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WPUNJ AP1 Chapter 2 – Leonard

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All living things are composed of ______.
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matter
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Define: Matter
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anything that occupies space and has mass
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Matter exits in what 3 states?
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solid, liquid, gas
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Define: Weight
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force of gravity acting on mass
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Define: Energy
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capacity to do work
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What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?
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Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; instead it remains constant
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What are 2 types of energy?
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Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
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Define: Kinetic Energy
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energy of motion
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Define: Potential Energy
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inactive or stored energy
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5 Forms of Energy
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Radiant, Heat, Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical
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What is Radiant Energy?
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energy that travels in waves (micro, light, UV, x-rays)
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What is Electrical Energy?
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energy resulting from the flow of charged particles (electricity powering computer/heart)
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What is Heat Energy?
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energy transferred from one object to another due to difference in temperature (cooling)
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What is Chemical Energy?
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energy released or used in the process of destroying or forming chemicals
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What is Mechanical Energy?
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energy used to move mass
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When is Mechanical Energy Potential / Kinetic?
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Potential: object is still. Kinetic: object is moving
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What are the building blocks of all forms of matter?
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chemical elements
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How many elements exist? How many are naturally occurring? How many occur in the human body?
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112, 92, 26
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What elements make up 96% of human body mass?
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CHON: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
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The smallest unit of matter?
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an atom
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Fill in the blank: A(n) ___(A)___ is a quantity of ____(B)____ composed of ___(C)___ of the same type.
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A: Element; B: Matter; C:Atoms
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An atom is made up of what?
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Subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons
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Which has no charge?
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neutron
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Which has a positive charge?
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proton
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Which has a negative charge?
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electron
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How many electrons can each of the 3 Electron shells hold?
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1st: 2;
2nd: 8;
3rd: max 18
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The atomic number is based on what?
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number of protons in the nucleus
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The mass number is based on what?
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number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
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What is an isotope?
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an atom of an element with the same amount of protons, but different amount of neutrons
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What happens to an unstable isotope?
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as they lose stability, they decay into more stable forms causing them to emit radioactivity (packets of energy)
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What is the atomic mass?
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the total mass of an atom’s protons, neutrons, and electrons when at rest
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What are ions?
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charged particles in which there is no longer an equal number of protons and neutrons
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What process forms Ions and how?
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Ionization; forms when an atom either gives up or receives an electron
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Next to a chemical symbol, what does the ( + ) and ( – ) mean?
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( + ) —> this chemical gave up an electron
( – ) —> this chemical received an electron
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Define: Anion
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an atom negatively charged from gaining an electron
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Define: Cation
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an atom positively charged from losing an electron
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How does a molecule form?
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2 or more atoms come together in a chemical reaction by sharing or exchanging valence electrons
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When forming a molecule, can the atoms be the same or do they have to be different?
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They can be the same or different
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What is a compound?
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a chemical substance composed of 2 or more different elements by a chemical reaction
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What is a Free Radical?
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an electrically charged atom or groups of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell (valence)
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Is a Free Radical stable?
Why?
How does it become stable?
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No
It has an unpaired electron.
By giving up the unpaired electron or taking an electron from another molecule.
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Studies suggest that you can take what to prevent Free Radical induced damage?
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Antioxidants- they lack an electron, which causes them to bind with the Free Radicals
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What are the products of a chemical bond?
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Molecules and Compounds
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What is the Octet Rule?
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The explanation why atoms interact in a chemical reaction; Ideally, every atom (except H and He) want 8 electrons in their valence shell
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What are the 3 types of chemical bonds?
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Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Hydrogen bond
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What is an ionic bond?
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Ions are joined and one or more electrons are TRANSFERRED between atoms
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What is a covalent bond?
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Forms when two atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
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What makes a covalent bond stronger?
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More pairs of electrons shared
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Can Ionic bonds form between two atoms of the same element?
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No
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What is a polar covalent bond?
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when shared electrons orbit one nucleus more than the other
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What is a non polar covalent bond?
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when shared electrons orbit each nucleus equally
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Hydrogen bonds confer _____, _______, and ______.
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Strength, Stability, and Shape
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When do chemical reactions occur?
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When new bonds form or old bonds break
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What is an exergonic reaction?
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when the amount of energy RELEASED is MORE than energy ABSORBED
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What is an energonic reaction?
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when the amount of energy ABSORBED is MORE than what can be RELEASED
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What is Activation Energy?
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Kinetic; the amount of energy needed to disrupt the electronic stability of a molecule; energy needed to start reactions
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What is a Catalyst?
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a reusable substance that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
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What is an acid?
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a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more ions
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What is a base?
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a substance that dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) and one or more ions
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What is a salt?
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a substance that dissociates into cations and anions, NEITHER of which are OH- or H+
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4 Properties of water?
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Universal solvent, thermal stability, cohesion, chemical reactivity