World History Chapter 30

Flashcard maker : Robert Carter
National Socialist (Nazi) Party
led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the great depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader, aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933
Winston Churchill
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults
Blitzkrieg
means lightning warfare in German; involved rapid movement of airplanes, tanks, and mechanized troop carriers; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in world War II
Vichy
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France after the defeat of French armies by Germany
Battle of Britain
the 1940 Nazi air offensive including saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by innovative British air tactics and radar tracking of German assault planes
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler’s last-ditch effort to repel the invading allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945
Pearl Harbor
American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused US entry into World War II
Battle of the Coral Sea
World War II Pacific battle; US and Japanese forces fought to a standoff
Midway
An island in the Pacific around which a major battle took place between Japan and America. America won decisively, destroying several aircraft carriers, which crippled Japanese naval power
United Nations
International organization formed in the aftermath of World War II; included all of the victorious allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes between nations
Tehran Conference
Meeting among leaders of the US,Britain, and Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France
Yalta Conference
Meeting among leaders of US, Britain, and Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the pacific theater in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war
Potsdam Conference
meeting among leaders of the US, Britain, and Soviet Union just before the end of World War II in 1945. Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious allies
Total War
warfare of the 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were Marshalled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the US and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Quit India Movement
Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India
Muslim League
founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for seperate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement
Muhammad Ali Jinna
Muslim nationalist leader in India; originally a member of the National Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support of British during World War II for promises of a seperate Muslim state after the war; first President of Pakistan
Convention People’s Party (CPP)
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in the Gold Coast
Jomo Kenyatta
leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya African Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau
Kenya African Union
leading nationalist party in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950’s
Land Freedom Army
radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by the failure of nonviolent means, initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by the British as Mau Mau
National Liberation Front (FLN)
radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950’s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958
Secret Army Organization (OAS)
organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerilla war following independence during the 1960’s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence
Afrikaner National Party
emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid
Apartheid
policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically

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