7th Grade Life Science Final Exam Study Guide

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Evolutionism
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The belief that the physical universe, including life, was not created but came about by natural processes.
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Biblical Creationism
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The belief in the account account of Creation described in the Bible: that the earth and living things were created by God.
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Progressive Creationism
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The belief that God created life in stages over a long period of time and that evolution and extinction occurred in the intervals between the creative acts.
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The Gap Theory
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An interpretation of the Creation account that says there was a long period of time between Genesis1:1 and 1:2.
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Literal View of Creation
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The bile that the Creation week was actually a long period of time ( millions or billions of years).
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Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
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Lamarck’s theory that physical changes caused by an organism’s environment can be passed on to offsprings.
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Theory of Natural Selection
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Darwin’s idea that only organisms best suited for their environment will survive and reproduce, causing certain traits to become more common in a population.
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Mutation Theory
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Mutations occur randomly and those with mutations that were favorable were inherited by offspring.
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Mutation-Selection Theory
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The theory that mutations produce variations and that natural selection determines which variation will survive to produce biological evolution.
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Prokaryotic
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A unicellular organism that does not have a membrane-bound organelles; an organism in the kingdom Archaebacteria or Eubacteria
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Eukaryotic
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A unicellular or multicolor organism whose cell or cells have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
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Eubacteria
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A member of the kingdom Eubacteria, which contains the majority of prokaryotic organisms.
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Archaebacteria
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Prokaryotic organisms that live in extreme environments and lack some compounds found in the cell walls of eubacteria.
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Bacteria
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A microscopic, unicellular, prokaryotic organism in kingdom Eubacteria.
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Virus
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A nonliving structure, made of a strand of DNA or rNA and surrounded by a protein coat, that replicates itself inside host cells.
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Shapes of bacteria- coccus
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A spherical bacterium
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Shape of bacteria- bacillus
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A rod- shaped bacterium
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Shape of bacteria- spirillum
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A spiral-shaped bacterium.
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Arrangement of bacteria- staph
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The bacteria are arranged in a cluster.
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Arrangement of bacteria- strep
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The bacteria are arranged end to end in long chains.
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Protozoans
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An animal like organism in the kingdom Protista that usually can move and does not perform photosynthesis.
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Algae
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The plant like organisms in kingdom Protista that can perform photosynthesis and are usually unable to move themselves.
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Fungus
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An organism in the kingdom Fungi that produce spores, lack chlorophyll, has cell walls, and obtain nourishment by absorption.
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Saprophyte
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An organism that obtains its food from dead organic matter.
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Symbiont
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A close, long term relationship between two species.
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Parasite
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An organism that obtains nourishment from and harms (but usually does not kill) another organism.
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Heterotrophic
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An organism that cannot make its own food
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Autotrophic
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An organism that can make their own food
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Plants
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a eukaryotic, multicellular producer organism in the kingdom Plantae with tissue, cell walls containing cellulose, and plastids
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Vascular tissue- phloem
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A vascular tissue that carries dissolved food in a plant.
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Vascular tissue- xylem
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A vascular tissue made long, hollow cells that carry water and dissolved minerals upward in a plant.
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Pistal
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The female reproductive part of a flower, which is composed of the stigma, style, and ovary.
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Stamen
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The male reproductive structure of a flower that is composed of an anther and a filament.
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Sepal
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One of the outermost appendages of a flower that often appears small, green,and leaflike.
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Blade
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The flat, green portion of a leaf.
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Plastids
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An organelle in plants that functions in photosynthesis (chloroplast) or stores materials such as starch or oil.
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Animal
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Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organisms that obtain their food by eating
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Vertebrates
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An animal in the subphylum Vertebrate that has a backbone.
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Invertebrates
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An animal that lacks a backbone.
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Earthworm digestion- pharynx
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Lubricates food as it passes through
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Earthworm digestion- mouth
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brings food in and moistens
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Earthworm digestion- Gizzard
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performs mechanical digestion breaking down into usable food substances
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Earthworm digestion- Crop
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A temporary storage chamber for food
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Mollusks
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A member of the phylum Mollusca, such as clams, snails, and octopuses.
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Arthropods
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Contains the most species of any animal phylum and have exoskeletons and jointed appendages, such as legs and antennae (insects class)
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Exoskeletons
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A hard nonliving outer covering that supports and protects the animal.
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Endoskeleton
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An internal skeleton found i vertebrates and usually made of cartilage and bone.
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Molting
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To head scales, feathers, fur, or an exoskeleton.
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Incomplete Metamorphosis
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A type of insect development that has three stages: egg, nymph, and adult
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Complete Metamorphosis
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A type of insect development that has four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
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Ectothermic
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Not able to maintain constant body temperature by internal. means; cold blooded
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Endothermic
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Able to maintain a constant body temperature by internal means; warm blooded
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Viviparous
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live birth
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Oviparous
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Egg-laying
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Types of fish- bony
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Largest type of fish, have endoskeleton, jaws, paired fins and scales ( catfish, bass, flounder, goldfish, trout).
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Types of fish- Cartilaginous
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Have endoskeletons made of cartilage, jaws, scales, paired fins and must keep water moving over gills to ensure a supply of oxygen ( sharks, skates and rays).
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Types of fish- Jawless
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Have no jaws, no scales or paired fins, they are worm like creatures with skeletons composed of cartilage (Hagfish and lampreys)
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Amphibians
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An ectothermic vertebrate in the Amphibia that usually lives in the water when young but may live on land as an adult.
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Reptiles
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An ectothermic vertebrate that lives in the class Reptillia with lungs for respiration and scales.
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Monotremes
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A mammal that reproduces by laying eggs.
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Marsupials
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A mammal who’s young develop in a pouch.
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Placental Mammals
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Are live births and grow inside their mothers placenta connected by an umbilical cord.
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Birds
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An endothermic vertebrate in the class Aves with wings and feathers.
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Molars
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Used for crushing and grinding food
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Incisors
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Used for gnawing, biting and cutting food.
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Canines
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Used for tearing food.
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Human heart blood flow path
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Vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary views, left atrium, left AV valve, left ventricle and aorta
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Stomach
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A saclike portion of the digestive tract that performs mechanical and chemical digestion.
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Gallbladder
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A sac underneath the liver that stores bile.
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Kidneys
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An organ found in most vertebrates that filters waste from the blood.
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Large intestine
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The part of the digestive tract that extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus that absorbs water and minerals.
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Small intestine
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The long tubular organ in which most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs.
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Bladder
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An organ that temporarily stores fluid waste from a kidney

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