ab psych

distinctiveness
This would NOT be one of the text’s criteria for abnormal behavior.
12
If all DSM-IV disorders are combined, about 26.6 percent of Americans experienced a defined disorder in the past months.
a case study
Dr. Harriett is conducting an intensive study of one of her patients who presents with an uncommon form of OCD. She is charting the changes in symptoms that occur during therapy and will publish a paper on this patient’s outcome. Dr. Harriett’s study of her patient’s behavior would be considered .
The case study findings cannot be generalized to others
Which of the following is a limitaion using the case study method?
case studies should not be generalized to populations
John’s behavior provides an excellent example of Antisocial Personality Disorder. As such, Dr. Marek has spent several years intensively studying John, his symptoms, and the changes in his symptoms that occurred during therapy. However, Dr. Marek cannot assume that what is true for John will also be true for others, because
it illustrates different forms of abnormal behavior
A useful attribute of a case study would be that
still cannot be generalized to anyone other than the person being studied
Even if the findings for a given case study are accurate, they
epidemiological research
Dr. Smith is conducting a study of the prevalence of depression in the Midwest. This would be an example of
epidemiological research
The frequency of behaviors among different groups is calculated in .
a paradigm
A framework with which to view a phenomenon, the vocabulary to use in discussing the subject, and a “recipe” for how to conduct research on the topic is known as _______.
masturbation
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this was thought to be a serious cause of insanity by the medical community.
Benjamin Rush
This individual is known as the founder of American psychiatry.
laying on of hands
Benjamin Rush advocated all of the following as effective treatments of abnormal behavior EXCEPT:
It provided strong impetus to the development of organic theories of abnormal behavior.
The discovery of the cause of general paresis was an important achievement of medical science because
General paresis
characterized by delusions of grandeur, dementia, and progressive paralysis, caused by a sexually transmitted spirochete.
Malarial fever
Before penicillin, this was a treatment for general paresis that involved infecting the patient with the disease to cause a high fever.
psychological
This view is based upon mental events such as beliefs, emotions, and ideas are the source of abnormal behaviors.
Hysteria
_________ is a condition that includes emotional arousal and physical symptoms which seem to have no organic basis.
Anton Mesmer
This individual purported that all human behavior was under the influence of the stars and that this influence was accomplished through a constant flow of a magnetic fluid which fills the universe was
3 meta themes abnormal behavior
demons
physical
psychological
case study
it is an in-depth study of an individual person, provided a rich source of ideas about the nature and causation of abnormal behavior. Cannot be used to “prove” a theory. Findings cannot be generalized to anyone other than the person being studied.
Epidemiological Research
large, nation wise case study. Study of the incidence or prevalence of a disorder in a population- referred to as normative research. Data collected through this research method can provide important information about public health trends and risks across different elements of population.
Validity of Measurement
measure is valid if it measures what it purports to measure. Constructs hypothetical or theoretical concepts that cannot be measured directly (aggression, anxiety, intelligence). A measure can be reliable, and yet not valid.
Reliability of Measurement
extent to which a measure consistently yields the same results on repeated trials. Psychological measurement is never as precise as physical measurement (only measures: a small part of the domain of how a person acts, or thinks, or feels)
Random sampling
participant selection is by chance from larger population. Sample determines to what group(s) of people a given finding can be generalized or applied
Correlational Research
investigator investigates the association between two or m ore measures. Can tell researchers something about strength and direction of a relationship b/w variables, but correlation does not demonstrate causation. There can be an unknown number of other variables that might contribute to any observed relationship
Correlational coefficient
a statistical measure of the direction and the strength of the relationship b/w two variables.
Experimental Research
research method in which conditions are manipulated in order to test the effects of the manipulations on various measures
Experimental group
group on which the manipulation of interest is performed
Control group
group that is treated similarly to the experimental group, except that no manipulation is performed
Significant difference
A difference unlikely to have occurred by chance and therefore reflecting a real effect
Placebo effect
This effect occurs when an expectation of improvement is sufficient to cause improvement
Double-blind design
experimental design in which both participants and researchers do not know whether a participant is in the experimental or control group
Single-subject experimental designs
experimental methods that do not rely on groups of participants, but rather use repeated measures from individual people
Exorcism
practice of expelling demons from bodies they possess
Trephining
creation of sizeable holes in the skull
Physical
bodily process (medical model)
Psychological
thoughts/feelings (understanding hysteria/learning and behavior)
Emil Kraepelin
created a classification system that continues to influence psychiatric thinking. Looks for individuals with patterns of symptoms (symptoms complexes), which showed a similar onset, course, and outcome.
Dementia praecox
created this category based on symptoms which had in common two characteristics: outcome = stabilization at very reduced level of mental and social capacity
Dr. Charcot
a distinguished French neurologist was largely responsible for making both hysteria and hypnosis respectable objects of scientific investigation. Found out he could put hysterical patients under hypnosis, produce new symptoms at will, and relieve the existing symptoms of at least some patients
Dorothea Dix
United States, A New England schoolteacher launched a campaign against the inhumane conditions in asylums.
• Instrumental in founding or enlarging more than 30 states institutions for the proper custody and treatment of mental patients.
Benjamin Rush
The father of psychiatry in the United States. He developed the state hospital system and also bled to death George Washington. The person most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the U.S. was Benjamin Rush
Diagnostic reliability
In order for a diagnosis to be reliable, different clinicians should come to the same diagnostic conclusion after independently examining the same patient
Anxiety
most common mental disorder were anxiety disorders with a 12-month prevalence of 18.1% of the population, and a lifetime prevalence of 28.8% of the population
Depression
following anxiety disorders were mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance disorders. All disorders combined about 26.6% of Americans experienced a defined disorder in the past 12 months
UCS Unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that is naturally capable of eliciting the unconditioned response
CS Conditioned Response
an originally neutral stimulus that becomes capable of eliciting a conditioned response after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
UCR Unconditioned stimulus
a response that occurs naturally or innately to an unconditioned stimulus
CR Conditioned Response
a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
Defense Mechanisms
to prevent anxiety -arousing impulses from entering awareness or being overtly expressed in ways that might evoke retaliation.
Repression
primary defense mechanism, unconscious but intentional forgetting of memories associated with anxiety-arousing impulses and conflicts.
Reaction formation
people take the additional step of believing and acting as thought they were motivated to do just the opposite of the unacceptable impulse.
Isolation
refers to a memory or impulse in such a way that is no longer creates anxiety
Displacement
a disturbing emotion or conflict is transferred from its original source to some less threatening object or situation
Projection
person disowns some impulse or attitude and projects it onto another person
Id
the source of basic instinctual drives seeking immediate gratification
Ego
attempts to mediate between the urgings of the id and the demands of external reality (governs processes as perception, learning, and thinking)
Superego
Ideals and morals; strives for perfection; observes, dictates, criticizes, and prohibits; imposes limitations on satisfactions; becomes the conscience of the individual
Diagnostic Interview
Basic and often the only instrument of assessment because the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 are based largely on a person’s self-report of symptoms. Given to a person when first seen at a clinic or institution. Involves an interaction between the patient or client and the clinician or interviewer, who usually formulates an initial diagnostic impression, supplemented by information from the medical and social history.
MRI
makes images produced by the energy of vibrating hydrogen molecules in the brain via a strong magnetic field. Provides a much clearer picture of structure than does a CT scan, although one draw back is that it requires patients to remain motionless in a small confined area for long periods
Reinforcement
process in which a consequence strengthens or increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Punishment
a process in which a consequence weakens or decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Positive Reinforcement
this is when a contingent presentation of a pleasant result strengthens subsequent responding
Negative Reinforcement
This is when contingent removal of an unpleasant stimulus strengthens subsequent responding
Projective test
tests in which the person is presented with ambiguous stimulus materials and asked to respond in some way, based on the assumption that persons project characteristics of their own intrapsychic process onto their response
Subjective test
interview, gathering information, assess experience, abilities and determine interpersonal skills and abilities
Objective assessment
one that utilizes research to determine results. When you take an pre-employment pencil and paper test, chances are this is an objective measure. The results are given in the form of statistics and probabilities. Some of the most common objective tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and any of the major tests of intelligence
DSM 5
Global assessment of functioning, DSM-5 implied assumption that all mental disorders reflect an underlying biological dysfunction. Has the category then specific examples.

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