10- PMP Stakeholder management

Strategies per power/Interest type of stakeholder
High Power / High Interest – Manage Closely
High Power / Low Interest – Keep Satisfied
Low Power / High Interest- Keep Informed
Low Power/ Low Interest- Monitor
Stakeholder Categories
Stakeholders Level of Engagement
– Unaware. Unaware of project and potential impacts.
– Resistant. Aware of project and potential impacts and resistant to change.
– Neutral. Aware of project yet neither supportive nor resistant.
– Supportive. Aware of project and potential impacts and supportive to change.
– Leading. Aware of project and potential impacts and actively engaged in ensuring the project is a success.
What is in Stakeholder Management Plan
Current and desired stakeholder engagement levels, scope and impacts, identified interrelationships and overlaps, communication requirements of current phase, information to be distributed (and why), assignment of individuals to manage stakeholder relationships, timelines for regular communications
Project Stakeholders vs Key Project stakeholders
Stakeholders are anyone on the project or effected by the project. Key stakeholders are the subset of stakeholders that are in a decision making position.
Two of the subsidiary plans of the Project Management Plan are key inputs to the Manage Stakeholder Engagement process. They are:
A.) Stakeholder Management Plan and Communications Management Plan
B.) Scope Management Plan and Stakeholder Management Plan
C.) Risk Management Plan and Cost Management Plan D.) Scope Management Plan and Quality Management Plan
A- All subsidiary plans are important. However, the Stakeholder Management Plan and the Communications Management Plan are key inputs to the Manage Stakeholder Engagement process
Nancy is about to start the Plan Stakeholder Management process for her project. She has selected the Project Management Plan as an input to this process. Which of the following project documents is also needed?
A.) Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix
B.) Communications management plan
C.) Stakeholder register
D.) Resource breakdown structure
C- The two key inputs to the Plan Stakeholder Management process are the Project Management Plan and the Stakeholder Register. Other inputs are Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process Assets.
The Manage Stakeholder Engagement process is a very critical and continuous process in a project’s life cycle. Which of the following is not a benefit of actively managing stakeholders?
A.) It reduces project risk.
B.) It reduces Cost of Conformance.
C.) It increases the probability of the project’s success. D.) The project manager is more informed on potential requirements changes.
B- Cost of Conformance is the money spent to assure compliance to quality requirements. Cost of Non-Conformance is the cost of rework, scrap, liabilities, etc. Actively managing stakeholders reduces the Cost of Non-Conformance, not the Cost of Conformance.
Jane has just been assigned as the project manager for a website development project. Mark, the project sponsor has handed over a signed Project Charter to Jane authorizing her as the project manager of this project. What should be the next step for Jane?
A.) Identify project stakeholders
B.) Plan project communications
C.) Develop the Project Management Plan
D.) Hire the project team
A- Jane should complete the initiating phase of the project before moving on to the planning and executing phases. The next step is to carry out the Identify Stakeholders process.
Linda is currently performing the Identify Stakeholders process. Her project has a large number of stakeholders. Linda should document Information about which of the following types of stakeholders?
A.) Document information about each and every project stakeholder.
B.) Document information only about the stakeholders that are identified during the first team meeting.
C.) Ask for the project sponsor’s guidance regarding this issue.
D.) Document information only about the influential stakeholders.
D- Most projects will have a large number of stakeholders. In addition, the project manager’s time is limited and must be used efficiently. Linda should only document the stakeholders that are influential or those who are actively involved in the project.
Linda is managing a construction project. She has a big number of project stakeholders. Ideally speaking, it would be best for the project if all of the stakeholders become:
A.) Unaware
B.) Resistant
C.) Supportive
D.) Leading
C- If all of the project stakeholder are either unaware or resistant, this woul be a disaster for the project. Both supportive and leading stakeholders are positive stakeholders. Don’t fall for the trick in the question; it is asking to pick a choice that can be fitted to all project stakeholders. If all project stakeholders become leading, this would also be a disaster for the project. The best available option is supportive.
Which of the following is not an active way of managing project stakeholders?
A.) Conducting project status meetings
B.) Sending project reports by email
C.) Making phone calls to the stakeholders
D.) Having coffee with stakeholders for no reason
B- All of the given choices are effective methods of communicating with project stakeholders. However, the question is asking for the answer choice that is not an active method. Active Communication requires interaction. Communicating via emails is considered Passive Communication.
Salience Model
Salience is defined as ‘Importance’.

The Salience Model describes classes of stakeholders based on their power (ability to impose will), urgency (need for attention), and legitimacy (involvement).

As a result of the Control Stakeholder Engagement process, which of the following is unlikely to be updated?
A.) Stakeholder register
B.) Issue log
C.) Risk management plan
D.) Change request
D- This is a tricky question. There is a difference between updating a document and creating a document. New change requests are usually created during the Control Stakeholder Engagement process. The rest of the choices are the documents that may get updated as a result of this process.
Carole’s project is halfway through execution. She is currently reviewing the Stakeholder Management Plan and thinks that she needs to revisit the Plan Stakeholder Management process to make some necessary adjustments to the plan. Which process is Carole currently performing?
A.) Identify Stakeholders
B.) Plan Stakeholder Management
C.) Manage Stakeholder Engagement
D.) Control Stakeholder Engagement
D- Since the project is halfway through execution and Carole is planning to revisit the Plan Stakeholder Management process, she cannot be currently performing the Plan Stakeholder Management process. This must be a process from the monitoring and controlling process group, i.e., Control Stakeholder Engagement process.
Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix
The current and desired stakeholder’s engagement level can be documented using a Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix. This matrix also shows the gaps between the current and the desired engagement levels.
Christine is managing a healthcare software development project. At a PMI conference, she met George who is the project manager at a competing organization. George, a PMP, has managed many successful healthcare-related software development projects. If George shares his stakeholder management experience with Christine, will that be considered expert judgment?
A. No! George is a project manager at a competitor organization.
B. Yes! All participants at a PMI conference are experts.
C. Yes! George is an expert in managing such projects. D. No! This would be an example of expert opinion and not expert judgment.
C – George is giving an expert opinion; this is analogous to expert judgment. A PMP-certified project manager from a competitor would not normally give false information. This can be considered expert judgment since George has managed many similar projects.
[PMBOK 5th edition, Page 401] [Project Stakeholder Management]
Jennifer has recently been asked to manage an office refurbishment project. She finds out that the chief financial officer of the company is resisting the project. The chief financial officer is a key project stakeholder. What must Jennifer do first?
A. Seek expert judgment from the project
B. Seek support from the project sponsor to force project decisions.
C. Conduct a team meeting to discuss this issue.
D. Analyze options that might change or influence the chief financial officer’s perception.
D – In this scenario, the chief financial officer is a resistant key stakeholder. The chief financial officer must be turned into a project supporter in order to ensure success. Any of the given choices could be choices could be the solution to this problem. However, Jennifer should first identify all of the available options and analyze them before selecting the best option. [PMBOK 5th edition, Page 402] [Project Stakeholder Management]
Greg’s project is in the initiating stage. The sponsor of the project has asked Greg to present a list of the identified project stakeholders at the next project update meeting. The sponsor has also asked Greg to present the project stakeholders’ current and desired engagement levels so that they can brainstorm on the stakeholder management strategy. Which of the following is a presentation tool that can help Greg summarize all of this information in a tabular format? A. Communications management plan
B. Stakeholder register
C. Stakeholders engagement assessment matrix
D. Stakeholder management plan
C – Both the communications and stakeholder management plans are detailed textual documents. They are not presentation tools. On the other hand, both the stakeholder register and the stakeholders engagement assessment matrix contain the required information. However, the stakeholders engagement assessment is the best tool to be selected in this situation since it presents the information required by the project sponsor in a tabular format. [PMBOK 5th edition, Page 402] [Project Stakeholder Management]
During a project update meeting for the key stakeholders, the schedule of some project activities was challenged. The VP Operations claimed that some of the critical path activities cannot be executed as scheduled as they will disturb critical operations. The VP has requested rescheduling of these tasks so that they are performed during the non-working times of the business. What should the project manager do first?
A. Analyze the impact of change
B. Record the issue in the issue log
C. Send the change request to the change control board for the approval
D. Produce a change request
B – Record the issue in the issue log.

All of the tasks in the choices need to be performed. However, the question is asking for the task to be performed first. The identified issue must be documented in the project’s issue log first. This should be captured and recorded during the meeting. The rest of the tasks can be performed after the meeting.

Stakeholders can be identified in which project management process groups?
A. Initiating, planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling
B. Initiating and planning
C. Planning and monitoring and controlling
D. Monitoring and controlling
A. Initiating, planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling

Stakeholders can be identified throughout the project. However, the earlier stakeholders are identified, the better for the project. If all the staekholders’ needs and arequirements are taken into account before plans are finalized and project work is begun, fewer changes will be needed later in the project, when they will be more costly.

Basic comparisons of stakeholders to project manager responsibilities-
Project manager determines project schedule through schedule development. The team and other stakeholders provide the inputs. The project manager determines resource needs and creates management plans- again in collaboration with stakeholders. Stakeholders do not approve charter- the sponsor does. Stakeholders do determine project constraints and product deliverables. Project Manager are experts in project management while stakeholders are experts in what needs to be done and how it needs to be done.
You discover you have over 200 stakeholders. What should you do next?
A. Eliminate some stakeholders
B. Find an effective way to gather the needs of all stakeholders
C. Contact your manager, and ask which stakeholders are most important
D. Gather the needs of all the most influential stakeholders
B. Find an effective way to gather the needs of all stakeholders.

You need to consider the needs of all your stakeholders as early as possible, to create a better organized project and to minimize changes later.

Information in the stakeholder register should be:
A. Accessible only to the project manager
B. Available to the project manager and PMO staff
C. Available to all stakeholders and team members
D. Shared with others at the discretion of the project manager
D. Shared with others at the discretion of the project manager

Remember stakeholder register includes the project manager’s impression of stakeholders’ capabilities and attitudes, and possibly challenges related to working with them. Such notes may not be intended, or appropriate, for all to see. Therefore, the stakeholder register should be shared with others at the discretion of the project manager.

What should be in the stakeholder register?
List of all stakeholders, role, department represented, supervisor, major requirements, main expectations, influence, role in project, responsibilities to project, category (supporter, resister, neutral, etc.), attitude about project, etc.
Note- stakeholder register has sensitive information in it and therefore should be shared carefully at discretion of PM.
The key objective of stakeholder management is:
A. Communication
B. Coordination
C. Satisfaction
D. Relationships
C. Satisfaction.

While communication, coordination, and development of relationships are parts of stakeholder management, collectively they contribute to the main objective of this process- stakeholder satisfaction.
Managing expectations is a significant activity that project managers do to ensure stakeholder satisfaction.

The stakeholder register is an input to which of the following processes?
A. Plan Risk Management and Collect Requirements
B. Perform Integrated Change Control and Plan Communications Management
C. Plan Quality Management and Perform Quality Assurance
D. Identify Risks and Develop Project Charter
A. Plan Risk Management and Collect Requirements.

Of the answer choices listed, the stakeholder register is an input to Collect Requirements, Plan Quality Management, Plan Communications Management, Plan Risk Management and Identify Risks.

Stakeholder Analysis
This technique involves both identifying stakeholders and analyzing their impact or influence on project throughout the life of the project. Records from past projects (including discussing their experiences with similar past projects- likes and dislikes in project approach and past product deliverables). ​
During meeting major stakeholder requests rescheduling of critical path activities during non-working hours. Which should PM do first? Analyze impact of change, record issue in issue log, send change request to change control board, or produce change request?
Record issue in issue log.

The identified issue must be documented in the project’s issue log first. This should be captured and recorded during the meeting. The rest of the tasks can be performed after the meeting.

What are the 4 inputs to the Identify Stakeholder process?
AThe Identify Stakeholders process has four inputs: Project charter, procurement documents, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets. [PMBOK 5th edition, Page 393] [Project Stakeholder Management]
In which project process is the Stakeholder Management Plan reviewed for its validity?
Control Stakeholder Engagement process

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