World of Chemistry: Food

Flashcard maker : Edwin Holland
What 2 countries are the most profitable for McDonald’s?

1. The US

2. France 

Who has 1/2 of the worlds non-nutritive sweetner consumption?
The USA. Also, not all non-nutritive sweetners are calorie free.
What was the first artificial sweetner, and how/who was it discovered by?
Saccharin. Discovered from Ira Ramsen’s task to work on the oxidation of toluene suflonamide to his graduation student: Fahlberg. Fahlberg discovered the sweetness from not watching his hand, and patented it behind his supervisors back.
John Francis Queeny is?
Started “Monsantano Corporation” after Saccharin was brought to the US. It still exists today. Company was named after his wife’s maiden name.
What are three defining characteristics of Saccharin?

1. It has zero calories

2. It is 300x sweeter than regular sugar

3. It has a bitter aftertaste, so other substances must be added. 

What did the study of male rats taking saccharin show?
An increased chance of blatter cancer. But, the dose was equivalent to 800 diet drinks a day.
What is the Delaney Clause?
Legislation enacted to ban any substance that was seen as carcinogenic to animals. In 2000, Clinton signed to remove Saccharin from the official list of carcinogens.
Describe Risk vs. Hazard vs. Exposure in relation to animal testing.

You can control the RISK, but you cannot control the HAZARD.

Hazard: inherent potential of something being harmful, 

Risk: measure of how that potential is expressed,

Susceptibility: i.e, antelope higher risk of getting eaten by a Lion than a mous



Name and describe 3 sugar alcohols

1. Sorbitol

2. Mannitol

3. Xylitol 

 -0.6x less than sugar.

-Calories: 1.3/gram

-Not easily metabolized

-Can ferment in colon and cause explosive diarrhea


*BUT, gives bulk to a food: good for diet products

How was Cyclamate created?
Similar to Saccharin, Cyclamate was created by accident: Michael Sveda was smoking in the laboratory while working on fever-reducing agents and tasted sweetness.
How would you describe Cyclamate?
It is 30x sweeter than sugar, and is non-caloric. It can be converted into cyclohexylamine, a high cancer causing agents, in the gut bacteria of test animals. It was banned in the US and is a tabletop sweetener in Canada.
Is Cyclamate a carcinogen?
Although studies have shown that cyclamate injected into chickens caused them to be deformed, there is NO evidence that it is a carcinogen.
Today, is Cyclamate found in Canada or the US?
In Canada, Cyclamate is in Sweet n’ Low, while in the US, Sweet n’ Low has Saccharin with added Cyclamate to reduce bitterness.
What did Robert Schlatter discover while working on an anti-ulcer drug in 1965, after licking his fingers before picking up a sheet of paper?
A compound consisting of two amino acid groups: Aspartic acid and Phenylalanine – this is Aspartame.
How would you describe the basic characteristics of Aspartame?

It is 180x sweeter than sugar, and has the same caloric content at 4cal/gram (b/c it is a peptide). 

But, since so little of it is needed to attain sweetness, calories aren’t ingested in a normal serving.¬†

Where do we find Aspartame on the food market?
Aspartame is “Equal” as both a tabletop sweetener and additive (by Monsanto).
Is Aspartame dangerous?
Only for people who are affected with Phenylkentonurea, a genetic disease in which the gene needed metabolize phenylalanine is missing. As a result, phenylalanine builds in the brain to toxic levels!
Aside the risk Phenylalanine poses to those affected by Phenylketonurea, what are two other another disadvantages to Phenylalanine?

1. It is not heat stable, so if it sits in coffee for a while, the amino acids will break apart and the sweetness will start to vanish.

2. It can release methanol as a byproduct during metabolism, which can turn into formic acid. Methanol can cause blindness and death.  

How many grams of methanol does a soft drink with aspartame have? What is the lethal amount?

1. A soft drink produces about 7mg.

2. 80 000 – 120 000mg of methanol is lethal.

What is the ADI (acceptable daily intake) for Aspartame? What is the NOAEL? (no adverse affects level)
You should try to stay under 50 mg/kg per day. No adverse effects occur until 4000mg/day. Most people consume 5mg/day.
What did the Ramazzini study claim?
Female rats had an increase of lymphomas and leukaemia with doses similar to human consumption. But the FDA looked into the research and found that the increases were related to other factors, and not aspartame.
Did the NIH-AARP find a link between cancer and consumption of 2 cans of soda a day?
There was no link found, but they found that some people had up to about 3400mg per day – equivalent to 19 cans of soda per day.
Has any study proved aspartame to be completely safe?
Yes: the Informa Healthcase Study proved it was safe. There was controversy because it was funded by Ajinomoto, an aspartame company – BUT, it was an independently conducted study so there was no conflict of interest.
Describe the breakdown of Aspartame?




                     |                |

Phenylethylamine              Tyrosine



What is the most significant aspect of aspartames breakdown?
Phenylalanine, creates Phenylthylamine, which is a love chemical. Some people are addicted to being in love, the traces of Phenythylamine can be found in the urine. It’s an amphetamine and gives the same kind of high that being in love induces.
We know diet coke contains aspartame. But does Coke Zero?

Coke Zero has a mixture of Acesuflame K and Aspartame. Acesulflame K is useful: 200x sweeter with 0 calories, and when combined with aspartame, the bitter aftertaste is counteracted. 


How was Sucralose (Splenda) created?
Prof Leslie Hough and student Sashikant Phandis were working for Tate and Lyle Sugar company. Hough told the Sashikant to test the molecule: but he tasted it and founded its good taste.
What is the molecular structure of Splenda?
3 OH groups in table sugar are replaced by 3 Chlorine groups.
How would you describe splenda’s basic characteristics?

1. It is 600x sweeter than sugar

2. It is mores table to heat than aspartame: it’s man marketing tool

3. Good for cakes and other baked goods.

4. We should not take “made from sugar tastes like sugar” slogan seriously: Chlorine replacing OH groups makes the molecule completely different.

What is the newest artificial sweetener?

Stevia is the newest artificial sweetener.



What differentiates Stevia from other artificial sweeteners?

It is extracted from Stevia Rebaudiana Plant. Since it’s a natural substance it cannot be patented.¬†

It is allowed as an additive or sweetener in the US, but in Canada, is only available as a dietary supplement. 

In what products is Stevia made available?

1. As Truvia (developed by coca-cola)

2. As PureVia (developed by PepsiCo)


*Same substance, different branding.

What 3 crops in Canada are genetically modified?
Corn, Canola and Soya.
How much of Canada’s crops are genetically modified?
70% of Canada’s crops are genetically modified: a great deal of our food is derived from corn, including corn fed to livestock.
Does the US have high levels of GM corn crops in their diet?


100% of chicken, and 93% of beef in fast food restaurants come from animals fed exclusively by corn-based diet.

What is the link between GM corn and obesity?
Livestock being fed by GM corn instead of grazing grass creates fattier meat.
Can GM food change your own genes?
Although 60% of North American’s believe GM food can change genes: it cannot.
What are the four ways you can GM foods?

1. Selection

-choosing best plants and mating them

2. Cross-breeding

-wheat x rye = triticale: benefits of both plants

3. Vertical Transfer

-exchanging genes between closely related species.

4. Horizontal Transfer 

-Newest technology. We can transfer genes btw unrelated species.


What are three truths about Aequorea Victoria, a gene derived from jellyfish?

1. It can be transferred to mice to make them fluorescent under UV light,

2. This is an example of “horizontal transfer”

3. The scientists who did this won a Nobel Prize

What exactly is DNA?
The coding sequence that mediates proteins. It is a double stranded molecule, linked together by interactions between bases.
What are the four DNA bases?

Bases are the molecules that comprise the “backbone” of the DNA.

1. Adenine

2. Thymine

(paired together)

3. Guanine 

4. Cytosine 

(paired together)

What are nucleotides?

Individual “building block” unites on DNA. Has:

1. A short backbone stretch

2. A sugar

3. The base that is involved with pairing to the opposite strand.


Therefore, genes are comprised of a long stretch of nucleotides in the DNA molecule.

How does DNA make up an organisms characteristics? And, how can they be modified?

By occupying a specific location on a chromosome. 


Because DNA strands are complimentary given the base pairs (A to T and G to C), the whole DNA molecule can be replicated with only one fully intact strand.


*Imagine a zipper. 

Describe the process of GM in 3 steps.

1. A particular gene is identified

2. It is then isolated with the use of enzymes

3. Last, it is inserted into a new organisms DNA

We know that cheese was the first commercial use of recombinant DNA. What was the first medical application?

Insulin. The gene in humans that makes insulin has been transferred to bacteria to be the bacteria that produces insulin. 

It’s identical to human insulin.¬†

What is the relationship between Rennet and Chymosin?

Both are used in the process of making cheese.

1. Rennet is an extract found in the stomach of calves that has an enzyme to produce cheese. 

2. In 1990, Chymosin was made by isolating the gene representing the protein code, and putting into yeast cells to create the enzyme.



*All cheese is made through process (2) today, so vegetarians and Jewish people can eat cheese. 

What is intermediate bacteria, and what does it do?

The bacteria comprised of isolated genes that infects plants, and then the gene is transferred to the plant, producing whatever the gene encodes.


What are for beneficial output traits associated with food composition?



1. Tomatoes lycopene 

2. monounsaturated fat in some oils

3. Omega-3 in flax seeds

4. Sulforaphane in broccoli  

What are beneficial input traits associated with GM?

1. Introduces pesticides, reduce contamination and increasing yield.

2. It is impossible to produce a sufficient amount of food without pesticides. 


*There are 10,000 insect species, 8000 fungi and 2000 weeds that halter food production. 

What are Paris Green and Black Leaf?
Pesticides used before GM. Paris green was derived from arsenic, and Black Leaf, derived from nicotine. 
DDT is DichloroDiphenylTrichloroethane. It part of the second generation of Pesticides. What is it, and what did it do?

-It was “Black Flag”: Black leaf without Nicotine

-It increased food production 3-fold, pesticide use 10-fold

-It kills mosquitos, so malaria fell from 3 million cases in 1946 in Sri Lanka, to only 17 cases in 1963.

Now many lives did DDT save, according to the National Academy of Sciences?
600,000,000. Paul Muller won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1948 for this discovery.
What about DDT’s short-term toxicity?
It is extremely safe. Even people were sprayed with DDT when there was a Typhus epidemic.;
What about DDT’s long-term toxicity? 

DDT has a negative impact on the environment.

It is non-biodegratable and is fat soluble. 

What does DDT affect in animals? Why is this troublesome? 

-It affects calcium metabolism: birds who ate fish that had accumulated DDT laid fragile eggs. 

-Eagles came near extinct because of this.

-Eventually, insects were resistant to DDT. 

After DDT was banned in both Canada and the US, what was it thought to be?

1. An estrogen mimic

2. Dangerous for: early puberty in girls, sperm count, testicular cancer, vaginal cancer and breast cancer.

–> in reality, we are more exposed to natural estrogenic compounds than synthetic compounds. 

What was the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project?

-Congress wanted to find out why there were so many instances of Breast Cancer in women. 

-The greatest risk factor was wealth: delayed first pregnancy, fewer children. The richer you are, the later you will get married and you’ll have fewer children.;

Even though DDT was banned at the Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants, should we still use it?
-The World Health Organization recommends using DDT in developing countries by indoor spraying. There is nothing as effective in the prevention of malaria as DDT.;
Organophosphates are in the third generation of pesticides. What were they originally created as?
-Developed after WWII as nerve gasses.
How many deaths are attributed to pesticide use today?


Asian farmers most common weapon of suicide is pesticide.;

Who does pesticide use pose the biggest risk to?
-Farmers have the biggest risk; pesticide residue on crops is normally not great enough to harm consumers.;
The fourth generation of pesticides are Natural Toxins: they are both biodegradable and non-toxic. How do they work?

Plants produce their own pesticide to protect themselves against insects.;

We eat 10,000x more natural pesticides by weight than artificial pesticides.

What do organic farmers use as a pesticide?

Bacillus Thurengiensis. It isolates the Bt gene that encodes toxic proteins and it is introduced to certain crops; plants don’t have to be sprayed. 

This is good because we can use pesticides only on plants that need protection. 

How many countries use GM crops? Who uses them the most?

29 countries use GM crops. 5 countries make up 92% of the usage:


1. USA

2. Argentina

3. Canada

4. Brazil

5. India

What are the main risks of using the 4th Generation Pesticides? 

1. It can transfer genes involved in allergies to certain crops and provoking an allergy to an unexpected food. 

…But, it can also reduce allergic reactions by removing a gene that causes the reaction. 

How are Bt corn pollen and monarch butterflies related?
Bt corn pollen can kill monarch butterflies. 
What are the 4 Environmental Risks posed by Bt? 

1. Toxicity to Non-Target Species (i.e Monarch butterfly)

2. Insects will become resistant

3. Gene transfer to related species (pollen flux: it can travel great distances to infect non GM species)

4. Biodiversity (Soya forest in Brazil; 50% of worlds crop and 90% is GM)

What happened in the court case of Percy Schmeiser?

– He bought 1-years worth of Canola seeds from Monsanto. 

– He saved some of the seeds and planted them the next year

-He claimed the pollen flux from a neighbour next door kept his field in such good condition

-Upon appeal to the supreme court, Shmeiser argued that Monsanto should not have the right to patent seeds. 

-Court ruled 5-4 in favour of Monsanto. 


Robert Gibbon Johnson an exemplar of?

the “Perceived Risk” of food being dangerous:

-He went to Europe, noticed they ate many tomatoes

-Tomatoes weren’t eaten at the time in US because they were in the same family as the “Belladonna Plant”

-He ate a tomato in front of the town to prove it was safe

-Some claim this started the tomato industry in NA

Comparatively, what is Arthur Hasall an exemplar of?

Real risk.;

-Saw a steel fork was coated with copper after mashing gooseberries in a pie.

-Gooseberries were adulterated with copper to make them green

-This was very toxic.

In addition to the case of Arthur Hasall, what are 5 other examples of “real risks” that were once used?

1. Chalk added to watered down milk to make it milkier-looking

2. Arsenic and boric acid sprinkled on meat and fish to retard spoilage

3. Copper salts added to veggies

4. Plaster of Paris

5. Indigo, a colouring agent was added to tea to make an intense colour while using less tea


What is Aldicarb?

-Unintentional toxin in food

-Pesticide used to treat cucumber

-If poisoned by Aldicarb, Cholinergic symptoms prevail.;

-There have been many causes of Aldicarb poisoning.;

What is mercury classified as, and how is it harmful?

-It is an unintentional toxin

-Mercury is in fish because when we burn coal, it is vaporized and ends up in fish’s water.

-It is toxic in very small amounts

-It can significantly influence the development of babies in pregnant women

-Salmon is rarely contaminated with mercury.

What naturally occurring toxin killed Hippocrates? 

-Ancient greeks made prisoners drink something from the Hemlock plant.

-The Hemlock plant contains naturally toxic conine. 

What has happened to a potato when it has turned green?

-It is chlorophyl from the potato trying to photosynthesize

-It has produced Solanine which can be toxic to protect itself against bugs

-A large amount of green potatoes could make you sick

The Fly Argaric Mushroom:

Produces Muscarine, a toxin that can kill flies.

-It has killed people because people did not know they were toxic. 


Name a fungi plant and describe its characteristics:

Plant: The Fly Agaric Mushroom

-fungi cannot undergo photosynthesis

-they draw nutrients from the soil, organisms.

-fungi can produce toxic metabolites

Mycotoxins are toxins derived from fungi. What are the four mycotoxins?

1. Aflatoxin

2. Ochratoxin A

3. Patulin

4. Fusarium 

Describe Aflatoxin. 

-A Mycotoxin

-One of the most potent carcinogens

-Countries where food preservation is not optimal, aflatoxin increases

-These same countries have a high rate of liver cancer. 

-Grows in mold on peanuts, corn and barley in moist conditions.

Tyramine is found in cheese and red wine. What is it broken down by, and why is this dangerous?

-It is broken down by Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)

-It is a Vasopressin: it can constrict blood vessels

-Someone taking MAO inhibitors can have interference with Tyramine

-Patients taking MAOi’s will have high blood pressure if they eat too much cheese.

Scromboid Poisoning:

-Occurs after eating fish with high levels of histamine.

-It’s an allergic reaction that causes burning, tingling and upper body itch

-Antihistamines can fix this reaction (benadryl) 

Is eating Barracuda dangerous?

-Yes: it can cause Ciguatera Poisoning

-Ciguatera toxic originates from plants the barracuda eats.

-Ciguatera poisoning is shown by: nausea, vomiting, neurological problems, and usually occurs within 3-5 hours after consumption.

-The symptoms can last years after eating the fish! 

A fish that contains Tetrodoxin, kills by paralyzing the lungs, cooks must be trained “for years” to extract toxins, tingling occurs from eating it even after extraction, and can be countered by the “zombie cucumber” is? 
The “Puffer Fish”, a Japanese delicacy. 
What did Montreal restaurant customers consume that caused them to suffer from severe long-term memory impairment? (whom of which are still affected)

Mussels containing Domoic Acid.

Demoic acid is a neurotoxin found in algae which was taken in by the mussels.

What is a potential risk of consuming licorice plant root?
It contains Glycyrrhizinic Acid, which can reduce potassium in the body to the point of paralysis. 
What do comfrey plants contain that can cause liver damage? Do people still consume these plants?

-Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

-It is currently sold in health food stores because some people believe it has “healing power”

What are the two different types of diabetes, and how is each characterized?

1. Type 1 – the body cannot produce insulin

2. Type 2 – the body does not respond to the insulin hormone

What is Phenylkentorurea, and what food is it linked to?

-A genetic condition wherein individuals cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which is necessary to produce proteins and enzymes

-It is linked to aspartame, and other foods with high phenylalanine content

-Phenylalanine will accumulate in the brain and cause mental retardation

What is Lactose Intolerance?

-The lack of Lactase, which is an enzyme that breaks down Lactose into Glucose and Galactose. 


How can you test someone for lactose intolerance?

-By giving milk and testing for hydrogen gas in their breath after consumption. The hydrogen gas is produced by intestinal bacteria that decomposes the lactose.

-Lactaid tablets can be taken for lactose intolerance. 

Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

“Fructose-1-Phosphate Aldolase Deficiency” is?

A genetic disease that interferes with the body’s use of glucose. This occurs due to the normal fructose metabolic pathway not being completed. causing intermediate structures to accumulate.;
What does Heredity Fructose Intolerance cause?

-Causes hypoglycemia: low levels of glucose.;


What are the effects of hypoglycemia?

-It can cause seizures.

-People suffering from this disease hate sweets.

-“Sorbitol” sweetens sugar-free gum by a fructose derivative, and thus should be avoided by patients suffering from Heredity Fructose Intolerance.;

A disease caused by foods in the Mediterranean diet (mostly fava beans), causing hemolytic anemia, caused specifically by “Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency” is?
Favism. Favism can cause headache, nausea, vomiting, fever and back pain.;
Celiac Disease is a sensitivity to gluten. What is in the gluten that causes the immune response in the body? How does it work?


-Gliadin is seen as a “foreign” and the immune system mistakenly attacks. Cytokines, involved in this response, damages villi (proteins in the intestines)

What are the negative affects of damaging villi?

-Malabsorption of other nutrients, causing:


-Lightly coloured, bulky, smelly and sticky


-Lack of folic acid, calcium and protein.;

How was Celiac Disease discovered by Dr. Willem Dicke?

-Discovered patients got better when not eating bread, and bread was more difficult to find during the war


When does Celiac Disease commonly develop?
It is more likely to develop at an early age. Children are suspected to have CD when they don’t grow and have diarrhea. Adults, on the other hand, are suspected when they undergo unexplained weight loss.
What are three ways to test for Celiac Disease?

Endoscopic biopsy:

-Anti-Gliadin antibody test (but only 50% show damaged villi upon biopsy)

-Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase test (detects 80-90% – but has a problem of false negatives: people who aren’t gluten sensitive test positive)


Diseases celiac is linked to:

-non-hodgkins lymphoma;


-headache/behavioural problems

-autism/neurological problems


What is Silent Celiac Disease?

-Person positive for Anti-Gliadin antibodies but has no symptoms;

-May affect 1/200 people.;

What are the common reactions to Classical Food Allergies?

1. Swelling

2. Nausea;

3. Cramping

4. Diarrhea;

5. Eczema;

6. Itching

7. Vomiting

8. Flatulence;

9. Asthma;

10. Rhinits;

What happens during an anaphylactic shock? How can it be cured?

-A total collapse of the circulatory system, and can kill in as little as 4 minutes

-An “epi-pen” contains Adrenaline, which dilates the bronchial tubes enabling breathing and speeding the heart.

Are peanut allergies equally prevalent in all places in the world?
No. This is not completely understood, but could have something to do with the timeliness of a child’s first exposure. 
What are ways to avoid harmful reactions or death?

1. Always have an epi-pen within reach

2. Don’t wholly entrust labels that say “peanut free”

3. The myth that allergic reactions trigger when someone kisses somebody who just ate peanuts is “probably not true” (really?)

What is the relationship between breastfeeding and allergies?
Children who are breastfed for longer have fewer allergies. We learned this from studying pigs.
Headache, depression, aching joints, constipation and water retention are symptomatic of what?
Masked food allergies. Interestingly, the stuff we react to is something we crave in the diet. This is difficult to diagnose.;
Did Dr. Richard Mackarness prove that he had an allergy to bacon that made him tired?
After his colleagues secretly put bacon in his hospital food, they watched Mackarness go instantly to sleep.;
How does one test for masked food allergies?

By going on an elimination diet, which starts with lambs and cooked pears.;

If you find the culprit and stop eating it, you will express withdrawal symptoms.;

Sweating, shaking, palpitations, confusion and light-headedness are symptoms of what?
What causes hypoglycemia?
Not having enough sugar in your bloodstream, but it can be caused by eating too much sugar.;
Describe how hypoglycemia occurs
As soon as we take in sugar, pancreas releases insulin, and this causes sugar to be quickly absorbed into cells, leaving too little in the bloodstream.;
Is it true that sugar can make one hyperactive?
No. Sugar actually calms you down by releasing serotonin!;
Reactions whose underlying mechanisms are not well understood are:;
Idiosyncratic reactions.;
What triggers idosyncratic reactions?

1. Tartrazine;

-a yellow food dye

2. Benzoates;

-preservative in soft drinks

-3. Sulfites;

-bad for people with asthma (!)

-4. MSG

-also bad for asthma

-5. Capsaicin;

-“salsa sniffles” -chilli peppers contain these!;

What are the symptoms of salmonella?



-abdominal cramps





Occurring 6 hours after consumption and can last 1-2 days.


Can salmonella cause death?

No. But it can cause long lasting affects:

-heart problems

-chronic diarrhea;

-lactose intolerance

-reactive arthritis;

-precipitate food allergies (suggesting bacteria can cause lifelong allergies when infecting children)

Body reacting to toxins produced by food bacteria, even after cooking has killed all of the bacteria, is called what?
Bacterial intoxication.;
What do sprouts and cantaloupe have in common?
Both are high in bacteria. Sprouts grow in a very moist environment, whereas cantaloupe’s surface can contain bacteria (so they should be washed before cutting)
Will cooking a chicken in the microwave ensure there is no salmonella? 
No. The inside of the chicken will be cooked thoroughly by the microwave, but the surface may never get hot enough to kill all of the bacteria. UNLESS, the chicken in a plastic cover to retain the heat.
A bacterium with an incubation period of about 2-5 days, causing gastroenteritis.
Campylobacter Jejuni 
What are the symptoms of Campylobacter Jejuni?





Abdominal Pain

What is the syndrome characterized by the immune system inhibiting proper nerve conduction, that can last days or months?
Guillan Barre syndrome. This can be caused by campylobacter jejuni. 
Encephalitis and Meningitis are associated with what bacteria?
Liseria monocytogenes, which can grow on meat and cheese at refrigerated temperatures. 
What did Maple Leaf – the meat company – fail to do, causing their meat to be infected with listeria monocytogenes?
They failed to open up the machine and clean the internals. The machines did not instruct this, though, so Maple Leaf was not entirely at fault. 
What is the most dangerous bacteria?

Colstridium botulinum: 0.0000001 grams of this toxin can kill! 

-It can only replicate in the absence of air 

-It could grow in hot dogs/sausages, thus why nitrite is added


Is it necessary to cook steaks as thoroughly as hamburgers?
It is not necessary to cook steaks as thoroughly as hamburgers. Only the exterior contains bacteria, but since the outside is mixed with the inside for hamburger meat, extra caution must be taken. It needs to be cooked at 70 C or 160 F.
How does one contract Hepatitis A?
Through the oral-fecal route; if someone does not wash their hands before preparing food we can be at risk for gaining Hepatitis A. 
What happened at Chi-Chi’s restaurant?

-Had to be closed due to hepatitis in many of their customers

-Traced back to shallots from Mexico that were grown using manure as fertilizer.;

-Symptoms can last for months, they are flu like including diarrhea and jaundice.

What did Sylvester Graham, the first nutritionist, say people should stay away from in order to stay healthy?

-Meat: is a sexual inflammatory

-Spices: are irritants

-Caffeine: is a stimulant;



What significance do Graham Crackers have?
-They were the world’s first “anti-sex” food.
What 4 characteristics classify an organic food?

1. No additives

2. No chemical fertilizers

3. No synthetic pesticides 

4. No genetically modified components

Why should one buy organic?

1. Less pesticide residue

2. More nutrients

3. Environmental Concerns: this is the only scientifically supported argument to eat organic; less use = less pollution washed down into lakes and rivers. 

What was the percentage of pesticide residue on foods in 2003-04?

80%: fresh foods

90%: processed food

What pesticides to organic foods use?

1. Copper Sulfate 

2. Rotenone (from derris plant, linked to Parkinson’s disease)

3. Bacillus Thuringiensis

What are six factors that determine a foods nutrient ;value?

1. Variety Type

2. Soil Quality

3. Fertilizers;

4. Crop Rotation

5. Maturity at Harvest;

6. Transportation

Do organic foods have more salicylic acid?
No. A study that was carried out claimed a vegetable soup made with organic vegetables had 6x more salicylic acid, but it was only 0.1mg vs. 0.6mg. A baby aspirin has 81mg.
What do Harvey and Marilyn Diamond claim in their book “Fit for Life”?

-The FDA is money hungry

-Food was safer before science came into the picture

-They support “food combining”

-Woman should not orgasm during pregnancy because it cuts off oxygen to the fetus.;

What will you find at The Chelsey Physic Garden?
Hundreds of medical plants, laid out in areas depending on what they can do for the body.;
There is a section at The Chelsey Physic Garden dedicated to anti-inflammatory plants. What would you find there?

Autumn crocus, which has an active ingredient colchinine for gout.;


;For treating lung disease with herbal remedies, what would you use?
The belladonna plant, which dilates bronchial tubes. This works, as does autumn crocus. Today, our medicines have these elements, they are just extracted to make pill forms.;
Is taking herbal supplements from a health food store the same as ingesting the plant?
No. There are no regulation on herbal supplements. Despite this, many think they are safe because they are “natural.” 40% of people had used a herbal remedy within the past month, and 50% of the people never informed their physician. This is dangerous b/c the remedies can have negative reactions to other drugs.;
Echinacea is:
A plant used to treat respiratory tract illnesses. Today, it can be found in “Benylin” and was originally part of Clark Stanley’s famous snake oil. There is no scientific evidence to prove Echinacea treats the common cold. 
What is shaped like the human body, has been advertised as a panacea, can cause vaginal bleeding, and is sometimes considered a brain stimulant like caffeine?
What is the main component of ColdFX?
There is a standardized version of American Ginseng in ColdFX. It has been shown to reduce the risk of getting a second cold. 
What is Saw Palmetto?
A berry from which the herbal product is used to treat urinary problems. Some indicated it could help benign prostate hyperplasia (growth in prostate occurring in almost all men over 50). But the New England Journal conducted a study and found no significant difference. 
A plant that is said to improve mental function by increasing cerebral circulation.
Ginki Biloba (although some studies showed otherwise)
What did Adolphus Mohensee do with garlic?
He put garlic into his anus every evening, and when he woke in the morning and his breath smelled like garlic he thought it had worked its way up and cleaned out his insides. 
What is Allicin?

-Said to have cholesterol and blood pressure lowering effects

-It is supposed to boost the immune system

-Occurs after the garlic is cooked or cut. 

The impurity of natural food products is a big problem. What did a survey of ginseng supplements find?
-8/22 supplements sold in the US contained unacceptable levels of the pesticides quintozene and hexachlorobenzene. 
St. John’s Wort interacts with cyclosporine. What does this cause?

-Cyclosporine is an immune suppressant

-When a man had a heart transplant, it seemed to not be working

-It neutralized by inducing Cytochrome p-450 enzymes, which breaks down cyclosporine.;

Kava Kava

-A plant of south pacific origin

-Has some anxiety reducing properties

-In large doses it is linked with liver problems

-It is illegal in Canada

Where can we find ephedra?;
In metabolife, a weight loss drug. This drug caused around 15 000 complaints in 5 years, and caused the death of baseball player Steve Beckler. It is regulated in Canada and banned in the US.;
The Natural Health Products Directory was created.;

-Made natural food products have a product license;

-Production sites would be monitored;

-Good manufacturing practice

-Adverse reaction reporting



(*effectiveness is not a requirement)

-Many products aren’t applying for a license and aren’t being inspected.;

Functional Foods are also called?
Folic Acid is added to what food in order to prevent birth defects?
What food contains Stanols and Sterols to reduce blood cholesterol?
What did Wonderbread add to their food in order to promote it as beneficial for brain neurons?
Kellogg is considered the “father of modern health food.” What did he do to prevent sickness?

-He was a surgeon;

-He performed over 23000 of colon operations, taking peoples’ colons out 

-He thought this would reduce their risk of getting sick. 

Who believed that clean underwear was crucial for good health, and that men should exercise in clean white diapers?
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg
Similar to Sylvester Graham, Kellogg believed that meat was an inflammatory. What did he do to prevent this?
Put people on whole grain and vegetarian diets, even with a calorie count! 
How were Kellogg’s cornflakes created?;
Normally, Fletcherize-technique was used to chew food. When this didn’t work, a lady broke her teeth and threatened to sue Kellogg. Kellogg and his brother went to a grinder and chopped the bread into little flakes. This began wheat flakes and corn flakes – the worlds first cereals! 
John Kellogg had how many kids?
He had 36 children, all adopted: he never consummated his marriage. His abstinence from sex and meat perhaps contributed to his long life at 91. 
What was Charles Posts’ first cereal?
“Post Grapenuts flakes”; it didn’t have grapes or nuts in the cereal, but Post thought it would make it sound healthy. 
How did Kellogg describe the benefits of cereal?
He called them “little internal brooms” that would sweep out the colon. And thus, he created the first neutraceutical. 
What were other methods Kellogg used for the colon?

-A vibrating chair to “loosen” the insides.

-Fed people cereal and made them ride a saddle

-He had an enema machine and would pump people with galls of water and yogourt


Where did Kellogg get the idea of using yogourt? 
The mountain men of bulgaria. Metchnikoff decided the reason behind their longevity was the abundance of yogourt. 
What are probiotics?
Foods that contain specific micro organisms in sufficient numbers to alter the microbial flora in a host. They are “Good Bacteria” 
What are the main two bacteria in probiotics?

1. Acidophilus

2. Bifidobacteria 

What is Lactobacillus GG?

-A probiotic available as “Culturelle”

-Useful for treating from colitis, Crohn’s, and IBS

Activia is one of the most popular probiotics. How much probiotic is found in their product?

-You need a few billion bacteria to get any benefits, and the product only has 1 billion per serving

-They were sued for millions of dollars for misleading people.;

Prebiotics are?
Foods that the human body cannot digest and go straight to the colon.;
What is Inulin?;

-An effective probiotic;

-Fructose polymer, made up of 60 fructose units

-Chicory and Jerusalem artichoke are good sources.;


What is the ultimate antioxidant?;
COCOA POWDER! even more than green tea and blueberries!;

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