19 – Flashcard

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of cancer cells that distinguishes it from normal cells?
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Cancer cells utilize mitosis to divide.
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The ends of the chromosomes are “capped” with special repetitive DNA sequences called
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telomeres
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Contact inhibition means that
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when cells come in contact with a neighbor, they stop dividing.
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Cancer is a single disease that affects one in three Americans.
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false
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Which of the following is not a stage in carcinogenesis?
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differentiation
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Which of the following characteristics is not associated with metastasis?
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The low oxygen content in the middle of a tumor may turn on genes for angiogenesis.
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A benign tumor is not dangerous because it cannot metastasize.
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false
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Proto-oncogenes
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code for proteins that promote the cell cycle.
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Which of the following is not a type of proto-oncogene?
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the gene for p53
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If a tumor suppressor gene becomes mutated, which of the following is not true?
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A “gain-of function” mutation has occurred.
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Tumor suppressor genes are often likened to the gas pedal of a car.
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false
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How many Americans will deal with cancer in their lifetime?
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1 in 3
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Cancers of epithelial tissues are called
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carcinomas
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What is the most common cancer found in males?
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prostate
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What type of cancer causes the most deaths in males?
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lung and bronchus
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Hodgkin lymphomas develop from
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mutated B cells.
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Which is responsible for more cancer deaths in women: breast, colon and rectum, pancreas, or ovary?
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breast
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Which accounts for more cancer deaths in males: bladder, pancreas, esophagus, or prostate?
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prostate
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What was the name of the first gene associated with breast cancer?
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BRCA1
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Both heredity and environmental risk factors come into play in the development of cancer.
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true
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What do BRCA1 and RB have in common?
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Both are tumor suppressors.
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If you only inherit one mutated copy of BRCA1 and the other copy is normal, you will not develop breast cancer.
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false
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Which of the following is not a type of ionizing radiation?
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ultraviolet radiation
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In the case of a proto-oncogene like RET, both copies of the gene must be mutated to increase a predisposition to cancer.
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false
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A carcinogen is not a mutagen.
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false
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Which of the following is not found in tobacco smoke?
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asbestos
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Thus far no evidence has been found that nonionizing radiation, such as the energy given off by cell phones, causes cancer.
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True
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Which of the following is not a protective behavior that will help prevent cancer?
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Increase consumption of salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite-cured foods.
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Which of the following dietary changes will not reduce your risk of developing cancer?
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Decrease your consumption of high-fiber foods.
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Epstein-Barr virus is routinely isolated from cases of cervical cancers.
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false
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Which of the following is not one of the seven warning signs?
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a cut that bleeds
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The American Cancer Society publicizes seven warning signals, which spell out the word CAUTION. The “C” in CAUTION stands for change in
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bowel or bladder habits.
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The earlier a cancer is detected, the more likely it can be effectively treated.
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true
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Currently most cancers are diagnosed before metastasis.
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false
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Which of the following is not one of the things to watch for in a mole?
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a solid color, usually brown
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A mole becomes suspicious when it is greater than 6 mm in diameter. How big is 6 mm approximately?
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about the size of a pencil eraser
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Which of the following tests is not used to screen for colon cancer?
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blood test
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How often should a woman do a shower self-examination of her breasts for lumps, knots, or changes?
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once a month
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Which type of test is particularly useful in analyzing tumors in tissues surrounded by bone?
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MRI
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Which two tests are done for prostate cancer?
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digital rectal examination, PSA
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When should screening for colorectal cancer begin?
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50’s
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What type of test is a CEA test?
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a tumor marker test
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What type of screening test could be used to determine the likelihood that someone might develop cancer?
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genetic test
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Which of the following is not a standard therapy for cancer treatment?
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immunotherapy
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If the gene for telomerase is turned off in a cell, this is an indication this is a cancer cell.
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false
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Unfortunately, the cancer in Ted’s body had spread to multiple sites. Which is the most viable treatment option to handle Ted’s cancer?
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chemotherapy
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Which treatment does not work for leukemia?
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surgery
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Which of the following is a side effect of radiation therapy that is not also a side effect of chemotherapy?
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dry, red, irritated skin and/or blisters
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Which of the following is not a type of chemotherapy?
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bone marrow transplants
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Taxol is used to treat what type of cancer?
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Ovarian cancer
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What is the survival rate for children with childhood leukemia?
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80%
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Which of the following is not a type of immunotherapy?
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anti-p53 engineered adenovirus
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Melacine, used against melanoma, is a type of cancer vaccine.
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true
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Antiangiogenic drugs cause cytotoxic T cells to attack tumor cells.
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false
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When the p53 gene is overexpressed in normal cells, the cells are killed.
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false

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