# 5024 Early Childhood Praxis

phonics
the connection between the sounds and letters on a page

graphemes
letters

phonemes
individual sounds – small sound units; the smallest contrastive unity in a language system, the representation of a sound

phonemic awareness
The ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes.

Phonological awareness
an awareness of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of language

onset
beginning sound of a word or syllable

rime
ending sound of a word or syllable

Commutative Laws
say we can swap numbers over and still get the same answer; changing the order of addends or factors, does not affect the sum or product; a + b = b + a; a × b = b × a

Associative Laws
say that it doesn’t matter how we group the numbers (i.e. which we calculate first);the order in which the numbers are grouped, does not affect the sum or product; (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); (a × b) × c = a × (b × c)

Distributive Laws
says adding two or more numbers together, then multiplying the sum by a factor is equal to multiplying each sum alone by the factor first then adding the products; 3 lots of (2+4) is the same as 3 lots of 2 plus 3 lots of 4; So, the 3× can be “distributed” across the 2+4, into 3×2 and 3×4; a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c

is 0; if you add zero (0) to an addend, the sum will be equal to that addend; a + 0 = a

Multiplicative Identity
is 1; if you multiply a factor by one (1), the product will be equal to the factor; a X 1 = a

student centered models
inquiry, discovery, cooperative, pair-share, jigsaw, STAD, teams, games, collaborative learning,concept models, discussion models, labs, project-based learning, simulations

age equivalent score
mean chronological age represented by a certain test score

casual relationship
explains why behaviors occur

a concept that refers to a match of the child’s temperament and the demands of the environment

primary individual differences
individual experiences, talents, motivations, and prior learning (SCHEMA)

interovserver
between testers

accomodation
Adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

metacognition
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.

Erik Erikson
8 stages of psychological development – Psychosocial development (trust vs. mistrust)

learning approach
a language acquisition theory that assumed that language development evolved from learning the rules of language structures and applying them through imitation and reinforcement

linguistic approach
a language acquisition theory that states that language ability is innate and develops through natural human maturation as environmental stimuli trigger the acquisition of syntactical structures appropriate to each exposure level

cognitive approach
a language acquisition theory that states that children acquire knowledge of linguistic structures after they have acquired the cognitive structures necessary to process language

sociocogmitive approach
a language acquisition theory that states that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development

minimal pair
a pair of words that are identical except for the sound repesented by a single phoneme

morophology
the study of word structure

semantics
refers to the meaning expressed when words are arranged in a specific way

syntax
refers to the rules or patterned relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words

pragmatics
the development and understanding of the social relevance of conversation and topics

stages of 2nd language acquistion
1. pre-production – understands but cannot speak target language
2. early production – can produce target language
3. emergent speech or speech emergence – longer more complex sentences are used in social situations
4. intermediate fluency – more complex language can be produced
5. advanced fluency – may appear to be completely fluent but still needs academic and language support

Jim Cummins
two types of language that usually need to be acquired by students learning English as a second language: BICS and CALP

BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

CALP

indicators of age/language acquisition
2 yrs – speech patterns that are about 70% intelligible
3 yrs – speech patterns that are about 80% intelligible
4 yrs – speech patterns that are about 90% intelligible
5 yrs – speech patterns that are about 100% intelligible
< 5 yrs - speech pattern are 100% intelligible with increased vocabulary databases

‘big 5’ critical areas of reading instruction
phonemic awareness
phonics
fluency
comprehension
vocabulary

comprehension
simply means that the reader can ascribe meaning to text

works where right wins out over wrong, where hard work and perseverance are rewarded, and where helpless victims find vindication

alphabetic principle
sometimes called graphophonemic awareness – describes the understanding that written words are composed of ptterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken words

parts of alphabetic principle
1. an understanding that words are made up of letters and that each letter has a specific sound
2. the correspondence between sounds and letters leads to phonological reading – consists of reading regulat and irregular words and doing advanced analysis of words

basic features of alphabetic principle
1. students need to be able to take spoken words apart and blend different sounds together to make new words
2. students need to apply letter sounds to all of their reading
3. teacher need to use a systematic, effective program to teach children to read
4. the teaching of this principle usually being in kindgergarten

fluency
depends on automatic word identification

orthographic representations
transcribing speech, changing standard spelling to reflect differences in accent, emphasis, etc.; the way in which the words of a language are spelled

English orthography
has four basic word types

basic English orthography word types
1. regular, for reading and spelling (e.g., cat, print)
2. regular, for reading but not for spelling (e.g., float, brain – could be spelled flote or brane, respectively)
3. rule based, (e.g., canning – doubling rule, faking – drop e rule)
4. irregular, (e.g., beauty)

metalinguistic skils
involve the awareness and control of linguistic components of language. Simply put, it implies the ability to think and discuss language. These skills require an awareness of others as listeners and an ability to recognize significant details that indicate changes in speech.

metalinguistic abilities in young children
1. word consciousness
2. language and conventions of print
3. functions of print
4.fluency

4 basic types of phonemic awareness tasks
Task 1. ability to hear rhymes and alliterations
Task 2. ability to do oddity tasks (recognize the member of a set that is different (odd) among the group)
Task 3. the ability to orally blend words and split syllables

linguistic knowledge
encompasses phonology, syntactic, and semantic proficiency

decoding
involves both cipher knowledge (based on letter/sound) and lexical knowledge (based on recognition by sight, not sound)

SCHEMA
is a generalized description or a conceptual
system for understanding knowledge-how knowledge is represented and how it is used.

SCHEMA theory
schema theory states that all knowledge is organized
into units, within which, units of knowledge, or schemata, is
stored information.

prosody
is the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech; the rhythm and pattern of sounds of poetry and language

speed
how fast an object is moving; 50 mph

velocity
is the speed of an object in a particular direction; 50 mph west; is a vector because it has direction

momentum
mass times velocity; amount of inertia something has

motion
movement of an object

cloze test
allows students to use their knowledge of word order (syntax) and sentence meaning (semantics) to predict and supply appropriate words in passages

voiced consonants
are pronounced with a vibration from the vocal cords – /b/ in bean; /n/ in near; /m/; /z/; /l/

unvoiced consonants
are pronounced entirely with the breath and without a vibration from the vocal cords – /f/ in foot; /k/ in kicked; /p/; /s/; /t/

animistic thinking
commonly occurs during the preoperational period – children believe inanimate objects, because they move or appear to move, are alive.

most important language skills to K age
social language skills – learned on playground and from peer interaction

centration
focusing, or centering, of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others

Friedrich Frobel
German educationalist, developed special education materials (such as shaped wooden bricks and balls, known as “gifts”) to help introduce children to physical concepts – he formulated the kindergarten system

unifix cubes
interlocking plastic cubes that are most commonly used to help primary students learn to add and subtract small numbers

what do NAEYC guidelines say about diagnostic screening?
they should involve observing the child manipulate objects and should not involve pencil-and-paper testing or use conceptual materials such as pictures

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Deficiency Needs:
Physiological Needs
Safety and Security Needs
Love and Belonging Needs
Self-Worth and Self-Esteem Needs
Growth Needs:
Need to Know and Understand
Aesthetic Needs
Self-Actualization Needs

What are risk factors for developing learning disabilities?
most common risk factor is family history; less common risk factors include poor nutrition, severe head injuries, child abuse and pregnancy-related factors; lead poisoning, infections of the central nervous system, or treatment for cancers, such as leukemia, can also increase the risk for learning disabilities.

What are common signs of learning disabilities?
Dislike of or difficulty with reading
Poor handwriting
Difficulty with math
Difficulty organizing thoughts to express what they want to say
Memory problems
Trouble with coordination
Difficulty with language such as following directions, remembering words, rhyming, and expressing oneself
Difficulty with reasoning
Difficulty with spelling
History of delayed speech

What factors are not considered risk factors?
Blindness, visual problems, deafness, physical or motor handicaps can cause difficulties with learning, but are not a cause of learning disabilities; intellectual disabilities (formerly called mental retardation), autism spectrum disorders, or low intelligence quotient (IQ) all may be associated with learning difficulties, but are not considered learning disabilities; environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages do not cause learning disabilities but may co-occur with learning disabilities; behavioral disorders or emotional disturbances may also be present with learning disabilities.

Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages
1. The Sensorimotor Stage
2. The Preoperational Stage
3. The Concrete Operational Stage
4. The Formal Operational Stage

Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget)
During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. (birth -2)

Preoperational Stage (Piaget)
At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. (2 to 7)

Concret Operational Stage
Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts. (7 to 11)

Formal Operational Stage
The final stage involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. (after 11)

Benefits of the guided reading approach
-it enables students to participate in story prediction
-it increases the time students spend reading
-it teaches cueing, predicting, and monitoring
-it teaches tracking
-it strengthens comprehension by assessing prior knowledge
-reinforces sight words
-it teaches students to predict and infer meaning
-it reinforces capitalization and punctuation concepts
-it teaches sequencing – the setting, characters, and beginning, middle, and end
-it allows students to practice self-correction

is a teaching approach designed to help individual students learn how to process a variety of increasingly challenging texts with understanding and fluency

Tracking
following the print word-by-word and left to right

What traits do you assess to determine a child’s temperament?
-activity level
-threshold of responsiveness
-biological rhythms
-attention span and persistence
-intensity of reaction
-quality of mood

How can teachers keep students engaged while providing opportunity for repetition and revision when the students are participating in whole-group instruction?
by checking for understanding intermittently

egocentrism

ideation
the capacity for or the act of forming or entertaining ideas

If student is unable to use beginning and final consonants correctly while reading the teacher would?
model words in context and teach decoding skills – teaching needed skills with meaningful context in which to use them

developmental checklist
the most effective method of documenting growth and progress towards the curriculum standard for individual students and for each class as a whole

norm-referenced tests
allow us to compare a student’s skills to others in his age group and are developed by creating the test items and then administering the test to a group of students that will be used as the basis of comparison

persuasive writing
is used to persuade the reader/audienced and often combines one or more forms of discourse

role-play writing
students write in scribbles and can assign meaning to the markings

expository writing
used to provide facts and inform

narrative writing
used to entertain and tell stories

descriptive writing
used to provide images and descriptions

dyslexia
a complex deficiency that typically displays problems recalling or recognizing words and an inability to decode words

oral processing disorder
concerns the ability to listen to and process audible information

academically appropriate literature primarily helps students to
see how the skills they learned are applied to writing

the relationship between ________________ is weaker in the early grades and stronger in the later grades.

The relationship between oral language and reading skills is ______________.
Reciprocal

What is the significant difference between phonics and phonemic awareness?
Phonics is the application of sounds to print, phonemic awareness is an oral activity

semanitcs
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

morphology
the study of the inside parts of words

apraxia
-The inability to carry out specific motor tasks in the absence of sensory or motor impairment

articulation disorder
difficulty pronouncing specific sounds that are expected to have developed by a specific age

dysarthria
A speech disorder characterized by difficulty speaking properly, due to paralysis of the muscles of speech.

cognitive psychology and developmental psychology and is internationally regarded for her research and applied work in the area of cognition and education who developed 5 stages of phonemic awareness

Adams 5 stages of phonemic awareness
1. the ability to hear rhyme and alliteration (nursery rhymes)
2. the ability to do oddity tasks (comparing/contrasting the sounds of words for rhyme and alliteration)
3. the ability to blend words and split words into chunks
4. the ability to orally segment all parts of a word int the correct number of phonemes (such as counting out the number of phonemes in a word)
5.the ability to perform phoneme manipulation tasks ( such as adding, deleting a particular phoneme and regenerating a word from the remainder)

area
A measure of how much surface an object has – length x width – represented by the word square and the unit of measure

volume
How much space an object takes up – represented by the word cubic and the unit of measure

perimeter
The distance around a figure – represented without square or cubic; refers to a linear measurement

1 gram
commonly estimated in elementary school as the mass of one paperclip

1 kilogram
commonly estimated in elementary school as the mass of one liter of water

family
primary social unit in most societies

line graphs
commonly used to compare different sets of related data or to predict data that has not yet been measured

bar graph
used to compare different items and make comparisons based on the data

pie chart
used to organize data as part of a whole

histogram
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data – used to compare different items and make comparisons based on the data

observation
the beginning of the scientific inquiry

thermometers can measure
degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Kelvin

xylem
transports water

phloem
transports food (glucose)

epidermis
protective covering

endodermis
controls movement between the cortex and the cell interior

stomata
openings on the underside of leaves – they let in carbon dioxide and let out oxygen (transpiration)

guard cells
control the size of stomata

biosphere
the region of Earth and its atmosphere in which living things are found

ecosystem
parts of the biosphere where

game to teach galloping
Fox and the Hound

What are the benefits of physical education?
included are physical, emotional, and social benefits – sense of belonging, increased self-esteem, an appreciation of beauty, good sportsmanship, increased humanism, valuable social experiences, and improved health

intensity of a color
strength of the color

value of a color
lightness or darkness of the color

dance
children develop their body awareness through and listening skills as they listen to the rhythm of the music and develop a sense of tempo

Piaget’s stages of development #
Four stages

Inviting behaviors
enhance self-concept among students and encourage self-worth – include reaching each student, listening with care, being real with students, being real with oneself, inviting good discipline, handling rejection, inviting oneself

disinviting behaviors
diminish self-concept – include demeaning students, chauvinistic, sexist, condescending, thoughtless, or insensitive behaviors

process approach
3-phase model for teaching – sensing function, transforming function, acting function

sensing function
or perceptual first phase of process approach – incorporates information or stimuli in an intuitive manner

transforming function
conceptualizes abstracts, evaluates and provides meaning and value to perceived information

acting function
choose actions from several different alternatives to be set forth overtly

Designated Invitational Education
inviting and disinviting teacher behaviors

15 – 20 minutes
the amount of time a young child can concentrate before needing to change activities

3 widely known curriculum models for early childhood programing
Montessori method, Bankstreet, and Emergent Literacy

Montessori method
based on the idea that children teach themselves through their own experiences – materials used are processed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract – 63% of class time is spent in independent activity

Bankstreet
Developmental Interaction Approach – premise is that children develop at different rates, and teachers should use activities that engage children and help them go to the next level

Emergent Literacy
takes approach that there is direct connection between literacy experiences at home and the school – guided reading and writing is part of this approach and children are immersed in books that they can read

utilization of instructional materials is most effective
when the activities are sequenced

analysis of instructional activity
teacher’s carefully plan all activities to foresee any difficulties in executing the plan and assure the directions given to students will be clear, avoiding any misunderstandings

environmental factors that can affect students learning
lighting, noise level, and room temperature – bright lights can actually cause some students to become restless and hyperactive

distance learning
is a technological strategy that keeps students and teachers interactively communicating about issues in the classroom and beyond

Learning centers
-should be an integral part of daily instruction for all children
-should provide meaningful, independent practice based on the Standards, curriculum objectives and students’ needs
-should include a variety of activities differentiated to meet the needs of students
-should change regularly according to the needs of students
-should hold students accountable for the work in which they are engaged
-should allow teachers to assess students’ math skills, strategies and understandings.

Lev Vygotsky
Zone of Proximal Developement – the distance between what a child can do on own and what he can’t do – things child can do with asisstance

Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory – Social Cognitive Theory

Eric Erikson
Psychosocial development (trust vs. mistrust)

ecgocentrism
the inability to take another’s perspective