7th Grade Social Studies Vocabulary

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ETHNIC GROUP
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Group of people who share a common race, language, and culture; you are born into your ethnic group.
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RELIGIOUS GROUP
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Group of people who share a common system of beliefs; you choose your religious group.
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IRRIGATION
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Providing water to crops using pipes, ditches, etc.
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DESALINIZATION
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The process used to convert sea water to freshwater for drinking.
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AGRICULTURE
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Farming; growing crops and raising animals for food
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NOMADIC
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Migratory lifestyle; moving from place to place to meet needs.
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OPEC
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Controls the supply and price of oil
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ARID
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Very dry
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SUNNI
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Branch of Islam that believes that the leader can be any qualified Muslim Majority of Muslims are Sunni
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SHIA
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Branch of Islam that believes the leader must be a descendant of Muhammad (mostly in Iran)
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UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION
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Unequal access to resources needed for survival and economic growth.
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SUEZ CANAL
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Man made waterway connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea
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GEOGRAPHY
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Study of how things are arranged or distributed across the earth’s surface
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MONOTHEISM
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Belief in one God; Ex: Judaism, Christianity, Islam
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URBAN
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Related to a city
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STRAIT OF HORMUZ
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Narrow waterway connecting the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea.
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RURAL
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Characteristic of country life
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SCARCE
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Very limited supply
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RESERVOIR
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Human made place for storing water
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STANDARD OF LIVING
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quality of life increase in literacy rate leads to an increase in standard of living
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LITERACY RATE
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percent of population with the ability to read and write increase in literacy rate leads to an increase in standard of living
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PERSIAN
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Ethnic group of Iran; they speak Farsi and most are Shia Muslims, however some practice other religions.
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ARAB
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Ethnic group of the Middle East and North Africa; they speak Arabic and most are Muslim, however some practice other religions.
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KURD
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Ethnic group found in Eastern Turkey, Eastern Syria, and Northern Iraq. They speak Kurdish, are mostly Muslims, but some practice other religions.
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5 PILLARS OF ISLAM
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Declaration of faith, prayer 5x daily, charity, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, Saudi Arabia
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ANTI-SEMITISM
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Racism against Jews
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ZIONISM
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Jewish Nationalism movement to restore their homeland of Israel (1948)
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SADDAM HUSSEIN
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dictator of Iraq who invaded Kuwait for their oil. This caused the Persian Gulf War in 1991 (Desert Storm) He was later accused of having WMDs. This lead to the second invasion of Iraq in 2003 (Operation Iraqi Freedom)
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OSAMA BIN LADIN
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Leader of the terrorist group Al Qaeda, that attacked the U.S. on Sept. 11, 2001 Taken out by Navy Seals in May 2011
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PARTITIONING
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to split into parts; establishing artificial political boundaries. This would later lead to conflict between ethnic groups and religious groups. Ex: After WWI, France and Great Britain partitioned the Ottoman Empire to form countries in the Middle East (oil) Ex: African countries were partitioned by European imperial powers at the Berlin conference in 1884. Artificial political boundaries were based on the location of natural resources.
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HOW CITIZENS PARTICIPATE
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Autocracy, oligarchy, democracy (parliamentary, presidential)
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AUTOCRACY
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Dictatorship or absolute monarchy; no citizen participation
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OLIGARCHY
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Rule by a small group; limited citizen participation
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DEMOCRACY
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Citizens participate by voting or running for office; parliamentary or presidential
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EXECUTIVE BRANCH
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Enforces the law
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LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
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Creates the law
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JUDICIAL BRANCH
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Interprets the law
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MONARCHY
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Rule by a king or queen; constitutional (U.K., Japan) or absolute (Saudi Arabia)
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THEOCRACY
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Rule by a religious leader or God (Iran)
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PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY
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government in which voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body which chooses a prime minister to head the government
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PRESIDENTIAL DEMOCRACY
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A form of government in which governing powers are divided into three branches or groups: the lawmakers (legislative), law enforcers (executive), and the law interpreters (judicial). The head of the executive branch is usually elected by the citizens
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ECONOMICS
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The study of how people use limited resources to meet needs and wants.
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MARKET ECONOMY
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Economic system in which choices are made by consumers, producers, and entrepreneurs.
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COMMAND ECONOMY
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Economic system run by the government.
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TRADITIONAL ECONOMY
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Economic system in which custom and tradition determine what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.
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MIXED ECONOMY
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Combination of command and market economies. All countries have a mixed economy in order to have some government control and to promote entrepreneurship.
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CURRENCY
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Type of money used to pay for goods and services. Currency must be exchanged in order to trade.
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INFRASTRUCTURE
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Facilities and services needed to support economic growth in society; examples: utilities (water, electric), roads, power plants, schools, telecommunications, etc.
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SPECIALIZATION
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Focusing on production of a particular good because of available resources. *SPECIALIZATION ENCOURAGES TRADE BETWEEN COUNTRIES.
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FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE
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When a country exports more goods than it imports. (Exports > Imports)
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POLITICAL TRADE BARRIERS
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Tariff, Quota, Embargo (Sanction); motivates consumers to buy domestic goods
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TARIFF
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Tax on imported goods
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QUOTA
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Limit to the number of goods imported
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EMBARGO (SANCTION)
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Ban on trade for political reasons
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GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
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Total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a given year.
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FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
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Natural resources, labor, capital resources, entrepreneurship
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NATURAL RESOURCES
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Minerals, freshwater, arable land, timber, fossil fuels
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LABOR
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Human capital, workers *INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN GDP
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CAPITAL RESOURCES
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Factories, machinery, and technology used to produce goods and services; goods used to make other goods. *INVESTMENT IN CAPITAL RESOURCES LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN GDP
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ENTREPRENEUR
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One who takes a risk to start a business.
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DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY
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Economy that has a variety of goods and services
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BARTER
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Trade without the use of currency; trading a good for a good, or a good for a service, or a service for a service. Characteristic of a traditional economy.
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ASIAN BROWN CLOUD
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Air pollution over Asia caused by industry, automobiles, and burning wood for cooking and heating in rural areas.
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GANGES RIVER
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-River that is sacred to Hindus and flows through India and Bangladesh before emptying into the Bay of Bengal -Very polluted from pesticides, fertilizers, sewage, and ashes from human remains.
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YANGTZE RIVER
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-The longest river in China that provides hydroelectric, irrigation, and transportation. Also has the Three Gorges Dam -Very polluted from pesticides, fertilizers, and industrial contaminants.
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GOBI DESERT
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Asia’s largest desert located in northern China.
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MEKONG RIVER
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River of southeast Asia that runs through many countries before emptying into the South China Sea.
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MONSOON
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a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter
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ARCHIPELAGO
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a group of islands
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DESERTIFICATION
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The process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or overgrazing of livestock.
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ENLIGHTENMENT
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Awakening to ultimate truth
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REINCARNATION
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Cycle of rebirth in Hinduism and Buddhism
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KARMA
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Good or bad behavior that determines one’s position in this life or the next
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KAMI
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-Nature spirits -Spirits of ancestors in Shintoism
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VEDAS
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Hindu sacred texts
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NIRVANA
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-Perfect state of being -Freedom from the cycle of reincarnation (Buddhist belief)
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MOKSHA
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-Release from the cycle of reincarnation (Hindu belief)
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TRIPITAKA
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Sacred text of Buddhism.
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IMPERIALISM
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-Empire building -Colonial rule to gain raw materials, land, labor, and taxes.
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NATIONALISM
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-Extreme loyalty to one’s country and culture. -Nationalism usually leads to independence
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CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
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Nonviolent protest; intentionally breaking an unfair law to gain support for changing it; used by Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.; Examples: marching, boycott, etc.
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BOYCOTT
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Refusing to buy something as a form of protest.
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MOHANDAS K. GANDHI
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-Leader of India’s independence movement. -Used civil disobedience to get the British to leave India. -Helped establish democracy in India.
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HO CHI MINH
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-Leader of Vietnam’s independence movement -Used guerrilla warfare to drive the French out of Vietnam and established a communist government.
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GUERRILLA WAR
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Small group of combatants who use ambushes, raids, and hit/run tactics to further a cause; they’re not usually associated with any government.
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COMMUNISM
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Economic/Political system where a totalitarian government controls everything, in order to create a classless society where everyone is equal.
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COLD WAR
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(1945-1991) Conflict between communist Soviet Union and capitalist/democratic U.S. over the containment and spread of communism; nuclear arms race, but no direct combat
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DOMINO THEORY
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Idea that if one country fell to communism, all the others nearby would fall as well.
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GREAT LEAP FORWARD
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-Program implemented by Mao Zedong in 1958 to speed up China’s economic development by moving agricultural and industrial production to collectives. -Great failure due to flooding, drought, and government mismanagement (millions of Chinese died of starvation).
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CULTURAL REVOLUTION
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-Mao’s reaction to the failure of the Great Leap Forward. -In 1966, Mao went after anyone that wasn’t 100% supportive of his communist government, especially those that were too western or too traditional.
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COLLECTIVES
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Communes where 25,000 worked and lived cooperatively; utopian society
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TIANANMEN SQUARE MASSACRE
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1989 memorial service for democratic reformer Hu Yaobang that turned into a protest against Deng Xiaoping’s communist government in China. He responded by sending in the military resulting in many deaths.
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FAMINE
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Widespread hunger
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ARABLE
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Land that is fertile and suitable for farming.
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TERRACES
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Areas carved out of hillsides used to grow crops on steep terrain.
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EXCHANGE RATE
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System used to calculate the value of one country’s currency compared to another country’s currency in order to trade.
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PER CAPITA GDP
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Amount of goods and services produced compared to the number of people living in that country. (Total GDP/population)
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OUTSOURCING
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Hiring workers in other countries to do a set of jobs
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MICRO-CREDIT
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Small business loans that are used to help entrepreneurs start small businesses in developing countries.
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PATENT
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A license that gives the inventor of a new product the exclusive right to sell it for a certain period of time
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SUFFRAGE
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The right to vote
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CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
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A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution. Elected officials run the government.
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CIVIL RIGHTS
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The rights of full citizenship and equality under the law.
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SLASH AND BURN
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Clearing a forest area for agriculture; the land is used for several years, becomes barren and is then abandoned.
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SUBSISTENCE FARMING
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Growing enough food for one’s own family.
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SWAHILI
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Ethnic group of East Africa (mostly Kenya and Tanzania) that practices Islam and traditional tribal beliefs. Combination of Arabic and Bantu languages.
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ASHANTI
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Ethnic group of West Africa (mostly Ghana) that practices Christianity and tribal traditional beliefs.
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BANTU
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Ethnic group of sub-Saharan Africa that practices Islam, Christianity, and traditional tribal beliefs.
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PAN-AFRICANISM
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The multinational movement to unite all Africans to improve economic, social, and political conditions.
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APARTHEID
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-Segregation in South Africa from 1948-1994. -Discriminatory system imposed by the white minority on the nonwhite majority.
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NELSON MANDELA
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Leader of the African National Congress (ANC) who was imprisoned for resisting Apartheid. He was later freed and became president of a free South Africa.
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F.W. de Klerk
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President of South Africa that ended the ban on the ANC (African National Congress), released political prisoners, and ended Apartheid in 1994.
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SAHARA
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The world’s largest desert in northern Africa.
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SAHEL
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A strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as \”the shore of the desert\”
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SAVANNA
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Tropical or subtropical grassland, either treeless or with occasional clumps of trees. Most extensive in sub-Saharan Africa
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TROPICAL RAINFOREST
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A hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a wide variety of life. Ex: Congo (Africa), Amazon (South America).
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BUDGET
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A plan for making and spending money; an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time.
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INCOME
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Earnings from work or investment
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DEBT
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Money owed
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INVESTMENT
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Redirecting resources from being consumed today so that they may create benefits in the future
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CREDIT
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An arrangement to receive cash, goods, or services now and pay for them in the future.
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LOAN
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An amount of money given to the borrower for a set period of time. After the set time has passed, the money must be paid back plus the lending fee, called interest. Payments are normally made over a series of months.
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INTEREST
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The cost of borrowing money
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OPPORTUNITY COST
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Cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another
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STOCKS
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shares of ownership in a company
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BONDS
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A certificate issued by a government or private company which promises to pay back with interest the money borrowed from the buyer of the certificate.
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SAVINGS
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Income not used for consumption
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DIVIDEND
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The portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders
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VARIABLE EXPENSES
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Expenses that change from month to month
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FIXED EXPENSES
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Expenses that remain the same from month to month
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LAZY
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Averse or disinclined to work, activity, or exertion; indolent.
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HELPLESS
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Unable to help oneself; weak or dependent.
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PARASITE
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A person who receives support, advantage, or the like, from another or others without giving any useful or proper return, as one who lives on the hospitality of others.
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COMMON SENSE
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Sound practical judgment that is independent of specialized knowledge, training, or the like; normal native intelligence.
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DILIGENCE
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steadiness of effort; persistent hard work
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INDEPENDENT
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Not influenced or controlled by others in matters of opinion, conduct, etc.; thinking or acting for oneself
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INTEGRITY
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The quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness
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SUCCESS
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The accomplishment of one’s goals; the attainment of wealth, position, or honors.
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FOCUS
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To direct one’s attention or efforts
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CURIOSITY
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The desire to learn or know more; inquisitiveness.
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HOPE
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The feeling that what is wanted can be had; to look forward to with desire and reasonable confidence
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CREATIVITY
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The ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships, or the like, and to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations; having originality and imagination
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POVERTY
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An insufficiency of material goods, monetary wealth, access to resources.
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FAILURE
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A person or thing that proves unsuccessful; not meeting expectations.
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CONFIDENCE
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self-assurance; calm unworried feeling based on a strong belief in one’s abilities; a feeling or belief that you can do something well or succeed at something
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INTELLIGENCE
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Capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.

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