8th Grade Social Studies Study Guide

Bicameral Legislature
Bicameral Legislature
legislature to create laws divided into two parts; chief executive (governor), elected by the legislature (citizens))

James Madison
James Madison
Thought power to be distributed through whole had to be balanced through corresponding responsibility

Popular Sovereignty
government by consent of the governed

Checks and Balances
Checks and Balances
Three branches of government have roles to check, or limit, the others, so that no single branch can dominate government.

Northwest Territory
provided a democratic model for national expansion
created new states with sovereignty
Ohio was the first state admitted

Antifederalists
criticized the constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights to protect individual freedoms

Manumission
the freeing of enslaved people

Enlightenment
movement during the 1700s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society

Articles of Conferderation
first document to govern America adopted in 1781 but no power to tax or enforce its laws

Shay’s Rebellion
A rebel that lead many farmers to go to an arsenal to fight for the freedom of thoughs encarsarated -brought attention to the government that they couldnt unrest or prevent violence.

Federalism
sharing power between federal and state government powers to tax, regulate trade, control currency, raise an army, and declare war.
-could pass laws that were ”necessary and needed”

Ratify
to approve

Federalist Papers
Madison, Hamilton, and jay worked together to write essays explaining and defending the Constitution. Called the ”Federalist Papers.”

Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
Against ratification of the Constitution it could be concieved to “enslave people.”

George Washington
“Thirteen Sovereignties pulling against each other.” When he heard about Shays rebellion immidiately was up for the revision of the A.O.C.

Depression
Low economic activity -Southern plantations
-damaged British closed profitable markets to America -State money varied -Farmers could not sell goods, or pay debts, thrown into jail

The New Jersey Plan
One house Legislature with one vote per state could set taxes and regulate trade