6th Grade Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar, Chapter 3 Test

sentence
A group of words with a subject and a predicate.

paragraph
Consists of a group of sentences that work together to support a main idea or achieve a single effect.

composition
A group of paragraphs.

compound subject
Is made up of two or more subjects.

compound verb
To combine two sentences with the word “and” and both verbs in the sentence.

compound object
Combining two sentences with “and”.

compound sentence
Two sentences combined with a comma.

coordinating conjunction
Sentence combiners such as and, but, or, nor, or by using a semicolon.

subordinate clause
It contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought.

adjective clause
It’s a subordinate clause that begins with who, whom, whose, which, or that to join sentences together.

adverb clause
a subordinate clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction such as although, after, because, or until.

topic sentence
The main idea of a paragraph is usually stated in the paragraph’s topic sentence.

3 pointers for writing a topic sentence
1. Review Details 2. Group related details 3. Write a statement that pulls the details together

Supporting sentences
Facts or statistics to support the topic sentence.

Illustration
A specific person, place, thing, or event that demonstrates a point.

Detail
The specifics that make your main idea or key point clear by showing how all the pieces fit together.

Paragraph patterns
You can vary the order of these types of sentences in a paragraph.
Topic
Restatement
Illlustration

Unity
When all of the sentences in a paragraph relate to the main idea.

Coherence
The supporting ideas must be logically connected and the reader should be able to see how one idea relates to another.

3 Parts of a composition
1. Introduction
2. Body
3. Conclusion

Introduction
It presents the subject of your composition.

Lead sentence
It’s the first sentence.

Thesis statement
The main points of the composition.

Body
Several paragraphs that develop, explain, illustrate, and support the main ideas in the thesis statement.

Conclusion
The final paragraph of the composition.

2 Types of paragraphs
1. Topical
2. Functional

Topical paragraph
Consists of a group of sentences containing one main idea sentence and several sentences that support or illustrate that main idea.

Functional Paragraph
They are used for specific purposes.

Purposes of Functional Paragraphs
1. To arouse or sustain interest
2. To create emphasis
3. To indicate dialogue
4. To make a transition

Paragraph block
Several paragraphs that support the same main idea or topic sentence.

Elements of Writing Style
1. sentence variety
2. Diction
3. Tone

sentence variety
Different writing tastes and styles.

diction
The particular words you use to add to the style, or overall effect, of a paragraph.

tone
Your attitude towards your subject is conveyed in the tone of your writing.

Conventions of Formal English
1. avoid contractions
2. Don’t use slang
3. Use standard English grammar usage

Informal English
1. can use contractions
2. can use popular expressions

media
Different sources to get news from.

print media
Definition: Draw readers’ attention headlines and key points in bold.
Examples: Newspapers and magazines

broadcast media
definition: Combine sound, images, and live narrations
Examples: Radio and television

Strategy questions
Ask whether a given revision is appropriate in the context of the essay.

organizing questions
ask you to choose the most logical sequence of ideas or decide whether a sentence should be added, deleted, or moved.

style questions
focus on conveying the writer’s point if veiw and the use of appropriate and effective language for the intended audience.