WPUNJ AP1 Chapter 2 – Leonard Flashcard

All living things are composed of ______.
matter
Define: Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
Matter exits in what 3 states?
solid, liquid, gas
Define: Weight
force of gravity acting on mass
Define: Energy
capacity to do work
What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; instead it remains constant
What are 2 types of energy?
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Define: Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
Define: Potential Energy
inactive or stored energy
5 Forms of Energy
Radiant, Heat, Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical
What is Radiant Energy?
energy that travels in waves (micro, light, UV, x-rays)
What is Electrical Energy?
energy resulting from the flow of charged particles (electricity powering computer/heart)
What is Heat Energy?
energy transferred from one object to another due to difference in temperature (cooling)
What is Chemical Energy?
energy released or used in the process of destroying or forming chemicals
What is Mechanical Energy?
energy used to move mass
When is Mechanical Energy Potential / Kinetic?
Potential: object is still. Kinetic: object is moving
What are the building blocks of all forms of matter?
chemical elements
How many elements exist? How many are naturally occurring? How many occur in the human body?
112, 92, 26
What elements make up 96% of human body mass?
CHON: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
The smallest unit of matter?
an atom
Fill in the blank: A(n) ___(A)___ is a quantity of ____(B)____ composed of ___(C)___ of the same type.
A: Element; B: Matter; C:Atoms
An atom is made up of what?
Subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons
Which has no charge?
neutron
Which has a positive charge?
proton
Which has a negative charge?
electron
How many electrons can each of the 3 Electron shells hold?
1st: 2;
2nd: 8;
3rd: max 18
The atomic number is based on what?
number of protons in the nucleus
The mass number is based on what?
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What is an isotope?
an atom of an element with the same amount of protons, but different amount of neutrons
What happens to an unstable isotope?
as they lose stability, they decay into more stable forms causing them to emit radioactivity (packets of energy)
What is the atomic mass?
the total mass of an atom’s protons, neutrons, and electrons when at rest
What are ions?
charged particles in which there is no longer an equal number of protons and neutrons
What process forms Ions and how?
Ionization; forms when an atom either gives up or receives an electron
Next to a chemical symbol, what does the ( + ) and ( – ) mean?
( + ) —> this chemical gave up an electron
( – ) —> this chemical received an electron
Define: Anion
an atom negatively charged from gaining an electron
Define: Cation
an atom positively charged from losing an electron
How does a molecule form?
2 or more atoms come together in a chemical reaction by sharing or exchanging valence electrons
When forming a molecule, can the atoms be the same or do they have to be different?
They can be the same or different
What is a compound?
a chemical substance composed of 2 or more different elements by a chemical reaction
What is a Free Radical?
an electrically charged atom or groups of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell (valence)
Is a Free Radical stable?
Why?
How does it become stable?
No
It has an unpaired electron.
By giving up the unpaired electron or taking an electron from another molecule.
Studies suggest that you can take what to prevent Free Radical induced damage?
Antioxidants- they lack an electron, which causes them to bind with the Free Radicals
What are the products of a chemical bond?
Molecules and Compounds
What is the Octet Rule?
The explanation why atoms interact in a chemical reaction; Ideally, every atom (except H and He) want 8 electrons in their valence shell
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds?
Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Hydrogen bond
What is an ionic bond?
Ions are joined and one or more electrons are TRANSFERRED between atoms
What is a covalent bond?
Forms when two atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
What makes a covalent bond stronger?
More pairs of electrons shared
Can Ionic bonds form between two atoms of the same element?
No
What is a polar covalent bond?
when shared electrons orbit one nucleus more than the other
What is a non polar covalent bond?
when shared electrons orbit each nucleus equally
Hydrogen bonds confer _____, _______, and ______.
Strength, Stability, and Shape
When do chemical reactions occur?
When new bonds form or old bonds break
What is an exergonic reaction?
when the amount of energy RELEASED is MORE than energy ABSORBED
What is an energonic reaction?
when the amount of energy ABSORBED is MORE than what can be RELEASED
What is Activation Energy?
Kinetic; the amount of energy needed to disrupt the electronic stability of a molecule; energy needed to start reactions
What is a Catalyst?
a reusable substance that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
What is an acid?
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more ions
What is a base?
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) and one or more ions
What is a salt?
a substance that dissociates into cations and anions, NEITHER of which are OH- or H+
4 Properties of water?
Universal solvent, thermal stability, cohesion, chemical reactivity

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member