100 facts for 8th American History

Flashcard maker : Joel Boykin
1607
Founding of Jamestown
July 4, 1776
Signing of Declaration of Indepedence
1787
Writing of the Constitution
1803
Louisiana Territory purchased by President Thomas Jefferson from France
1861-1865
The Civil War was fought
Lexington, Massachusetts
First shots of the American Revolution fired here in April 1775
Concord, Massachusetts
First site of the first battle of the American Revolution
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution
Yorktown, Virginia
British were defeated by General Washington ending the American Revolution
Fort Sumter, South Carolina
First shots of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the Civil War for the North-confederacy forced to retreat and never invaded the North again
Vicksburg, Mississippi
Captured by Northern troops in 1863-effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of Mississippi River to the Union
Appomattox Court House
Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant-ending the Civil War
Mercantilism
An economic theory that a country’s strength is measured by the amount of gold it has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
Abolitionist
Person who wanted to end slavery in the United States
Tariff
A tax on goods brought into a country
Protective Tariff
Tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry
Sectionalism
strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of the the whole country
Temperance Movement
A campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean
Represenative Government
system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them
Republic
a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them
House of Burgesses
First representative assembly in the new world
Three Branches of Government
Legislative, Judicial and Executive Branch
Checks and Balances
A system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the Federal Government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branch
Free Enterprise
Freedom of private business to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation
Federalism
The sharing of powers between the states and national government
Separation of Powers
System in which each branch of government has its own powers.
Popular Sovereignty
Practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery (pre-civil war)-political theory that government is subject to the will of the people
Amend
To change
Unalienable Rights
Rights that can not be given up, taken away or transferred-Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Tyranny
A cruel and unjust government
Democracy
Form of government that is run for and by the people, giving the majority the supreme rule.
Ratify
Approve by vote
Judicial review
The right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not
Civil Disobedience
The refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one’s moral conviction or belief.
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong national government
Antifederalist
People opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power be given to the state governments than to the National government
Nullification
The idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal
Primary Source
Original records of an event. They include eye witness reports, records created at the time of the event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts.
Secondary Source
Later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often-textbooks and articles will contain summaries of primary sources
Republicanism
Attitude toward society in late 1700’s based on the belief that the good virtue and morality of the people was essential to sustain the republican form of government. A representative democracy
Industrial Revolution
Era in which a change from household industries to factory production using powered machinery took place
Magna Carta
Document signed in 1215 by William and Mary of England-first document to limit the power of the ruler.
English Bill of Rights
Documented protecting the rights of English Citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights
Declaration of Independence
Document written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the colonies independent from England
Articles of Confederation
First American Constitution-very weak document limiting the power of the Congress by giving the states the final authority over all decisions
Constitution of the United States
Supreme Law of the land-sets our laws and principles of the government of the United States
George Washington’s Farewell Address
He advised the United States to stay \”neutral in its relations with other nations\” and to avoid \”entangling alliances\”
Monroe Doctrine
Foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating that 1) The U.S. would not interfere in European affairs 2) the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European nations
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended the French and Indian War-effectively kicked the French out of North America (except for Canada)
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation
Northwest Ordinance
Policy of establishing the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States
Mayflower Compact
Agreement signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims in Plymouth, to consult each other about laws for the colony and a promise to work together to make it succeed
Federalist Papers
series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton, defending the Constitution and the
principles on which the government of the United States was founded.
\”Common Sense\”
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince the colonist that it was time to become independent from Britian
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual rights
Gettysburg Address
Short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals
Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham Lincoln issued this on January 1, 1863 freeing all slaves in confederate states
Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address
stated that \”no state…can lawfully get out of the Union\”, but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
meant to help heal and restore the country after 4 years of Civil War
Great Compromise
Created 2 houses of Congress. One based on population, the other gave equal representation to each state
Sam Adams
Member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American Independence
Ben Franklin
An inventor, statesman, diplomat, signer of the Declaration of Independence and delegate to the Constitutional Convention
King George III
King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch Petition leading to the final break with the colonies
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence, became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States
Thomas Paine
wrote pamphlets like \”Common Sense\” and \”The Crisis\” to encourage American independence and resolve
George Washington
Commander and Chief of the Continental Army who became the first President of the United States of America
Andrew Jackson
Leader of the original Democratic party and a \”President of the people\”. He was also responsible for the Trail of Tears, which forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Congressman and Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War
Henry Clay
Powerful Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the American System and the Compromise of 1850.
Daniel Webster
Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy during the Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North
Robert E. Lee
General of the confederate army
Abraham Lincoln
The 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended
Alexander Hamilton
A leader of the Federalist, first Treasurer of the United States, creator of the Bank of the United States and was killed in a dual by the Vice President of the U.S. Aaron Burr.
Patrick Henry
A passionate patriot who became famous for his fiery speeches in favor of American independence. His most
quote included the words, \”Give me liberty or give me death!\”
James Madison
He is considered to be the \”father of the Constitution\”
Frederick Douglass
A former slave who became the best-known black abolitionist in the country
James Monroe
The author of the Monroe Doctrine, which shut down the western hemisphere to European expansion or interference.
Harriet Tubman
An escaped slave who became a Conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention creating the Women’s Rights Movement in the United States
First Amendment
States that \”Congress shall make no law\” restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly and petition.
Second Amendment
guarantees the right of states to organize militias or armies, and the right of the individual to bear arms
Third Amendment
forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes.
Fourth Amendment
requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized (taken) by the government.
Fifth Amendment
protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Sixth Amendment
guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses ; and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify
Seventh Amendment
guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil suits
Eighth Amendment
prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines
Ninth Amendment
states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution
Tenth Amendment
states that power not given to the federal government belong to the states
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery
Fourteenth Amendment
guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States
Fifteenth Amendment
guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race
Marbury v. Madison
1803 Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution. It set up the principle of judicial review
Dred Scott v. Sanford
the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens
The Cotton Gin
Invention by Eli Whitney that speeded the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves.
Steamboat
Robert Fulton had success with this invention and it revolutionized trade and transportation in the United States

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