World Religions (Module 1 & 2) Flashcard

According to the power point lecture, what is the difference between an ecstatic experience and a religious experience?
one transforms your life and the other does not
Belief in many gods is called _____.
polytheism
Pantheism is the belief…
that all reality is divine
In religious studies, the word myth means…
a story that is a foundational or framing story that explains the way life is to be understood
The current modern world religions that we are going to study have all been effected by history, but their defining moments can best be described as coming out of which historical era?
Axial-Age
Which Dutch Reformed Church clergyman left his religious calling, and became a famous impressionist artist?
Vincent Van Gogh
That area of investigation that looks for and interprets religious evidence in ancient sites, buildings, and objects is ______.
archeology
What is the central distinguish characteristic of a religious symbol?
It enables people to participate in that to which it points
What dimension of religions helps to seek unmediated access to ultimate power?
mysticism
Symbolic actions that create sacred space and time are called…
rituals
According to William Young, the nature of reality has to do with…
time and sacred space
According to William Young’s phenomenological approach, questions related to the central human problem have to do with the perception of what a particular religion believes needs fundamental transformation.
True
According to Karl Jaspers’ the Axial Period took place around the globe during what period?
800-200 b.c.e.
William Young’s definition of religion is…
human transformation towards a perceived ultimate
Religion looks at myths as false stories that can not be empirically proven.
False
The myth of nature, harmony, and balance is associated with which of the following religions?
Daoism and Confucianism, and Indigenous Religions
The central myth of liberation is associated with which of the following religions?
Hinduism and Buddhism
The central myth of divine intervention into history is associated with which of the following religions?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
A person’s concept of time is a philosophical/ religious assumption.
True
Transformational truth as understood by a particular religion can include but is not limited to scientific truth.
True
According to John Bargh of Yale, what shapes our interpretation of the world and guides us like a spiritual GPS?
the unconscious mind
According to David Brooks, which of the tree steps in decision making determines the fundamental course you will take?
the perception of the “problem” or situation
Transformational truth associated with a particular religion must be observable, knowable, duplicable, and able to be tested using scientific methods
False
Religious symbols don’t just point to something, they actually help you participate in that to which they point.
True
Who was the philosopher who theorized that the role of religion fundamentally changed from cosmic maintenance to human transformation during the axial age?
Jaspers
The conception of time that is found in religions that emphasize a creation, a cosmic purpose, and an eschatological end is ________.
psychological
Myths, in the study of religion, are like framing stories that explain the way we are to look at the world.
True
Young’s study of religion focuses primarily on which disciplines?
phenomenological, comparative, and historical
A particular religion’s view of the human condition that believes that all that exist has spiritual power represents a view that Young calls ________.
anthropocentric
A belief that one cannot know if god exists is called?
agnosticism
In religion, what is the term for non-ritual behavior that is consistent with the experiences and convictions of a practioneer concerning what they consider ultimate power?
morality
The ________ attitude is that all religions will be subsumed within one universal religion, for all religions point toward the same spiritual ultimacy.
inclusive
_________ refers people who are willing to experiment with combining parts of different religions that they like.
eclectic spirituality
Karl Jaspers is quoted as saying that, ” Human experience coupled with emotional expression if the will to communicate.”
True
“…Environmental breakdown caused by our unsustainable global economy, and an economy that fails to respect environmental limits even as it succeeds in producing great wealth for about one-third of the world’s population.” From a Power Point, this is an example of…
the prosperity crisis
“…The growing gap between the ultra-rich and the extremely poor, which prompts the poor majority to envy, resent, and even hate the rich majority–which in turn elicits fear and anger in the rich.” From a power point, this is an example of…
the equity crisis
“…The danger of cataclysmic was arising from the intensifying resentment and fear among various groups at opposite ends of the economic spectrum.” From a power point, this is an example of…
the security crisis
When “truth” comes to us from what is observable, knowable, and can be duplicated and tested it is called transcendent truth.
False
When the truth comes to us from a reality outside of normal experience (from “above” or outside the observable world in which we live) then that is known as immanent truth.
False
Young points out several possible reactions that religions have taken towards science. Identify all of the possibilities he identifies below. This may require that you pick more than one answer.
Many people believe that religion and science are two competing incompatible ways of approaching the world,
others stake out different territories for science and religion,
science and religion are neither opposed nor separate but are rather interrelated and complementary ways to approach life, &
science and religion are coming to the same basic insights from their different directions
According to William Young, the following is not considered a central question when describing a religion using the phenomenological approach…
male and female imagery
According to Karl Jaspers’ theory of the axial age the central function of religion changed from what to what?
from an emphasis on cosmic maintenance to personal transformation
In the Yoruba religion, personhood is developmental. It requires more than simply being born ( a baby is born with legs and arms and a head). To be a real person for Yoruba you have to be a contributing member of the community.
true
Until recently, oral religions were often looked at as…
primitive and undeveloped
The Japanese people…
seem to be a blend of several peoples
Sacred time for indigenous peoples is usually…
cyclical
Indigenous religions today are especially threatened by
destruction of habitat
In tradition Yoruba religion human are a combination of several spiritual elements. Which element is associated with the life principle (understood as breath)?
Emi
divination is employed to
read the past or look into the future
which of the following best describes the understanding of time common among indigenous peoples?
rhythmic and cyclical
The sacrifice of an animal may occur…
in order to placate a spirit after a taboo has been broken
Shinto…
has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity
important times in the development of the individual are often marked in indigenous religions by ceremonies. These are commonly called…
rites of passage
Compared with indigenous religions, today’s dominant religions are
much younger
sacred time in indigenous religions is…
cyclical
the belief that all elements of the world are inhabited by spirits or a spirit is called…
animism
The Ifa corpus, an oral literature, is used to interpret the most common Yoruba divinations practice.
True
It has been a traditional teaching that the imperial family is descended from what kami?
Amaterasu
In the Yoruba religion the Gelede festival is one of the most important festival of the year and focus on father’s ancestors.
False
Christmas, though a Christian holy day, began as a celebration of
the winter solstice
part of the accommodation between Shinto and Buddhism included
a division of focus, with Buddhism associated with philosophy, death, and afterlife, while Shinto was called on for agriculture and fertility
Among the numerous kami are the powers of nature; spirits associated with particular places in nature such as trees, waterfalls, and mountains; the ancestors; and…
animal spirits
The islands of japan, according to the creation story, are a sort of the-worldly heaven because…
humans share the islands with divine beings who live there
The teachings of indigenous religions are typically conveyed by all of the following except…
sacred scripture
The supreme God in the Yoruba Religion is ______.
Olorun
The human problem as understood in the Yoruba religion is…
lack of balance
The emperor of Japan came to be considered a father figure for the whole country. This…
seems to show the influence of Confucianism
Circumcision is a rite often associated with
entry into adulthood
The Yoruban people are so interdependent on one another that their destinies are linked.
True
A libation involves
the pouring of a liquid on the ground as an offering
Although in most indigenous religions all of nature is sacred, the concept of a special sacred space is evident in all of the following except…
Shinto
Newgrange-Bru na Boinne
Yoruba
Lakota Indians
Sacred space is often…
a doorway through which the “other world” of gods and ancestors can contact us and we can contact them.
Izanami and Izanagi created Japan when they stirred the ocean with
a jeweled spear
in the Yoruba religion the “actual present” time is very wide and includes what has been experienced in the past and the immediate future (live in “the now”).
True
Izanagi searched for Izanami
in the underworld
The study of indigenous religions is made more difficult by the fact that teachings are often conveyed in ways that are ______.
often without written records
often very complex and intricate
no longer are practiced
Many Africans religion tell how the High God created the world and then…
abandoned it
in the Yoruban religion one is not born a person but becomes one as they find their place in the community.
True
Dancers often wear masks…
in order to become the spirit represented by the mask.
Indigenous religions…
frequently make little or no distinction between a god and anancestor
in many Native American religions…
human beings and animals are often viewed as coming into existence together.
During the Meiji Restoration, Shinto became tied to growing nationalism through…
an emphasis on the divine origins of the emperor
The vision quest in Native American religions…
is frequently undergone during adolescence
In the Yoruban world view of the understand of the various parts that make up a human, the inner head is
ori
the basis for the Japanese writing system came from
china

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