Cognitive Development Flashcards

question

Memory in the Preschool years:
answer

Preschool children’s recollections of personal events are sometimes, but not always, accurate.
question

Vygotsky’s view of Cognitive Development (Preschoolers,):
answer

Vygotsky Viewed cognitive development as a result of social interactions Proposed children learn through guided participation, working with mentors to solve problems Suggested children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own Contended that nature of partnership between developing children and adults and peers is determined largely by cultural and societal factors.
question

Language development- Syntax
answer

the coming of words and phrases to form meaningful sentences
question

Language development- Fast Mapping
answer

the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter using a word in their vocab after hearing it once or a few times.
question

Language development- Grammar
answer

the system of rules that determine how thought can be expressed
question

Exposure and poverty influences on language development:
answer

•Type of child exposure associated with performance on tests of intelligence •Greater number and variety of words children heard related to better child performance at age 3 on variety of measures of intellectual achievement •Family income and poverty have powerful consequences for children’s general cognitive development and behavior
question

Early Education and the quality characteristics of Child Care:
answer

•Children can benefit substantially from involvement in some form of educational activity before enrollment in formal schooling. •Children enrolled in good preschools experience clear cognitive and social benefits, when compared to children who stay at home. •Child-care center –> Family child-care centers –>Preschools –> School child care
question

Erikson’s Psychosocial stages- Initiative-versus-guilt age:
answer

When kids want to do thing themselves without any help According to Erkison, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action Let me do it!
question

Preschooler’s self concept:
answer

– What makes you different from other kids? \”I’m a big girl!\” – Overly optimistic: no yet comparing self to peers yet – Culture: Individualistic: \”The squeaky wheel gets the grease\” Collectivist: \”The nail that stands out gets pounded down\”
question

Gender differences in play and expectations
answer

Play Boys:rough and tumble Girls: organized play and role playing Expectations Boys: competence, independence forcefulness, and competitiveness. Girls:: warmth, expressiveness, nurturance, and submissiveness
question

Biological and Learning Perspectives with regard to gender
answer

Biological Hormones: females exposed to androgen are more likely to display behavior associated with male stereotypes Nature vs. Nurture/ Corpus Callosum: connects the two hemisphere and it is thicker and wider in woman. Learning – Observing others: Parents, teachers, siblings, and peers – Rewards for gender-appropriate behaviors – Books and the Media –Popular television shows *Boys out number girls 2 to 1 *Females tend to appear with males vs. female-females relationships *Females appear to be victimized, not presented to be decision makers, and interested in romance, their home and their families Direct Communication:Act like a \”little girl\” or a \”little man\”
question

The progression of play during the Preschool years (functional, constructive, etc.)
answer

•Essential for cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being.
question

Theory of mind in Preschoolers
answer

Children increasingly see the world from others’ perspectives •Brain Maturity: Frontal lobe myelination and development of emotional captivity involving self awareness •Language skills development:\”think\” and \”know\”
question

4 parent-child interactions: Authoritarian
answer

High Control Low Warmth Military type of parents parents who are controlling, rigid, cold and whose word is law they value strict, unqiustioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressive and disagreement.
question

4 parent-child interactions: Permissive
answer

Low Control, High Warmth require little of their children not good at setting rules and following through with them treat their kids like they are their friends
question

4 parent-child interactions: Authoritative
answer

High Warmth and High Control parents who are firm, setting clear and consistetn limits, but try to reason with their children, explaining why they should behave in particular way
question

4 parent-child interactions: Univolved
answer

Low Warmth and Low Control parents who show virtually no interest in their children, display indifferent, rejecting behavior
question

Moral Development in the Preschool (Piaget) & Adolescent Years
answer

The maturation of people’s sense of justice, of what is right and wrong, and their behavior in connection with such issues Heteronymous Morality – Rules are invariant and unchangeable – 4-7 years – \”I win\” Incipient Cooperation Stage – 7-10 years – Social – Rules are understood Autonomous Cooperation Stage Begins at age 10 Rules can be modified if people in the game agree
question

Aggression and Violence (& Gender differences)
answer

– Aggression: intentional injury or harm to another person – During the early preschool years, some aggression is addressed at attaining desired goal – Extreme and sustained aggression is a cause of concern – Emotional self-regulation: the capability to adjust one’s emotions to a desired state and level of intensity Gender differences —Boys: Instrumental aggression: aggression motivated by a desire to obtain a concrete goal (physical) — Girls:Relational aggression: nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person’s psychological well-being (name calling & withholding friendship)
question

Social Learning approach to Aggression (& Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment)
answer

Social learning approaches to aggression Contend that aggression is based on observation and prior learning Suggest that reinforcement also comes in less direct ways Exposure Albert Bandura’s classic Bobo doll experiment
question

Physical growth in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
answer

•In middle childhood, children: make great physical strides •Master all kinds of new skills •Grow bigger and stronger •Slow and steady growth
question

Nutrition and its influence on self-confidence and energy level
answer

•The level of nutrition children receive during their lives significantly affects many aspects of their behavior •Nutrition is linked to cognitive performance ***In the book •Energy Level -Low Nutrient Level •Boys: 2.7 •Girls:2.8 -High Nutrition •Boys: 3.2 •Girls: 2.9 •Self-Confidence -Low Nutrient Level •Boys: 2.8 •Girls: 2.8 -High Nutrition •Boys: 2.9 •Girls: 2.9
question

Obesity in middle childhood
answer

Obesity is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors •Poor diets and lack of exercise also contribute to obesity •Sedentary activities not only keep children from exercising but are often paired with eating •Strategies -Control food available in the home -Avoid fast foods, which are high in calories and fats •Goal -Temporarily maintain child’s current weight through an, improved diet and increased exercise
question

Depression in Middle Childhood
answer

Symptoms of childhood depression are not always consistent with the ways adults express depression •Childhood depression is usually characterized by the expression of exaggerated fears, clinginess, or avoidant of everyday activities •Childhood disorders can be treated effectively through a variety of approaches
question

Motor skills (fine and gross motor skills in Middle Childhood)
answer

•During middle childhood, children’s athletic abilities play an important role in determining how they see themselves, as well as how they are viewed by others •This is also a time when such physical proficiencies develop substantially •Gross Motor Skills -One important improvement in gross motor skills is in the realm of muscle coordination •Riding a bike •Jump rope •Fine Motor Skills -Advances in fine motor skills •Writing in cursive •Typing •Effect of increase levels of myelin in brain
question

Children with Special Needs
answer

•Children with special needs differ significantly from typical children in terms of physical attributes or learning abilities. •Their needs present major challenges for care providers and teachers.
question

Sensory Difficulties
answer

•Visual impairment: Difficulties in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightness. •Auditory impairment: A special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing. •Speech impairment: Speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker. o Stuttering: Substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech; the most common speech impairment. •Learning disabilities: Difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities.
question

ADHD (Diagnosis and controversy regarding treatments)
answer

•Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): o A learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity. Identification and Diagnosis Treatment controversy
question

Least Restrictive Environment
answer

the setting most similar to that of children without special needs
question

Mainstreaming
answer

An educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated as much as possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternative
question

Full Inclusion
answer

the integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular classes and all other aspects of school and community life.
question

Piaget’s approach to the cognitive development of middle childhood and adolescence: Concrete Operational
answer

o The period of cognitive development characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic o 7-12 years
question

Piaget’s approach to the cognitive development of middle childhood and adolescence: Decentering
answer

The ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account – Conversation (egocentrism) – Reversibility •5+3=8 & 3+5=8 & later 8-3=5 – Ball of Clay – Time, speed and Distance
question

Memory capacities in Middle Childhood
answer

Encoding, Storage, Retrieval – Memory: the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved – Short-term memory/working memory: capacity improves significantly — Short-term information stored for 15-25 seconds (1-5-6-4 & 4-6-5-1) – School-age children’s understanding of memory becomes more sophisticated as they grow older and increasingly engage in control strategies —Rehearsal – Similarly, children in middle childhood increasingly use mnemonics —used to remember large pieces of information —A-B-C song
question

Language development in middle childhood
answer

– Vocabulary and mastery of grammar continues to increase during the school years at a fairly rapid pace. – By the time they reach first grade, most children pronounce words quite accurately. – School-age children may have difficulty decoding sentences when the meaning depends on intonation, or tone of voice. —\”George gave a book to David and he gave one to Bill\” —He emphasize —AND emphasize
question

Bilingualism
answer

– the ability to speak two languages. Learning the basic things in your language and then learning them again in a different langauge like Spanish–>English – Education: 2 options –Bilingualism instruction and basic subject areas foundation development –Immersion (English only) -Advantages –Cognitive flexibility –Bilingual instruction: higher self-esteem
question

Teacher Expectancy Effect
answer

– Teacher Expectancy Effect The phenomenon whereby an educator’s expectations for a given child actually bring about the expected behavior – Teachers treat children for whom they have expectations of improvement differently from those for whom they have no such expectations – These communicated expectations in turn indicate to the child what behavior is appropriate, and the child behaves accordingly. – The self-fulfilling prophecy: a person’s expectation is capable of bringing out an outcome —Placebos and expecting the medicine to work
question

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage for Middle Childhood
answer

– Industry-versus-inferiority stage: according to Erikson, the period characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. – 6 to 12 years Success –Feeling of mastery and proficiency –Growing sense of competence -Difficulties –Feelings of failure and inadequacy
question

Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood and its change and stability
answer

– An individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation – Self-esteem develops in important ways during middle childhood – Compare themselves to others, society and internal standards of success. – As children progress into the middle childhood years, however, their self-esteem is higher in some areas and lower in others –High at recess because they are good runners but low in class and they are called upon to answer a question – Generally, overall self-esteem increases during middle childhood, with brief decline around age of 12 – Children with chronically low self-esteem may become enmeshed in a cycle of failure that grows difficult to break – Parents can help break the cycle of failure by promoting their child’s self-esteem –Authoritative Parenting
question

Middle Childhood friendships
answer

– The segregation of friendships according to gender occurs in almost all societies. – Friendship patterns among boys and girls are quiet different. – Boys:Large network, Play in groups and is spontaneous,Differences in status (injustice), Someone is always better than the other and always trying to compete with one another – Girls:One or two \”best friends\” (equal status),If you are not in their group then you are not at the equal status Smooth over disagreements
question

Families
answer

– Increasing independence characterizes children’s behavior during middle childhood – Parents increasingly provide broad, general guidelines for conduct children have control over their everyday behavior –Lunch: choosing what you want to eat and picking it by yourself (independence) – Co-regulation: a period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior –Time spent with parents –sibling rivalry
question

Divorce
answer

– Age and length of time – Short-term consequences of divorce can be quite difficult for both parents and children – Children blame themselves – Some studies have found that 18 months to 2 years later, most children begin to return to their pre-divorce state of psychological adjustment – Factors to consider —SES,reductions of stress in the home The younger they are the harder it is because they are egocentric.They older they are the more they understand it was their parents decision not because of something they did.
question

Single-parents families
answer

– Mothers – Statistics – Almost one-fourth of all U.S. children under the age of 18 live with one parent – Consequences:Second parent present earlier and the nature of their relationship at the time.Family economics status Amount of time that parents is able to spend with the child.Degree of stress in the household.
question

Blended families
answer

– A remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them – Role Ambiguity –May make living in blended family challenging for children –School-age children in blended families often do surprisingly well
question

Puberty (general concept & gender differences)
answer

Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation •Puberty: The period during which the sexual organs mature. •Puberty begins when the pituitary gland in other glands in children’s bodies to begin producing the sex hormones at adult levels. o Androgens (male hormones) o Estrogens (female hormones) Puberty in Girls •Menarche: The onset of menstruation. o Early Onset – Girls who are better nourished and healthier Obesity Athletics Stressful environments may impact puberty Parental stress and conflict Puberty in Boys • Spermarche: a boy’s first ejaculation. o Increase of sperm in semen as boys age o The surge in production of hormones that triggers the start of adolescence also may lead to rapid swings in mood. Boys: anger and annoyance Girls: anger and depressions
question

Primary and Secondary sex characteristics
answer

•Primary sex characteristics: Characteristics that are associated with the development of the organs and structure of the body that directly relate to reproduction o Girls- vagina & uterus o Boys- penis & scrotum•Secondary sex characteristics: The visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly o Girls- breasts, pubic hair, underarm hair o Boys- pubic, underarm hair & facial hair, vocal chords becoming larger.
question

Reactions to physical changes in adolescence
answer

•Varied reactions to changes – Body change – Communication —Gender differences • Timing – Boys (early is better than late) – Girls (late is better than early)
question

Hypotheticodeductive reasoning and propositional thought
answer

– Hypotheticodeductive reasoning – Forming theories and testing them – Propositional thought – Reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absences of concrete examples.
question

Adolescent egocentrism
answer

A state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one’s own point of view. o Blame others, unable to accept criticism, and are highly critical of authority figures.
question

Imaginary audience
answer

Fictitious observers who pay as much attention to adolescents’ behavior as they do themselves. o Pimples
question

personal fables
answer

The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by one else. o Breakups (no one understands, no one has been hurt this badly, etc.)
question

Self-Concept
answer

adolescents intellectual capacities become more adult-like they are able to see how they stack up to others and become more aware that they are individuals apart not just from their parents; but also from all others
question

Identity Formation
answer

• According to Erickson, search for identity inevitably leads some adolescents into substantial psychological turmoil as they encounter the adolescent identity crisis. • Identity-versus-identity-confusion stage: The period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves.
question

Social Comparison
answer

• Peers provide each other with the opportunity to compare and evaluate opinions, abilities, and even physical changes through social comparison. • Parents are unable to provide social comparison.
question

Reference Groups
answer

Groups of people with whom one compares oneself •Reference groups present a set of norms, or standards, against which adolescents can judge their abilities and social success. o Professional ball player comparing oneself to other professional ball players.
question

Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence
answer

The influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior and attitudes. o It does not appear that susceptibility to peer pressure suddenly soars during adolescence. o Instead, adolescence brings about a change in the people to whom an individual conforms.
question

video question 4 things that influence expectation
answer

1.Climate factor – warm climate for the favorable students 2. Input – teach more material for the ones they like more and giving extra explanation 3. Response opportunity – calling on children and letting them talk longer 4. Feedback – praised for getting the answer right or excepting a somewhat good answer if its wrong

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member