World History: Renaissance & Reformation Study Guide

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Renaissance
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started in Italy, time of creativity and great change in many areas (political, social, economic, cultural), trade was more important during this time, knowledge helped people comprehend the world more accurately
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Humanities
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study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome/was emphasized a lot
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Humanism
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an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics (Greek and Roman cultures which increased understanding of own times where pious Christians focused on worldly subjects)
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Florence
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city that was center of the Italian Renaissance, Medici family ruled this city and helped it flourish
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Medici
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family that ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe, Lorenzo was a clever politician who helped Florence in hard times, family’s wealth and influence transformed Florence, symbolized energy and brilliance of Renaissance
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Secular
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not involving religion, church tried to protect papal states against these rulers, plotted against power monarchs who tried to seize control of the Church within their lands
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Patron
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financial supporter of the arts (ex: Lorenzo Medici)
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Perspective
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artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a 3D effect
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Leonardo da Vinci
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genius, sketched nature and models which lead to learning how bones and muscles worked, created Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, artist but had many talents which included botany, architecture, anatomy, music, and engineering, sketches for flying machines and undersea boats, most of his paintings are lost now
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Michelangelo
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sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet, his work reflects his life-long spiritual and artistic struggles, created David and Pieta, created ceiling in Sistine chapel which took 4 years and left him partially crippled
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Raphael
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had an artistic talent and sweet nature, developed his own style of painting that blended Christian and classical styles, best known for Madonna, created School of Athens that depicted all the great philosophers and scientists
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Vernacular
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everyday language of ordinary people
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Machiavelli
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wrote the Prince, wanted to unite northern Italy and insulate it from foreign interference, wanted to understand how to best obtain and hold power
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Machiavellian
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any leader who used deceit to impose his or her will
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Castiglione
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wrote The Book of Courtier
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Thomas More
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pressed for social reform, wrote Utopia, was against the Act of Supremacy, executed for treason, was later canonized as a saint
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Shakespeare
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writer who wrote 37 plays, expresses universal themes in everyday realistic settings, work explored Renaissance ideals such as the complexity of individuals and importance of the classics, characters spoke in language ordinary people could understand, his love of words enriched the English language
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Rebelais
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monk, physician, Greek scholar, author, used his characters to offer opinions on religion, education, and other serious subjects, he was deeply religions but had doubts about the organized church
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Realism
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making things look real through perspective or 3D art which represented humans and landscapes
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The Prince
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written by Machiavelli, guide on how to gain and maintain power, urged rulers to use whatever methods in order to achieve their goals, the ends justifies the means
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The Courtier
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written by Castiglione, describes the manners, skills, learning, and virtues a member of the court should have, the person has to well rounded like the people in Athens (lightness, strength, wit, know how to perform weapons)
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Utopia
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written by Thomas More, describes an ideal society where men and women live in peace and harmony
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Erasmus
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Christian humanist who called for Church reforms, urged for a return to the simple ways of the early Christian Church
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Protestant Reformation
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began in Germany, leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin, went against Catholic Church, Protestant religions flourished
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Martin Luther
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German monk and professor of theology who began the Protestant Reformation, saw Church corruption and worldliness, wrote 95 Theses against the Church to address some Church corruption (secularism, wealth, indulgences, Bible issues), did NOT intend to start a new religion, excommunicated by Pope bc he refused to recant
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95 Theses
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written by Luther, arguments against the Church, indulgences had no basis in the Bible, pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, Christians could be saved only by faith, was spread all around Europe due to the printing press,
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Indulgences
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pardons for sins committed during a person’s lifetime, lessening of a time a soul would have to spend in purgatory, used to be granted for good deeds but some priests began selling them, sold to finance church projects and help keep up the lavish lifestyles of popes
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Wittenburg
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a city in northern Germany where a priest offered indulgences for money to rebuild a cathedral, Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses here
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Charles V
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summoned Martin Luther, told Luther to recant, Luther refused to recant so he declared Luther an outlaw, put a bounty of Luther, said it was a crime to give food or shelter to Luther
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Diet
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assembly or legislature, Martin was called to this by Charles V
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Lutheranism
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all Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible, salvation achieved through faith, individuals can interpret the Bible their own way, allowed priests to marry, no confessions, started by Martin Luther
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Catholicism
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salvation achieved through faith and good works, head of the Church was the Pope, says only the Church can interpret the Bible and that people must follow the Church’s interpretation
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Peasants’ Revolt
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religious reforms should carry over to social and economic reforms, peasants hoped to gain Luther’s support, rebels called for an end to serfdom, Luther strongly favored social order and respect for political authority so he denounced this, Luther helped repress the rebellion where thousands of people were killed and left homeless
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Peace of Augsburg
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economy takes a hit due to many wars so princes decided each individual price will determine the religion of their kingdom, created an uneasy unstable truce between the princes and Charles
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John Calvin
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affected the direction of the Reformation, reformer raised to be a priest and lawyer, published a book with his beliefs and some of his beliefs on how to organize a Protestant Church, believed in Predestination, believed the world was divided into saints and sinners
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Calvinism
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believed in predestination, people can interpret the bible their own way, believed the world was divided in 2 kinds of people which are saints and sinners, tried to live like saints, started by John Calvin
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Predestination
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Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation (saved were called elect)
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Geneva
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Swiss city-state that became a Calvinist theocracy in the 1500’s, people came here to see themselves as a new “chosen people” entrusted by God to build a truly Christian society, model Calvinist community
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Theocracy
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government run by religious leaders, Calvin set up one of these
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Sect
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religious groups that had broken away from an established church
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Anabaptists
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a sect that believed people can interpret the bible, were against infant baptism bc infants are to young to accept the Christian faith, believed adults should be re-baptized, believed Church and state should be separated, did not believe in pushing their faith on others, were pacifists (no violence)
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Henry VIII
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King, married to Catherine of Aragon, wanted a male heir, wanted Anne Boleyn to bear him a son, pope refused to divorce him and Catherine, took English church control from under the pope, established Anglican Faith
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Act of Supremacy
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act passed by Parliament, made King Henry VIII the head of the Church of England, allowed him to marry as many women as he wanted and divorce them
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Annulment
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a divorce, acknowledges that a marriage never existed
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Mary Tudor
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daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, took throne after her half-brother Edward died, was determined to return England to the Catholic faith, religious persecution of non-Catholics
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Elizabeth
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daughter of King Henry and Anne Boleyn, took throne after Mary dies, issues edict of toleration (religious toleration to all religions), puts Anglican Church has official Church of England, preserved much Catholic rituals and traditions, restored unity in England, made England a Protestant nation
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Catholic Reformation
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Counter reformation, necessary to stop thousands from leaving the Catholic Church,
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Pope Paul III
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leader of the Catholic reformation, set out to revive the moral authority of the Church and roll back the Protestant tide, appointed reformers to end corruption within the papacy itself, called the Council of Trent, strengthened the Inquisition
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Council of Trent
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called by Pope Paul III, led by Carlos Borromeo, declared that salvation comes through faith and good works, Bible is not the only source of religious truth, Church interprets Bible, took steps to end abuses in the Church such as indulgences, provided stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption among the clergy, established schools to create a better educated clergy
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Inquisition
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Church court set up during the Middle Ages, used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy, prepared the Index of Forbidden Books
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Index of Forbidden Books
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a list of works considered to immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read, lists includes books by Luther and Calvin
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Jesuits
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called the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyala, strict program, spiritual and moral discipline, rigorous religious training, absolute obedience to the Church, advisors to Catholic rulers, set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs and enforced discipline and obedience, missionary work to distant lands, defend the faith with sword if necessary
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Ignatius of Loyala
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Spanish knight raised in the crusading tradition, founded the Jesuits, vowed to become soldier of God, helped establish schools and missionary work
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Teresa of Avila
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symbolized renewed feelings of intense faith, entered convent, established her own order of nuns, dedicated themselves to prayer and meditation, reorganized and reformed Spanish convents and monasteries, canonized by Church
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Catholic Reformation Legacy
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majority of Europeans remained Catholic, renewed piety found expression in literature and art, charity flourished, church abuses were reduced, heat arguments between Catholics and Protestants about government, war erupted throughout Europe, Europe divided by different interpretations of Christianity
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Witches
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agents of the Devil, seen as anti-Christians, were persecuted, most persecuted were women, beliefs in magic, believed some practiced magical deeds with the aid of the devil, often behaved in non-traditional ways so social outcasts and beggars were accused, most died in German states, Switzerland, and France
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Jews
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were ordered to live in ghettos, were expected to convert, expelled from Christian lands, synagogues were burned down, restrictions were placed on them, they were banned from Spanish territories and new American colonies, many migrated to the Mediterranean parts of the Ottoman Empire and to the Netherlands
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Scientific Revolution
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movement inspired by Renaissance ideals of curiosity and questioning the status quo, new way of thinking
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Geocentric Theory
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theory that the earth is the center of the universe, proposed by Ptolemy, was proven incorrect later
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Heliocentric Theory
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theory that the sun is the center of the universe, proposed by Copernicus, rejected by many expects, proven correct by Kepler
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Copernicus
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proposed that the sun was the center of the universe, his theory was rejected
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Kepler
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used mathematical calculations to prove the heliocentric theory, his data showed that each planet does not move in a perfect circle but in a oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse
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Galileo
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assembled an astrological telescope, observed that the 4 moons of Jupiter move slowly around the planets, caused an uproar, condemned by Church because his ideas challenged the Christian teachings that the heavens were fixed in position to earth, put under house arrest, agreed to court that the earths stands motionless at the center of the earth (but he knew that was wrong)
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Bacon
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devoted himself to understanding how truth is determined, rejected Aristotle’s assumptions, challenged the people who tried to make the physical world fit in with the teachings of the Church, argued that truth is known at the end, stressed experimentation and observation, wanted science to make life better for people by leading to practical technologies, developed the scientific method
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Descartes
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devoted himself to understanding how truth is determined, rejected Aristotle’s assumptions, challenged the people who tried to make the physical world fit in with the teachings of the Church, argued that truth is known at the end, emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding, decides to discard all traditional authorities and search for provable knowledge, did not question doubt
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Scientific Method
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step by step process used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis, required scientists to collect and accurately measure data, developed by Bacon
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Hypothesis
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an unproved theory accepted for the purposes of explaining certain facts or to provide a basis for further investigation, this is tested with further experimentation and observations, repeated many times to confirm results
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Newton
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perfected a theory to explain why planets moved as they did with mathematics, showed that single force keeps the planet in their orbits around the sun called gravity, he saw a apple fall from a tree and from there he started to perfect his theory

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