World History Mr. Belis Chapter 7

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Section 1
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Vocab:
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Anesthetic
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drug that prevents pain during surgery
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Enclosure
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the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
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James Watt
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Looked at Newcomen’s invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient
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Smelt
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melt in order to get the pure metal away from its waste matter
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Questions:
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What were the immediate and long-term effects of the agricultural revolution that occurred in the 1700s?
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There was a demand in that sector as the population grew, there were landless laborers as industries began to grow and new machinery created job losses for a loth of British farmers
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How do you think population growth contributed to the Industrial Revolution?
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As population increases, the railroad industry was developed for the shipping of the massively produced goods. As demand rose, more people began to like the products that these industries regulated. Therefore, industry kept expanding.
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Explain how new sources of energy, specifically coal, contributed to the Industrial Revolution.
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the switch from a self-sustaining organic economy to a mineral resource depleting inorganic economy was central to the British Industrial Revolution. It made factories more viable and cheaper to operate.
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Section 2
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Vocab:
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Capital
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money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
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Enterprise
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a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
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Entrepreneur
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person who assumes financial risk in the hope of making a profit
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Putting-out system
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a system developed in the eighteenth century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also know as cottage industry
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Eli Whitney
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invented a machine called the cotton gin that separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate
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Turnpike
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private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll, or fee, to travelers who used it
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Liverpool
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city and one of the largest ports in England; first major rail line liked Liverpool to Manchester in 1830
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Manchester
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city in England; one of the leading industrial areas; example of an Industrial Revolution city; first major rail line linked Manchester to Liverpool in 1830
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Questions
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What key factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?
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The abundant supplies of coal combined with the technological advances by British inventors
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Explain how each of the following helped contribute to demand for consumer goods in Britain: a. population explosion b.General economic prosperity
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1. population explosion – created a bigger, available workforce, which in turn created a larger demand for goods. 2. general economic prosperity – To meet the demand for goods the British needed to increase production. Since Britain had a stable government that supported economic growth, new businesses were started up, which created the need for increasing transportation, inventions etc.
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What was the significance of new machines to the textile industry?
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Production became faster, led to the creation of factories which increased production even more.
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Explain how advances in transportation contributed to Britain’s global trade.
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Production became faster, led to the creation of factories which increased production even more.
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Section 3
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Vocab:
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Urbanization
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movement of people from rural areas to cities
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Tenement
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multistory building divided into crowded apartments
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Labor union
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workers’ organization
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What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution?
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The Industrial Revolution was a period of technological development that took place in Great Britain from the mid 1700s through the mid 1800s. The Industrial Revolution brought about economic and social changes as a result of the move from hand tools to power tools and from small-scale production to large-scale production. The shift to manufacturing in factories caused people to leave rural areas for urban centers creating overcrowded and polluted cities.
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How did the Industrial Revolution affect a. cities and b. population distribution?
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While the Industrial Revolution brought great changes to the nation of Britain, it had a negative affect on the individual cities. It brought overcrowding and pollution to the cities. The overcrowding in the cities led to housing shortages. Crime rates in the cities grew, and alcoholism became rampant. The factory workers were paid low wages, creating a larger gap between the rich and the poor. The middle class increased at this time. Farmers were hard hit when the workers migrated to the cities to work in the factories.
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Explain how the Industrial Revolution changed the living conditions for both the middle class and the working class.
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The Industrial Revolution created jobs for both the working and middle class, allowing a higher standard of living
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Do you think increases in wages justify harsh working conditions? Why or why not?
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No. Higher wages do not negate harsh working conditions.
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Section 4
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Vocab:
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Thomas Malthus
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Saw the effects of the population explosion-crowded slums, hungry families, unemployment, and widespread misery.
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Jeremy Bentham
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a British philosopher and economist that advocated utilitarianism
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Utilitarianism
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idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
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Socialism
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system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
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Means of Production
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farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods
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Robert Owen
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set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland, to put his own ideas into practice
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Karl Marx
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a German philosopher condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism
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Communism
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form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creating of classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
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Proletariat
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working class
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Social democracy
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political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
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Questions:
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What new ideas about economics and society were fostered as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
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-Communism -Socialism
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What were the views of laissez-faire economists a. Adam Smith b. Thomas Malthus and c. David Ricardo
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Adam Smith is regarded as the father of modern economics. One of his theories said that society benefited from economic growth driven by free markets. Thomas Malthus was an economist who had a contrary view to this. David Ricardo agreed with Malthus that the poor were having too many children
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Contrast the approached of utilitarians and socialists to solving economic problems.
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Utilitarians believed the government should be involved to help the very weakest members, the utopian socialists believed the people as whole would own and operate the means of production in a separate community. All work is shared, all property is co-owned.
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How might workplace reforms have altered Marxist predictions of world revolution?
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Marx lived in a world where most employees were unskilled factory workers.

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