up with systematic desensitization?
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wolpe
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fear hierarchy is used for what disorder?
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phobias
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what is the key in all therapies developed for phobias?
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fear
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invivo versus covert therapy refers to which disorder
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phobia
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therapy where client comes in direct contact with feared object is
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invivo
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therapy where client only has to think about feared object is
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covert
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nongradual treatment for phobias
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flooding
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watching others interact with feared object represent which type of therapeutic method for phobias?
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modeling
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severe, persistent, and irrational fears of social or performance situations that may cause one to become embarrassed describes which disorder?
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social anxiety disorder
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social anxiety disorder is also known as
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social phobia
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social anxiety disorder can be both..
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narrow or broad
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an example of narrow social anxiety disorder would be
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talking, performing, eating
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an example of broad social anxiety disorder would be
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general fear of functioning inadequately in front of people
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which mental disorder involves secrecy and trying to keep others from seeing that there is anything wrong?
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social anxiety disorder
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what is the one year prevalence for social anxiety disorder?
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7.1%
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what is the ratio of women to men in social anxiety disorder?
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3:2
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what is the onset for social anxiety disorder?
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childhood and can last for years
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are the rich or poor more likely to experience social anxiety disorder?
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poor
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what is the racial difference for social anxiety disorder?
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africa american and asian american
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which perspective says that social anxiety disorder is caused by holding social beliefs and expectations that consistently work against them?
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cognitive
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which perspective says that those who suffer from social anxiety disorder have unrealistically high social standards?
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cognitive
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which perspective says that those with social anxiety disorder often see themselves as unattractive and socially unskilled?
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cognitive
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which disorder, under the cognitive perspective, says that one’s beliefs anticipate social disasters
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social anxiety disorder
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people who take unnecessary precautions for natural disasters to avoid them may have which mental disorder?
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social anxiety disorder
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what kind of drugs do people take for social anxiety disorder?
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antidepressants
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what kind of therapy is used for social anxiety disorder?
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psychotherapy
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psychotherapy helps with what in social anxiety disorder?
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less likely to relapse
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which perspective say you must address overwhelming social fear fro social anxiety disorder?
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cognitive
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what are two examples of treatment for social anxiety disorder done behaviorally?
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group therapy, direct exposure
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which disorder, under the cognitive perspective, says to address lack of social skills?
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social anxiety disorder
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what kind of therapy is most effective in helping with social skills?
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group therapy
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what leads to a lack of social skills?
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avoidance
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which disorder says that therapist will give positive reinforcement and positive feedback?
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social anxiety disorder
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panic is
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extreme anxiety reaction
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periodic short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak, and pass (no real trigger)
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panic attack
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fear of death, losing control, or going crazy without there being any real threat is called what?
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panic attack
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what is the percentage of people who will have a panic attack?
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25%
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if one has repeated panic attacks that are unexpected and without an apparent reason, they may have
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panic disorder
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which of the four d’s is most common for panic disorder?
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dysfunction
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worrying constantly about having an attack and planning for future attacks falls under which of the four d’s?
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dysfunction
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what is the 1 year prevalence for panic disorder?
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2.8%
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what is the lifetime prevalence for panic disorder
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5%
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what is the onset for panic disorder?
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late adolescence to adulthood
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what is the woman to man ratio for panic disorder?
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2:1
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what people are most likely to suffer from panic disorder?
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poor
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are there cultural differences among those with panic disorder?
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no
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what is the percent of those in treatment for panic disorder?
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35%
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which disorder involves fear of being inadequate?
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social phobia
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which disorder can sometimes accompany panic disorder?
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agoraphobia
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afraid to leave home or travel to locations where escape might be difficult or help unavailable
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agoraphobia
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being afraid that you cannot escape or will have a panic attack is part of
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agoraphobia
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what worked better than anti anxiety meds on panic disorders?
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antidepressants
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what neurotransmitter is associated with panic disorder?
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norepinephrine
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what is the main structure evaluated in panic disorders?
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amygdala
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the amygdala may not be deep enough, which is more complex?
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locus ceruleus
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what suggests underlying genetic causes in panic disorders?
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research on monozygotic and dizygotic twins
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what kind of twins are higher in their percentage for having a panic disorder?
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monozygotic
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how effective are antidepressants in helping panic disorder?
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80%
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which perspective suggests that panic reactions are a result of misinterpretations in physiological events within the body
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cognitive
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being super sensitive to how body is physiologically functioning is called
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anxiety sensitivity
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what does the cognitive perspective say to do in therapy for panic disorders?
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correct misinterpretations
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which perspective says to induce feelings of anxiety so client can practice reacting?
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cognitive
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how effective is inducing panic to a client during therapy ?
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80%
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which perspective suggests the combination of drugs and therapy for panic disorders?
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cognitive
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persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, images that seem to invade a person’s consciousness
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obsessions
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attempts to ignore obsessions triggers
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anxiety
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repetitive and rigid behavior or mental acts that people feel they mut perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety
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compulsions
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actions that are voluntary but feel unstoppable
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compulsions
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what effect to compulsions have on aNXIETY?
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reduce it
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most people with OCD experience
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compulsions and obsessions
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compulsions are often a response to
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obsessions
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what kind of disorder is OCD?
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anxiety
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what is the one year prevalence for OCD?
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1-2%
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what is the lifetime prevalence for OCD?
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3%
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does OCD affect differently depending on gender, race, or ethnicity?
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no
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how many people seek treatment for OCD?
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more than 40%
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according to the psychodynamic perspective, when the battle faced in the id leaves the unconscious and plays out in unreasonable thoughts and actions, what disorder has it become?
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OCD
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obsession are part of what? according to freud
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id impulses
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compulsions are part of what? according to freud
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ego defenses
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isolating thoughts and correcting them is called what and by who?
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isolation by freud
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canceling out thoughts is called what and by who?
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undoing by freud
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changing super messy behavior to super neat freak behavior is what and by who?
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reaction formation by freud
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what did freud link OCD to?
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anal stage
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therapy that aims to uncover and overcome underlying conflicts and defenses to understand ocd is under which perspective?
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psychodynamic
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behaviorist perspective on OCD focuses on what?
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compulsions
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behaviorists believe that compulsions are what?
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rewarding
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what is wrong with psychodynamic perspective therapy?
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little research
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does behavioral therapy focus on obsessions or compulsions?
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compulsions
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exposure and response prevention therapy for OCD is under which perspective>
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behavioral
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percent of success with exposure and response prevention therapy?
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55-85%
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what percentage of people fail to improve OCD with behavioral therapy?
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25%
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which perspective says that, concerning OCD, everyone has repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts, but ones with the disorder blame selves and expect terrible outcomes?
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cognitive
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what is the best combo for OCD?
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cognitive and behavioral and meds
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OCD involves which neurotransmitter?
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seratonin
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biological perspective says OCD may be
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inherited
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how much more likely are monozygotic twins to inherit OCD?
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twice
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what does the biological perspective on OCD say may be a cause of OCD?
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parts of brain too active
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what kind of medication should one take with OCD?
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seratonin based antidepressant
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meds for OCD improved what percent?
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50-80%

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