World History Unit 3 Study Guide

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Third Rome
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Moscow, Russia was called this; a Russian myth that Moscow was ordained to succeed Rome and Constantinople as the center of true Christianity
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Forbidden City
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Beijing. a city in China that was restricted to everyone but the royal family.
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Haiku
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3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5) usually focusing on nature
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czar
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A Russian emperor
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daimyo
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A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
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kabuki
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A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors)
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Myanmar
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a mountainous republic in southeastern Asia on the Bay of Bengal
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\”Window on the West\”
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St. Petersburg, a city built on newly conquered lands near Baltic Sea
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sakoku
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Japan’s self-imposed isolation from the outer world that lasted 2 centuries until 1854
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java
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a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans
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Siam
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a country of southeastern Asia that extends southward along the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay peninsula
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Boyars
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Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
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Jesuit
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a member of the society of Jesus, a religious order founded in the early A.D. 1530s by St. Ignatius of Loyloa
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Samurai
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A Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
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Shogun
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a hereditary military dictator of Japan
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Matteo Ricci
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Jesuit priest that went to China and impressed the officials with their European science
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Zheng He
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An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa
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Matthew Perry
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A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
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Hohenzollern family
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The house that ruled Prussia, they gradually won control over the Brandenburg through mariages, giving them control of German principalities in central and western Germany.
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Frederick William II
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Prussia’s most famous king who became involved in a costly war with France (1744-1797)
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Hapsburg family
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Controlled Austria, Hungary, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire. They stayed in power over 700 years (until WW1)
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Maria Theresa
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Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of Austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for Austrian society
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Marie Antoinette
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Queen of France (wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular for her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
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Romanov family
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Russian family that came to power in 1613 and ruled for three centuries.
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Peter the Great
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Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
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Vitus Bering
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Danish navigator and explorer. He led several Russian expeditions to determine whether Asia and North America were connected by land. The Bering Sea and Bering Strait are named after him.
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Catherine the Great
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Russian Empress from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, Russia became one of Europe’s most powerful nations
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Ming Dynasty
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Chinese dynasty between 1368-1644. Economy flourished, Border Policy was good, but not well enough enforced, as they were taken over by the Manchu from the North in 1644; name means \”brilliant\”; called the last dynasty of China because the last pure Chinese dynasty and one of the great ones
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Qing Dynasty
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known as the Manchu (Manzhou); , (1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture
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Francis Xavier
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Led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
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Tokugawa family
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A powerful family in Japan that ruled as shoguns, 1603-1867, characterized by a samurai ruling class, urbanization, and the growth of a merchant class. Top-down approaches worked to solve environmental problems.
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Hongwu
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First emperor of the Ming Dynasty in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
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Kangxi
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Chinese Qing emperor (r. 1661-1722) who promoted Confucian ideas and policies and expanded the Qing empire (Captured Taiwan, Mongolia, and parts of Central Asia- Tibet)
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Berlin
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Capital of Prussia
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Prussia
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A small part of the Holy Roman Empire, but due to the strong leadership of the Hohenzollern royal family super power of Europe and the basis for the future nation of Germany
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Moscow
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Capital of Russia; became the most important city in Russia after the Mongols were defeated
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Black Sea
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Sea located between Europe and Asia north of Turkey.
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Vienna
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Capital of Austria
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St. Petersburg
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Built by Peter the Great; a new place and a new capital city; \”window on the West\” (port to Baltic Sea)
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Baltic Sea
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a sea in northern Europe
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Ottoman Empire
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Austria’s powerful non-Christian enemy
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Beijing
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Capital city of the Ming Dynasty; became famous with its center known as the \”Forbidden City\”
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Tokyo
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The capital and largest city of Japan; formally known as Edo
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Nagasaki
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The only place the few foreigners could live in Japan
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Kyoto
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The capital city of medieval Japan.
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Edo
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capital city of Japan during the rule of Tokugawa shoguns; modern day Tokyo
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Philippines
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Spanish
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Indonesia
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Netherlands
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Singapore
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Britian
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Vietnam
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French
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Burma
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Britian
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Alaska
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Russia
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List 3 ways Peter the Great tried to Westernize Russia
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Men taxed unless they shaved their beards, women had to wear different clothes, and tried to force Western customs upon the nobility.
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Which Eastern European nation later unified Germany?
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Prussia
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What was the reason for the War of the Austrian Succession?
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So Maria Theresa could keep her throne. She kept throne, but lost a lot of territory to Prussia
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From which civilization and religion does Russia get its culture?
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Rome and Catholic, also known as the 3rd Rome
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What practice increased during the rule of Catherine the Great? What did this show?
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Feudalism and Orthodox Christian, she was born in Germany
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What did Ming China’s Maritime Expeditions say about China?
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They were the most impressive accomplishments of the Ming Dynasty lead by Cheng Ho; Their largest ships were the most advanced ships on earth with watertight compartments; Some scholars believe that his ships may have even visited the Americas
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Why did those expeditions cease?
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Chinese officials thought these voyages were a waste of money which was needed for defense and their luxurious capital city
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What was an area of study that Europeans were interested in but Qing China was not?
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hard sciences and technology
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Which Japanese ruler tried to build an empire by first attacking Korea?
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Zheng He
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Which Asian nation persecuted Christianity severely?
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Japan
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Which Asian nation was ultimately the most fertile ground for Christian missionaries?
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China
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How was the general attitude of China toward the West different from the attitude of Japan toward the West after the visit of Matthew Perry?
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China wanted more people, but Japan wanted to stick to customs
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Which Southeast Asian nation was not colonized by the West? Why?
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Thailand, because they did not want a change, and strongly were against it

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