world history modern times chapter 10

Flashcard maker : Robert Lollar
ptolemy
was from the city of alexandria.
ptolemy
came up with the geocentric theory
the ptolemaic system
says the universe is a system of spheres one inside the other. geocentric model of the universe
geocentric
it places the earth at the center of the universe
heliocentric
it places the sun at the center of the universe
nicholas copernicus
wrote on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres
copernicus
came up with the heliocentric theory
copernicus
believed that the moon revolved around the earth
copernicus
from poland
johannes kepler
he was german
kepler
he too thought that the sun was at the center
kepler
the the orbit was not cirrcular, but egg shaped
keplers first law
contradicted the circular orbits and crystal like spheres that were central to the ptolemaic system
galileo
was italian
galileo
he was the first to make observations using a elescope
galileo
discovered mountains on the moon four moons around jupiter and sunspots
galileo
wrote the starry mesenger
galileo
got in major trouble with the catholic church
sir isaac newton
created the three laws of motion
newton
was an englishman
cambridge university
where sir isaac went to school
universal law of gravitation
every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by gravity
university of padua
where vesalius became a proffeser of surgery
harvey
showed that the heart was the center of blood flow
harvey
showed blood makes a complete circuit through the body
robert boyle
one of the first scientist to conducts controlled experiments
boyles law
staes the volume of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it
rationalism
belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
descartes
called the father of modern rationalism
scientific method
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
francis bacon
english philospher who used inductive reasoning
francis bacon
came up with the scientific method
inductive reasoning
scientist should proceed from particular to general
john locke
came up with the blank slate idea
locke
believed that people were molded by their enviroment
philosophe
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
enlightenment
philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievments of the scientific revolution
montesquieu
came up with three basic forms of goverment.. republics despotism..and monarchies
montesquieu
beleived there was three branches of goverment executive parliament and judicial
seperation of powers
the power is shared between the national goverment and the state goverment.
seperation of powers
uses a system of checks and balences
voltaire
he championed deism
deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
diderot
went to the university of paris
diderot
wrote the encyclopedia
laissez-faire
a policy based on the idea that bovernment sould play as small a role as possible in the ecomony..do what they want
adam smith
wrote the wealth of nations
adam smith
he gave the goverment three roles… to protect from invasion….defend from injustice… and keeping up public works
rousseau
he wrote the social contract
social contract
the doctrine that maintains the state should not intervine in econimics
mary wollstonecraft
founder of womens rights.
salon
elegant sitting room where guests are received
london
where the first newspaper was printed
rococo
fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century
bach and handel
great composers stand out as musical genuseses
hayden
played for princes.
mozart
wrote three of the worlds greatest operas
mozart and hayden
wrote classical music
enlightened absolutism
system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers it was a new type of monarchy
fredrick the second
most cultured monarchs…
fredrick
enlarged the prussia army
fredrick
he abolished the use of torture
fredrick
granted limited freedom of speech press and religion
joseph
he abolished serfdom,,,elimenated death penalty,,,established the principle of equallityof all before the law…alienated the nobles… freeing the serfs…
cathrine the great
she ruled rusiia
seven years war
Fought between France/Russia and Prussia- Frederick kept fighting against heavy odds and was saved when Peter III took Russian throne and called off the war
seven years war
Solved what the War of Austrian Succession had not. Prussia and Great Britain fought off France, Austria, and Russia
mestizos
People of Native American and European descent
mulattoes
offspring of european and african native people
hanoverians
aa new dynasty
robert walpole
served as head of cabinet and pursued peacful foreign polocy
yorktown
where the british ended the war
treaty of paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry in 1783
federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution freedom of speech religion press petition and assembly right to bear arms
the constitution
set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
aix-la-chapelle
treaty guarenteed the return of all ocupied territores to the original owner
articles of confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
decleration of independence
1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
enlightened absolutism
European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes’ reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member