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Abnormal Psych 215 1 – NVCC

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This tiny space separates one neuron from the next.
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synapse
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Every chromosome contains numerous genes, and each cell contains between __________ and __________ genes.
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30,000-40,000
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Julie would have bouts of depression followed by periods of normalcy. On her last admission, she presented with increased excitability, euphoric mood, and rapid speech. She was prescribed which of the following medications?
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mood stabilizers
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The _________ operates on the pleasure principle, while the __________ operates on the reality principle.
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id; ego
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According to Freud, this is the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals.
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superego
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Jane is overweight and her health is suffering. She explains to her doctor that “food is her only happiness in life and she deserves to be happy.” Jane’s explanation is an example of:
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rationalization
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Many clinicians in the _________ became frustrated with the psychodynamic model which gave rise to the behavioral model of abnormality.
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50
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This is the process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.
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modeling
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When the dog salivates to the sound of the bell, the bell is the:
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unconditioned stimulus
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is behavioral.
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10%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is psychodynamic.
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15%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is eclectic.
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29%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is interpersonal.
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4%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is family systems.
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3%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is client-centered.
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1%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is existential.
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1%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is Gestalt.
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1%
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is cognitive.
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28%
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__________________ involves speaking with a therapist with the aid of a camera, microphone, and proper computer tools.
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Audio-visual e-therapy
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_________________________ is a new cognitive therapy that helps clients to accept many of their problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them.
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
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They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
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Existentialists
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This therapy encourages the client to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values.
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existential therapy
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In ______________________, therapists works with two individuals who are in a long-term relationship
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couple’s therapy
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His study in 1973 demonstrated the effect of how labels may encourage people to accept and play the assigned social role.
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Rosenhan
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________________ prevention consists of identifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages, before they become serious.
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Secondary
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________________ prevention consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies
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Primary
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The goal of ________________ prevention is to provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems
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Tertiary
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The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness.
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client-centered therapy
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The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises.
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Gestalt therapy
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The humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
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self-actualization
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These psychodynamic theorists give the greatest attention to the unified personality.
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self theorists
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This model emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned.
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behavioral model
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This model concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior.
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cognitive model
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Illogical thinking processes are another source of:
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abnormal functioning
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This approach seeks to address the pressures of being a woman in Western society.
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gender-sensitive therapies
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Children that have grown up in families where there was ____________________ may find it hard to function in a group or to give or request support.
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disengagement
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The success of the foster care programs in Gheel strongly support the principles of each of the following models, except: a. the family-social model b. the biological model c. the community mental health model d. the humanistic model
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b. the biological model
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According to the video. case, a key factor in the success of the Gheel foster care model is ______________.
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the community operates by a principle of inclusiveness
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The foster care programs in Gheel ______________.
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began centuries ago when the town of Gheel formed the first “colony” of mental patients
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A treatment approach that emphasizes community care.
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community mental health treatment
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Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups.
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culture-sensitive therapies
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A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules.
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family systems theory
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A therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems.
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group therapy
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The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior of its members. Also called culturally diverse perspective.
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multicultural perspective
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A group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician. Also called a mutual help group.
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self-help group
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The sociocultural model is comprised of ___ major perspectives.
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2
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Some studies have found that as many as ____ percent of individuals treated with family approaches improve.
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65
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According to estimates, there are now between 500,000 and ____ million self-help groups in the United States alone.
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3
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These tests detect brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances.
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neuropsychological tests
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A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for assigning individuals to the disorder, is known as a:
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classification system
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Field trials were run as the DSM-5 was being developed in order to ensure:
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reliability
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Which of the following is an argument for doing away with diagnoses?
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Diagnostic labels can be self-fulfilling prophecies.
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This is a false belief that all therapies are equivalent despite differences in the therapists’ training, experience, theoretical orientations, and personalities.
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uniformity myth
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Is therapy generally effective? Are particular therapies generally effective? Are particular therapies effective for particular problems? These three questions are asked in:
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therapy outcome studies
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In order to help clinicians become more familiar with and apply research findings, there is an ever-growing movement in the United States, the United Kingdom, and other parts of the world called ___________ treatment.
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empirically supported or evidence-based treatment
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3. The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised ______________.
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demonstrates high validity in the prediction of criminal behavior
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The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised measures of each of the following areas of functioning, except: -interpersonal functioning. -affect (mood). -social deviance. -memory and language skills.
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memory and language skills
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The ACT, SAT, GRE, and other standardized tests one may take to get into college or graduate school should be able to provide a moderate level of ___________ for admissions offices to use when selecting students for their programs.
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predictive validity
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The latest depression instrument was found to correlate highly with the Hamilton Depression Inventory, thus showing ___________.
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concurrent validity
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The MMPI consists of more than ___________ self-statements that make up 10 clinical scales, on which the individual can score from 0 to:
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500; 120.
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He developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior in 1883.
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Kraepelin
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The DSM-5 lists approximately ___________ mental disorders.
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400
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There are more than ___________ forms of therapy currently practiced in the clinical field today.
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400
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A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder.
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diagnosis
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A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together.
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syndrome
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Dr. Kovacs is a ___________ who looks for signs or symptoms of brain dysfunction.
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biological interviewer
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This projective test involves people making up dramatic stories about 30 black-and-white pictures of individuals in vague situations.
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TAT
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The most widely used personality inventory is the:
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MMPI
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A number of studies suggest that ___________ percent of patients actually seem to get worse because of therapy.
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5 to 10
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A society’s stated and unstated rules for proper conduct are known as:
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norms
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Rico’s family chose to celebrate Christmas Eve by cooking a variety of foods only prepared once a year in celebration of the Christmas holiday. This is an example of one’s:
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culture
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Eileen has chosen not to get married, have children, and lives with ten dogs. She rarely goes out, yet she does not bother anyone. This is considered an example of:
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eccentricity
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He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features.
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Frank
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A group of friends decided to “let off some steam” and went to the local auto junkyard every day to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT:
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there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
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He stated “therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims… it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided.”
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Rogers
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Early Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew writings all account for abnormal behavior as the result of:
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possession by demons.
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Groups of people who suddenly started to dance, jump, and go into convulsions were described as having this disorder.
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tarantism
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The first site of asylum reform is believed to have been at _____________ in Paris.
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La Bicêtre
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These medications reduce tension and worry.
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antianxiety drugs
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Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
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40
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This is the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.
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positive psychology
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This is a research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable.
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single-subject experimental design
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This experiment makes use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large.
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quasi-experiment
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___________ is the number of new cases that emerge during a given time period.
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Incidence
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According to Frank, all forms of therapy have these three essential features:
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1.A sufferer who seeks relief from the healer. 2.A trained, socially accepted healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group. 3.A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer…tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer’s emotional state, attitudes, and behavior.
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Number of individuals who display disturbance
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as many as 30 percent of the adults and 19 percent of the children and adolescents in the United States display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment
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cut away a circular section of the skull to release demons
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trephination
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500 B.C. to 500 A.D. – Hippocrates and cause of psycho-disturbance
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four fluids, or humors, that flowed through the body: yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm
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Humor that causes frenzied activity
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yellow bile
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Humor that causes unshakeable sadness
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black bile
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Weyer (1515-1588),
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mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was
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Gheel, Belgium
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colony of mentally ill– first site of community mental health
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mid-sixteenth century
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converted hospitals and monasteries into asylums, institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness. Prisons, filthy
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Chief of La Bicêtre and later La Salpetrière
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Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
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In 1796 he founded the York Retreat, a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work
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William Tuke (1732-1819)
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A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment.
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moral treatment
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The person most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the United States
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Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), an eminent physician at Pennsylvania Hospital
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Public mental institutions in the United States, run by the individual states.
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State hospitals
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The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes.
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Somatogenic perspective
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The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.
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Psychogenic perspective
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first modern system for classifying abnormal behavior
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Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926).
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theorized that syphilis had been the cause of their general paresis.
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Krafft-Ebing
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Hypnotism is a procedure that places people in a trancelike mental state during which they become extremely suggestible. “mesmerism”
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Austrian physician named Friedrich Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)
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studied hypnotism
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Josef Breuer (1842-1925)
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Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology.
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Psychoanalysis
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current trend
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43 percent of respondents believe that people bring mental disorders on themselves, and 35 percent consider such disorders to be caused by sinful behavior
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Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning.
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Psychotropic medications
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The discharge, begun during the 1960s, of large numbers of patients from long-term institutional care so that they might be treated in community programs.
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Deinstitutionalization
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On any given day in 1955–
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close to 600,000 people were confined in public mental institutions across the United States
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An arrangement in which a person directly pays a therapist for counseling services.
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Private psychotherapy
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Fact
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at least 20 percent of clients enter therapy because of milder problems in living—problems with marital, family, job, peer, school, or community relationships
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A key feature of community mental health programs that seek to prevent or minimize psychological disorders.
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Prevention
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Fact
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Members of racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States collectively make up 35 percent of the population, a percentage that is expected to grow to more than 50 percent in the coming decades
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The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior.
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Multicultural psychology
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An insurance program in which the insurance company decides the cost, method, provider, and length of treatment.
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Managed care program
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_____percent of all privately insured persons in the United States are currently enrolled in managed care programs
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75
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a law that directs insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems
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parity
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Pychiatrists began to practice
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1840s (25% female)
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Psychologists began to practice
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1940s (52% female)
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Social Workers began to practice
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1950s (77% female)
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Counselors began to practice
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1950s (90%)
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The process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon.
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Scientific method
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A detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problems.
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Case Study
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Issues with Case Study
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Biased Observers Subjective evidence Little basis for generalization
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Why case studies helpful?
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Source of new ideas Offer tentative support to theory Challenge a theory’s assumptions Show value of new therapeutic techniques Opportunity to study unusual problems
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A research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other. Used to determine “co-relationship” between variables
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Correlational method
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The people who are chosen for a study are
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subjects or participants
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The value of one variable increases as the value of the other variable decreases
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negative correlation
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When variables change the same way, their correlation is said to have a
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positive correlation
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The direction and magnitude of a correlation are often calculated numerically and expressed by a statistical term called the
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correlation coefficient
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Correlation notes
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The correlation coefficient can vary from +1.00, which indicates a perfect positive correlation between two variables, down to −1.00, which represents a perfect negative correlation. The sign of the coefficient (+ or −) signifies the direction of the correlation; the number represents its magnitude. The closer the correlation is to .00, the weaker, or lower in magnitude, it is. Thus correlations of +.75 and −.75 are of equal magnitude and equally strong, whereas a correlation of +.25 is weaker than either.
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Strengths of Correlation method
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-Provides general ifnormation -Statistical Analysis possible -Replicable (does not provide individual information or causal information)
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Strengths of Experimental method
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-Provides general ifnormation -Provides causal information -Statistical Analysis possible -Replicable (does not provide individual information)
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A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population.
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Epidemiological study
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The total number of cases in the population during a given time period
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prevalence
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A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time.
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Longitudinal Study
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A research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed.
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Experiment
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The variable in an experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable
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Independent variable
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The variable in an experiment that is expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated.
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Dependent variable
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In an experiment, a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable.
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confounds — When there are confounds in an experiment, they, rather than the independent variable, may be causing the observed changes.
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To guard against confounds, researchers include three important features in their experiments—
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a control group, random assignment, and a blind design
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In an experiment, a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable.
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control group
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In an experiment, the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation.
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experimental group
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A selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group.
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Random assignment
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An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control condition.
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Blind design– used to beat bias
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experimenters may have expectations that they unintentionally transmit to the participants in their studies
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Experimenter bias or Rosenthal effect
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An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large. Also called a mixed design.
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quasi-experiment — To make this comparison as valid as possible, they may further use matched control participants.
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An experiment in which nature, rather than an experimenter, manipulates an independent variable.
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Natural experiment — Natural experiments must be used for studying the psychological effects of unusual and unpredictable events, such as floods, earthquakes, plane crashes, and fires. Because the participants in these studies are selected by an accident of fate rather than by the investigators’ design, natural experiments are actually a kind of quasi-experiment.
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A research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts
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Analogue experiment
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A research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable.
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Single-subject experimental design
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According to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse.
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Ego defense mechanisms
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argues that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients—figures whose reactions and beliefs should be included in the therapy process
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relational psychoanalytic therapy
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Model that believes our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life.
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Behavioral model
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explanations and treatments on principles of learning, the processes by which these behaviors change in response to the environment.
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principles of learning – behavioral model
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began in laboratories where psychologists were running experiments on conditioning, simple forms of learning
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behavioral model begining
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A process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated.
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Operant conditioning
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A process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person’s mind and so produce the same response.
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classical conditioning
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_____ aims to identify the behaviors that are causing a person’s problems and then tries to replace them with more appropriate ones by applying the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or modeling
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behavioral therapy
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A behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread. step by step procedure
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Systematic desensitization
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Criticism of behavioral model
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its too simplistic
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Illogical thinking processes are another source of abnormal functioning, according to _____
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Cognitive Theorists — Beck; some people consistently think in illogical ways and keep arriving at self-defeating conclusions
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the drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event.
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overgeneralization
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A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people identify and change the maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help cause their psychological disorders.
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Cognitive therapy
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guide clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and ultimately apply the new ways of thinking in their daily lives.
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Cognitive therapy
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Thousands of therapists have set up online services that invite people with problems to e-mail their questions and concerns
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e-mail therapy
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In response to such limitations, a new group of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, sometimes called the new wave of cognitive therapies.. help clients to simply be mindful of and accept many of their problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT),
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Drawbacks of cognitive therapy
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First, although disturbed cognitive processes are found in many forms of abnormality, their precise role has yet to be determined. it is narrow in certain ways. Although cognition is a very special human dimension, it is still only one part of human functioning. Aren’t human beings more than the sum of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors?
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the more optimistic of the two groups, believe that human beings are born with a natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative, and constructive. People, these theorists propose, are driven to self-actualize— –only if they honestly recognize and accept their weaknesses as well as their strengths and establish satisfying personal values to live by. Humanists further suggest that self-actualization leads naturally to a
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Humanists
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They believe that from birth we have total freedom, either to face up to our existence and give meaning to our lives or to shrink from that responsibility. Those who choose to “hide” from responsibility and choice will view themselves as helpless and may live empty, inauthentic, and dysfunctional lives as a result.
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Existential
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The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness.
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Client-centered therapy — 1940s Carl Rogers
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Those who receive unconditional (nonjudgmental) positive regard early in life are likely to develop unconditional self-regard. -Positive regard -Acquire conditions of worth
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Humanistic
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The therapist must display three important qualities throughout the therapy—unconditional positive regard (full and warm acceptance for the client), accurate empathy (skillful listening and restatements), and genuineness (sincere communication).
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Client Centered therapy
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family-social perspective believe that such forces help account for both normal and abnormal behavior, and they pay particular attention to three kinds of factors:
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social labels and roles, social networks, and family structure and communication.
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pists try to change the family power structure
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structural family therapy
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therapists try to help members recognize and change harmful patterns of communication
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conjoint family therapy
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integrative couple therapy
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helps partners accept behaviors that they cannot change and embrace the whole relationship nevertheless. Partners are asked to see such behaviors as an understandable result of basic differences between them.
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Multicultural facts
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Women in Western society receive diagnoses of anxiety disorders and of depression at least twice as often as men (Jeglic & Murphy-Eberenz, 2012). Similarly, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and American Indians are more likely than white Americans to experience serious psychological distress or extreme sadness. American Indians also display exceptionally high alcoholism and suicide rates (CDCP, 2011).
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Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups.
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Culture-sensitive therapies
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Culture-sensitive approaches typically include the following elements
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1.Special cultural instruction of therapists in their graduate training programs 2.Awareness by the therapist of a client’s cultural values 3.Awareness by the therapist of the stress, prejudices, and stereotypes to which minority clients are exposed 4.Awareness by therapists of the hardships faced by the children of immigrants 5.Helping clients recognize the impact of both their own culture and the dominant culture on their self-views and behaviors 6.Helping clients identify and express suppressed anger and pain 7.Helping clients achieve a bicultural balance that feels right for them 8.Helping clients raise their self-esteem—a sense of self-worth that has often been damaged by generations of negative messages
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The process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured.
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Standardization
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A measure of the consistency of test or research results.
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reliability
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if it yields the same results every time it is given to the same people.
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test-retest reliability
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if different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret it
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interrater (or interjudge)
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The accuracy of a test’s or study’s results; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measures or shows what it claims.
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Validity
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valid simply because it makes sense and seems reasonable
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face validity
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the degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with the measures gathered from other assessment techniques. Participants’ scores on a new test designed to measure anxiety, for example, should correlate highly with their scores on other anxiety tests or with their behavior during clinical interviews.
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Concurrent validity
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_______ interviewers try to discover assumptions and interpretations that influence the person
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Cognitive
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___ interviewers ask about the person’s self-evaluation, self-concept, and values
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Humanistic
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___ interviewers try to pinpoint information about the stimuli that trigger responses and their consequences
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Behavioral
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____ interviewers try to learn about the person’s needs and memories of past events and relationships
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Psychodynamic
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____ interview look for signs of biochemical or brain dysfunction
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Biological
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clinicians ask prepared questions. Sometimes they use a published interview schedule—a standard set of questions designed for all interviews.
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structured interview
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A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning.
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Mental status exam
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Structured vs unstructured
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Unstructured interviews typically appeal to psychodynamic and humanistic clinicians, while structured formats are widely used by behavioral and cognitive clinicians, who need to pinpoint behaviors, attitudes, or thinking processes that may underlie abnormal behavior
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Limitations of Clinical Interviews
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-intentionally misleading -patient unable to give accurate report -interviewer may make mistakes in judgement that slant information -interview bias (gender, race, etc) -unstructured lack reliability
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More than 500 clinical tests are currently in use throughout the United States. Clinicians use six kinds most often:
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projective tests, personality inventories, response inventories, psychophysiological tests, neurological and neuropsychological tests, and intelligence tests.
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A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to.
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Projective test
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The most widely used projective tests:
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Rorschach test, the Thematic Apperception Test, sentence-completion tests, and drawings
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first developed in the 1920s (Payne, 1928), asks people to complete a series of unfinished sentences, such as “I wish…” or “My father….” The test is considered a good springboard for discussion and a quick and easy way to pinpoint topics to explore.
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sentence completion test
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On the assumption that a drawing tells us something about its creator, clinicians often ask clients to draw human figures and talk about them
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Draw-a-person (DAP) test
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A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them
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Personality inventory
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Items showing abnormal concern with bodily functions (“I have chest pains several times a week.”)
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Hypochondriasis:
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Items showing extreme pessimism and hopelessness (“I often feel hopeless about the future.”)
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depression
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Items suggesting that the person may use physical or mental symptoms as a way of unconsciously avoiding conflicts and responsibilities (“My heart frequently pounds so hard I can feel it.”)
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hysteria
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Items showing a repeated and gross disregard for social customs and an emotional shallowness (“My activities and interests are often criticized by others.”)
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Psychopathic deviate
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Items that are thought to separate male and female respondents (“I like to arrange flowers.”)
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masculine-feminine
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Items that show abnormal suspiciousness and delusions of grandeur or persecution (“There are evil people trying to influence my mind.”)
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Paranoia
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Items that show bizarre or unusual thoughts or behavior (“Things around me do not seem real.”)
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PSYCHASTHENIA
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Items that show emotional excitement, overactivity, and flight of ideas (“At times I feel very ‘high’ or very ‘low’ for no apparent reason.”)
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HYPOMANIA
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Items that show shyness, little interest in people, and insecurity (“I am easily embarrassed.”)
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SOCIAL INTROVERSION
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Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes.
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Response inventories
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measure the severity of such emotions as anxiety, depression, and anger
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Affective inventories
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reveal a person’s typical thoughts and assumptions and can uncover counterproductive patterns of thinking
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Cognitive inventories
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used particularly by behavioral and family-social clinicians, ask respondents to indicate how they would react in a variety of social situations
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Social skills inventories
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A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems.
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Psychophysiological test
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A test that directly measures brain structure or activity.
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Neurological test
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Test that records brain waves, the electrical activity taking place within the brain as a result of neurons firing.
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-electroencephalogram (EEG)
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Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs. Also called brain scans.
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Neuroimaging techniques or brain scanning
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a computer-produced motion picture of chemical activity throughout the brain
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Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
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X rays of the brain’s structure are taken at different angles and combined
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Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan or CT scan)
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Converts numerous MRI pictures of brain structures into detailed pictures of neuron activity, thus offering a picture of the functioning brain
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Functioning MRI
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A procedure that uses the magnetic property of certain atoms in the brain
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances.
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Neuropsychological test
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Neuropsychological test that consists of nine cards, each displaying a simple geometrical design. Patients look at the designs one at a time and copy each one on a piece of paper. Later they try to redraw the designs from memory.
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Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test
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A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability.
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Intelligence test
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A score derived from intelligence tests that theoretically represents a person’s overall intellectual capacity
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Intelligence quotient (IQ)
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Clinicians observe clients in their everyday environments
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naturalistic observation
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Observation in an artificial setting
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Analog observation
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Clients are instructed to observe themselves
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self-monitoring
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Often such observations are made by ____________, key persons in the client’s environment, and reported to the clinician.
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participant observers
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The observer may suffer from_______ and be unable to see or record all of the important behaviors and events. Or the observer may experience _________, a steady decline in accuracy as a result of fatigue or of a gradual unintentional change in the standards used when an observation continues for a long period of time.
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overload; observer drift
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A client’s _________ may also limit the validity of clinical observations; that is, his or her behavior may be affected by the very presence of the observer
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reactivity
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Because behavior is often specific to particular situations, observations in one setting cannot always be applied to other settings
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cross-situational validity
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Clinicians use the information from interviews, tests, and observations to construct an integrated picture of the factors that are causing and maintaining a client’s disturbance, a construction sometimes known as a ________ _______.
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clinical picture
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A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder.
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diagnosis
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A list of categories, or disorders, with descriptions of the symptoms and guidelines for assigning individuals to the categories, is known as a
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classification system
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Developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior
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Emil Kraepelin – 1883 foundation of the DSM
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________ lists approximately 400 mental disorders. Each entry describes the criteria for diagnosing the disorder and its key clinical features. The system also describes features that are often but not always related to the disorder.
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DSM-5
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Refers to the name of the category (disorder) indicated by the client’s symptoms.
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categorical information
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_______ is a rating of how severe a client’s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality.
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Dimensional information
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Types of disorders in DSM 5:
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Anxiety disorders, depressive disorders,
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Amount of people with no disorders
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53.5%
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One disorder
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18.7%
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Two disorders
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10.4%
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Three or more disorders
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17.3%
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A classification system, like an assessment method, is judged by its
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reliability and validity
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In classification, _______ means that different clinicians are likely to agree on the diagnosis when they use the system to diagnose the same client.
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reliability
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The________ of a classification system is the accuracy of the information that its diagnostic categories provide.
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validity
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Categories are of most use to clinicians when they demonstrate ________—that is, when they help predict future symptoms or events.
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predictive validity
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An effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all effective therapists.
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Rapprochement movement