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Abnormal Psych Answers

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4 approaches to defining abnormality
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-norm violation -statistical rarity -personal discomfort -maladaptive behavior
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harmful dysfunction approach
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integrative approach to defining disorder, including an objective factual component and subjective value component disfunction: failure of an internal mechanism to perform a natural function for which it was designed harm:consequences that occur to the person because of this dysfunction
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medical model
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biogenic emphasis: specific underlying cause, specific set of symptoms
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contrast medical model with psychological models
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psychological focuses more on person-environment interactions, whereas medical focuses on the biological basis of the disorder
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deinstitutionalization
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-introduction of anti-psychotic medication (thorazine) -outpatient services -insufficient funding -homelessness -“revolving door syndrome”
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advent of psychogenic theories
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psychological disorders caused by emotional stress (Mesmer, hypnosis, success due to power of suggestion)
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critisms of DSM diagnosis
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-excess variation within same disorder -excessive overlap between categories
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model underlying the DSM as a diagnostic tool
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medical/biological model
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how to apply DSM multiaxial assessment
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axis 1: clinical disorders axis 2: personality disorders axis 3: medical conditions axis 4: psychosocial/environmental problems axis 5: GAF (functionality score out of 100)
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Reliability and validity of diagnosis
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reliability- measurement consistency validity-degree to which test measures what it is designed to measure
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Projective hypothesis
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Presentation of ambiguous stimuli Projection of personality and the unconscious Psychoanalytic roots
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Psychometric approach
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based on direct measurement of creativity and/or its perceived correlates such as knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits in individual. It studies everyday creativity using various tests
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MMPI
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most widely used and researched standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology.
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Basic assumptions of the behavioral approach
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-arose in reaction to psychoanalytic model -disagreement w/ “deeper meaning” of symptoms -emphasis on experimentally learned classical conditioning
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Mechanisms of learning: thorndike, skinner, Pavlov, & Watson
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thorndike: instrumental conditioning (cats in puzzle box) skinner: operant conditioning pavlov: classical conditioning watson: behaviorist theory
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basic components of pavlovian/respondent and operant conditioning
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pavlovian: classical conditioning, neutral stimulus paired w/ unconditioned stimulus operant conditioning: behavior is modified by its consequences
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basic behavioral techniques in therapy: Systematic desensitization, exposure, contingency management
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Systematic desensitization: overcoming fears through gradual exposure exposure: overcoming fears by contact with stimulus contingency management: patients are rewarded for adherence to specific techniques
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Criticisms of behavioral approach
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model is incomplete and inadequate to account for what we know of psychopathology; fails to account for the development of psychopathology across the lifespan
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how is abnormal behavior viewed from the cognitive perspective
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people are upset not because of events or situations but by the meaning people give to events or situations
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Ellis and Beck’s models
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thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses.
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How does cognitive therapy work?
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individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses.
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three principles of the psychoanalytical perspective
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-behavior determined by intraspective choice -primary motivator is the unconscious -intrapsychic forces within unconscious determined by childhood experiences
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functions and provinces of the topographical and structural models of mind
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topographical: conscious, preconscious, repression, unconscious (most activity occurs here. wishes, memories, fears, emotions) structural: (please principle) -Id: basic, primitive (primary energy source is libido) -Ego: demands of reality -Superego: moral standards of parents/society
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function of anxiety and defense mechanisms
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-unconscious strategies employed by ego to distort reality and reduce anxiety
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selected defense mechanisms
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projection-attribute emotions/urges to others displacement-transfer emotions to others reaction formation- taking up opposite feeling sublimation-transformation of urges to acceptable forms
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freud’s psychosexual stage theory
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oral (driven by pleasure principle) anal (first sense of self restraint) phallic (oedipal complex) latency (repression of sexuality) genital (sexual awakening outside family)
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psychodynamic perspective on abnormality and treatment
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psychoanalytical in nature, treatment focuses on finding unresolved conflicts creating anxiety and resolving them
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contributions of the revisionists
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-reduced emphasis on sex as primary motivation of behavior -move from sexualized fantasies about social relationships to real ones -criticism of a fixed personality in childhood (emergence of perspective toward self-actualization)
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person-centered therapy
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therapist conveys empathy, genuineness, and positive regard (minimal evidence of effectivity)
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self-actualization
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essentially realizing one’s full potential
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critical elements of the humanist approach
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-people are basically good -we strive for self actualization