11.1 The Great War Begins: World History

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Europe Before World War 1
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Europe had enjoyed a century of relative peace.
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Triple Alliance
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an alliance formed by Bismark so that Germany could fend off France. It was composed of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. It eventually formed into the Central Powers.
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Entente
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a nonbinding agreement to follow common policies
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French and British Entente
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The French, British, and Russians signed ententes with each other. They eventually became the Allies.
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two Empires that struggled to survive in the age of nationalism
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Austria Hungary – worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among the minority populations within its empire Ottoman Turkey – felt threatened by new nations like Serbia (which dreamed of a South Slav state)
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economic rivalries
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Britain felt threatened by Germany (new as a powerhouse) and Germany did not feel as though they were respected as a powerhouse. They also feared that Russia would become an unbeatable competitor if they ever got their business together.
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overseas rivalries
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1) competition for colonies brought France and Germany almost to war in French Morocco 2) Germany did gain some land on Africa; this strengthened ties between France and Britain
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naval rivalry
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fiercest naval rivalry was between Britain and Germany; dramatized by sensational Journalism
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militarism
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glorification of the military which helped feed the arms race. If painted war in a romantic way, using military as a main source of diplomacy
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How did international competition and nationalism increase tensions in Europe?
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1) Germans were proud of their new prominence 2) French were bitter about the Franco-Prussian War 3) Russia support nationalists in Serbia 4) Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations like Germany and Serbia. Soon the Balkans were a “powder keg.”
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Alsace and Lorraine
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The French lost border province in Franco-Prussian War. This made the French angry at the Germans.
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Pan Slavism
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a powerful form of nationalism sponsored by the Russian government; All Slavic people have a common nationality; Russia as the biggest Slavic Country felt a duty to protect
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Gavrilo Princip
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A member of a serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand, who killed the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Bosnia Sarajevo
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Kaiser William II
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leader of Germany, wrote a letter to Francis Joseph saying they must take action against the Serbs. vowed unconditional support
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ultimatum
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a final set of demands sent to the Serbs from the Austrians saying that they must end all anti Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian involved in the murder plot; not all of the terms were met in time
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reasons for other countries entering
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Austria Hungary – punishing Serbia Germany – Staying by Austria Hungary Serbia – Attacked by Austria Hungary Russia – Stood by Serbia France + Russia + Britain – did not want to face Germany alone
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neutrality
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the policy of supporting neither side in a war
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General Alfred Von Schlieffen
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Developed the plan which was the cornerstone of Germany’s military policy – he reasoned that Germany should move against France first because Russia would be slow to mobilize
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Belgium is attacked
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the Schlieffen Plan called for Germany armies to go through Belgium in order to get BEHIND French lines; When they entered Belgium, Britain became enraged and joined the war
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How did the alliance system deepen the original conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia into a general war?
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The alliance system drew other great powers into the conflict.
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Why were young men on both sides eager to fight when World War I started?
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Patriotism was high and men were eager to fight for justice and their country

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