A & P Respitory

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Trace the air flow through the respiratory system starting with the external nares.
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1. external nares 2. nasal cavity 3. internal nares 4. nasopharynx 5. oropharynx 6. laryngopharynx 7. larynx 8. trachea 9. primary bronchus 10. secondary bronchus 11. tertiary bronchus 12. bronchiole 13. terminal bronchiole 14. respiratory bronchiole 15. alveolar duct 16. alveolar sac 17. alveolus
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Name three structural changes that occur in the bronchi as they branch into bronchioles
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1. smaller diameter 2. less cartilage; more smooth muscle 3. epithelium changes from columnar to cuboidal
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Tubular airways that begin the respiratory zone
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1. respiratory bronchioles
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Connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea
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2. larynx
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Tube-like structure that conducts air from the larynx to the bronchi
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3. trachea
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Closes over the glottis during swallowing
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4. epiglottis
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Keep the trachea from collapsing
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5. tracheal cartilages
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Division of the bronchi that enter bronchopulmonary segments
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6. tertiary bronchioles
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Last division of the conducting zone
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7. terminal bronchioles
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Conducts air from the nasopharynx to the larynogopharnx
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8. oropharynx
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Small, round sacs where gas exchange occurs
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9. alveoli
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Small conduction airway that serves a lobule
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10. bronchiole
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What type of epithelium is found in the nasal cavity through nasopharynx
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pseudostratified ciliated columnar
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What type of epithelium is found in the Oropharynx through larynx above vocal cords
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stratified squamous
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What type of epithelium is found in the Larynx below vocal cords through primary bronchi?
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pseudostratified ciliated columnar
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What type of epithelium is found in the secondary bronchi through tertiary bronchi?
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pseudostratified ciliated columnar
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What type of epithelium is found in the bronchioles through beginning of respiratory bronchiole?
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simple cuboidal
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What type of epithelium is found in the end of respiratory bronchiole through alveoli?
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simple squamous
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What type of epithelium secretes mucus to trap and remove dust and debris?
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pseudostratified ciliated columnar
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What type of epithelium has the diffusioon of respiratory gases?
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simple squamous
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What type of epithelium protects underlying tissues?
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stratified squamous
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Explain how it is possible for a person to drink liquid and then have the liquid come out through the nose when the person laughs.
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1. The oropharynx is connected to the nasopharynx via the internal nares. When the mouth is closed, air from the laryngopharynx forces food or liquid from the mouth up through these passageways into the nasal cavity and out the external nares.
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Explain how an infection in the nasopharynx can also result in an infection in the paranasal sinuses and/or the middle ear.
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2. The ducts of paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity, and bacteria can move from the nasopharynx through the internal nares and into the nasal cavity. The auditory tube connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx. Bacteria can move up this tube and into the middle ear.
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Asthma attacks are caused by smooth muscle spasm in the bronchial tree. These spasms can close the airway. What airway structures are closed? Why are these areas closed but not the rest of the bronchial tree?
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distal bronchioles (terminal bronchioles); These airways lack cartilage that is present in the rest of the conducting zone.
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With emphysema, how do the changes in the alveolar structure cause a decrease in blood oxygen levels?
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The person cannot exhale air very well due to enlarged, air-filled sacs that have lost their elasticity. Very little air can be inhaled at each breath and gas exchange is decreased, lowering blood oxygen levels.
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With pneumonia, how do the changes in the alveolar structure cause a decrease in blood oxygen levels?
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6. The respiratory membrane of alveolar walls are thickened due to inflammation and the alveoli and bronchioles are plugged with fluid. Both conditions decrease the gas exchange rate and lower blood oxygen levels.
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Elevates 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs
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Pectoralis minors
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Elevates the sternum
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sternocleidomastoids
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Depresses ribs
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internal intercostals
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Compresses abdominal contents and increases abdominal pressure
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abdominal muscles
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Elevates first and second ribs
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Scalenes
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Elevates ribs
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external intercostals
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Main inspiratory muscle
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diaphragm
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Muscles used in forced exhalation
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abdominal muscles, internal intercostals
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During inhalation does the thoracic volume increase or decrease?
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increases
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During exhalation does the thoracic volume increase or decrease?
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decreases
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During inhalation does the intrapleural cavity volume increase or decrease?
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increases
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During exhalation does the intrapleural cavity volume increase or decrease?
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decreases
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During inhalation does the intrapleural volume increase or decrease?
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decreases
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During exhalation does the intrapleural volume increase or decrease?
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increases
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During inhalation does the lung volume increase or decrease?
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increases
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During exhalation does the lung volume increase or decrease?
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decreases
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During inhalation does the alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure increase or decrease?
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decreases
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During exhalation does the alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure increase or decrease?
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increases
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What lung volume is equal to TV + IRV + ERV + RV
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Total lung capacity
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What lung volume is equal to IC – TV?
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inspiratory reserve volume
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What lung volume is equal to FRC – ERV?
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residual volume
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What lung volume is equal to TV + IRV?
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tidal volume
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What lung capacity is equal to the volume of air remaining in lungs after normal exhalation?
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functional residual capacity
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What lung capacity is equal to the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation?
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expiratory reverse volume
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What lung capacity is equal to the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum exhalation?
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vital capacity
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What lung capacity is equal to IC-IRV?
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tidal volume
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A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency room with a pneumothorax. The right lung was collapsed, but the left lung was still inflated. Explain.
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Since each lung is in a separate pleural cavity, the collapse of one lung does not affect the other lung.
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How does a pneumothorax affect lung volume and alveolar pressure when inspiratory muscles contract? How does this affect air flow?
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A lung with a pneumothorax does not inflate because the intrapleural pressure is no longer subatmospheric. The lung is not held tightly against the thoracic wall and does not inflate.
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The Valsalva maneuver is forced exhalation against a closed glottis. How would you demonstrate the Valsalva maneuver using the model lung?
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3. Hold your finger over the \”trachea\” of the bell jar and push the \”diaphragm\” upward.
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A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. RV
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4. stays the same
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A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. TV
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5. increases
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A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. IRV
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6. decreases
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Women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries wore whalebone corsets that severely restricted the respiratory and digestive systems. These corsets were worn to have a wasp-like waist. It was quite common for these women to faint– in fact, they had \”fainting couches.\” Explain the physiological reason for their fainting problems.
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9. With the respiratory system severely restricted, the women could not inhale sufficient air. This resulted in hypoventilation, increased carbon dioxide, and increased hydrogen ions. The increased hydrogen ions depressed the breathing rate and insufficient oxygen reached the brain, causing fainting.
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When someone is hyperventilating, they are told to breather into a paper bag or into their cupped hands. (a) Explain why this increase blood carbon dioxide levels. (b) What will this do to the breathing rate?
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10. a) They are rebreathing exhaled air that has a higher carbon dioxide content and this increases the blood carbon dioxide levels. b) Hyperventilation causes a flushing out of carbon dioxide from the blood. Since breathing is dependent on the carbon dioxide level, breathing generally returns to normal when the carbon dioxide level returns to normal.
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A 5-year old child announces to her parents (former A & P students) that she is going to hold her breath until she is allows to watch more television. The parents are not worried. (a) Explain why the parents are not worried. (b) Explain how the child’s blood carbon dioxide levels and blood hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion levels change while she is holding her breath.
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The parents know that if she holds her breath and passes out, the respiratory center will resume a normal breathing pattern.
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What is the flow of blood in pulmonary circulation (from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart)?
answer

right side of the heart, superior and inferior vena cavae, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral (bicuspid valve), the left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, veins and heart.

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