World History final exam notes

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Baker
Ch. 17
Johan Gutenburg
invented the printing press
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Indulgence
an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires
Excommunication
the state of being excommunicated
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Reformation (Protestant)
movement that wished to change or restructure the Catholic Church. Persons who objected to the excesses and corruption in the Roman Catholic Church
Counter Reformation (Catholic)
reaffrimed all traditional catholic doctrine with Protestants.
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Ch. 19
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Daimyo
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Lateen Sail
a triangular fore-and-aft sail used especially in the Mediterranean
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Ming Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences
Ch. 20
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China in 1492 (1451-1506)
Hernado Cortes
Spanish conquistador of the 1500’s who led the expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Montezuma
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Atahualpa
Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish
Oloudah Equiano
Age of Reason. 18th Century. Slave Narrative. The Narrative of Equiano
Conquistador
an adventurer (especially one who led the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century)
Mestizo
a person of mixed spanish and native american ancestry
Encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Joint-Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts
Mercantilism
an economic system to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Jamestown
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
French & Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
Ch. 21
Cardinal Richelieu
French prelate and statesman
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people
Divine Right of Kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Habeas Corpus
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
Edict of Nantes
1598 – Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
Ch. 22
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States
Geocentric/Heliocentric
Heliocentric means \”sun-centered\”, or the current way astronomers look at our solar system. the sun at the center and all the the other planets encircling it.

Geocentric means \”earth-centered\”, or the astrological or pre-Copernicus view of our solar system. the Earth at the center and the Sun, Moon, and planets encircling it.

Philosophe
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
Enlightened Despot
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
Checks & Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Scientific Method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

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