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Abnormal Behaviors and Treatment

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The medical model of abnormality states that psychological disorders should be viewed and treated in the same manner as physical illnesses.
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True
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One of the main strengths regarding the biopsychosocial model is the ease of identifying symptoms in order to make a diagnosis.
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False
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Professor George Engel believed mental illness was a disease that should be cured.
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False
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Katherine has begun to experience attacks consisting of intense fear, heart palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath whenever she thinks of or attempts to leave her apartment. Katherine may be experiencing a certain amount of __________ when it comes to leaving her home.
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subjective discomfort
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Abnormal behaviors are considered similar across cultures.
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False
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The biopsychosocial model of abnormality states that behavior is influenced by all of the following except __________ factors.
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labeling
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The idea for the medical model began when Philippe Pinel discarded the idea that __________.
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mental illness was caused by demon or spirit possession
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George Engel criticized the medical community for its full acceptance of the medical model and for __________.
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failing to accept that mental illness had influences other than biological ones
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The medical model of abnormality states that psychological disorders are __________.
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diseases
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An ancient Greek physician believed performing lobotomies helped release inner spirits that caused mental illness.
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False
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Which of the following is not considered a criterion that suggests the presence of a psychological disorder under the category of “maladaptiveness”?
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personal unhappiness
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The current manual for classifying mental disorders is the __________.
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DSM-IV
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Individuals with a psychological disorder are extremely different from individuals without a psychological disorder.
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False
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Which of the following axes and terms are not correctly associated according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)?
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Axis IV: Global assessment and functioning
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All of the following are stereotypes associated with mental illness except __________.
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a response of anger toward someone with a mental illness
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One of the differences between labeling an individual with a medical disease or labeling them with a mental illness is that __________.
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many mental illnesses are used to define an individual
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Which of the following statements would not be considered a clinical benefit to labeling an individual with a mental illness?
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A label is subjective to clinicians and can therefore cast doubt on the patient’s diagnosis.
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Patients A, B, C, and D all have similar symptoms and situational stressors. The major difference is that patient A’s Axis V rating scale is 77, patient B’s is 92, patient C’s is 15, and patient D’s rating scale is 32.
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Patient C
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Some clinicians are able to develop a clearer understanding of a future patient if the patient already has a prior diagnosis.
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True
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DSM stands for the __________.
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
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A __________ earns a doctoral degree in medicine, provides therapy for those with severe disorders, and is able to prescribe medication for various disorders.
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psychiatrist
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Men often seek therapy more than women.
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False
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Psychiatric nurses are registered nurses who can also provide psychological services.
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True
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All of the following are possible reasons why families may choose to seek therapy except __________.
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overcoming language barriers between family members
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In order to seek psychotherapy, one must have a diagnosed mental disorder.
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False
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Eclectic therapy is a form of therapy in which the therapist sticks to one form of therapy until successful results are reached.
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False
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It is uncommon for individuals experiencing a divorce to seek therapy.
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False
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Which of the following statements does not refer to how psychotherapy is helpful to an individual who seeks treatment?
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It allows therapists to use several techniques in treatment.
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In order for an individual to seek psychotherapy, it is not necessary for there to be a __________.
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mental disorder
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Raquel tends to get extremely upset if she does not get her way, and she feels that it is a reflection of how much of a failure she is bound to be. Raquel would most likely benefit from __________.
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rational-emotive behavior therapy
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Electroconvulsive therapy was developed as a way to prevent the seizures experienced by schizophrenic patients.
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False
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Antidepressants work by gradually decreasing psychotic symptoms and behaviors.
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False
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Any form of biomedical therapy can be used in conjunction with other forms of psychotherapy.
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True
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Many forms of biomedical therapy come with side effects, but the most serious form of brain damage could be from __________.
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psychosurgery
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Sigmund Freud believed mental disorders were caused when an individual __________.
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buried feelings in the unconscious
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Which of the following is not one of the four basic elements of client-centered therapy?
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conditional positive regard
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Insight therapies involve verbal interactions between a therapist and a client that are used to promote positive changes in one’s life.
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True
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Physicians in the nineteenth century discovered that __________ infected the brain and distorted the mind, causing mental illness.
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Syphilis
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The medical model is currently the primary way to explain the causes of psychological disorders.
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True
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Collaboration between the therapist and the patient known as __________ is important to achieve in order for treatment to be successful.
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therapeutic bond
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Insurance companies will usually only cover psychotherapy if it is considered medically necessary
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True
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Minority groups make the most use of psychotherapeutic services.
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False
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The process of exhibiting strong emotions toward one’s therapist that one would normally feel for another person is referred to as __________.
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transference
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The substance known as Antabuse may be combined with alcohol as a form of __________ to help curtail alcohol addiction.
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aversion therapy
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Making a list of situations or objects that cause anxiety is part one of the process in aversion therapy.
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False
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The biomedical technique in which a part of the brain is destroyed with electric current is known as __________.
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bilateral cingulotomy
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Insight therapies involve verbal interactions between a therapist and a client that are used to promote positive changes in one’s life.
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True
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One of the most important factors of successful insight therapies is the ability for a client to feel safe in the therapeutic environment.
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True
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__________ behavior can be any behavior that violates or radically contrasts societal expectations and norms but does not necessarily qualify as a psychological disorder.
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Deviant
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Which of the following categories of the DSM-IV consists of environmental stressors affecting mental health?
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Axis IV
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It is important for a psychotherapist to provide a protected and private environment during therapy because __________.
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it allows the patient the comfort to release private thoughts and emotions
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Lithium has been one of the most common treatment forms used to treat individuals with bipolar disorder. Due to its capacity to become toxic if not monitored closely, __________ drugs have begun to be prescribed as an alternative.
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anticonvulsant
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Fear of being stigmatized often discourages individuals from seeking treatment for their mental illness.
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True
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A clinical psychologist will only treat patients who have a mental disorder.
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False
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Resistance occurs when a patient transfers strong emotions felt about another individual to one’s therapist.
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False
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One of the most severe side effects from being treated with antipsychotic drugs is __________.
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tardive dyskinesia
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Insane is a psychological term used to describe individuals with a severe mental disorder.
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False
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__________ were initially developed to destroy the part of the brain that controls emotions.
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Lobotomies
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Which of the following would be the most likely reason some minorities may tend to underutilize therapeutic treatment?
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language barriers
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Thomas was a very successful business man living in California. He quit his job, sold all of his possessions, and is currently living quite happily in a monastery with other monks. Thomas’ behavior could be considered abnormal under the __________ definition.
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social
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Which of the following was not a factor involved in the study conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan?
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The pseudopatients were treated and released from the hospital without a diagnosis.
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The medical model of abnormality suggests that psychological disorders have symptoms that cannot be treated medically.
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False