World History Chapter 23 Sections 1-5 Vocab

Flashcard maker : Ruth Jones
Old Regime
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution.
Estates
one of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution-the First Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate,of the nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the population.
Louis XVI
he was the king of France and was an extravagant spender. he paid little attention to his government advisors, and had little patience for the details of governing.
Marie Antoinette
she was Louis XVI’s queen and often interfered in the government, and frequently offered Louis poor advice.
Estates-General
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791.
Emigre
a person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution.
Sans-Culotte
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages.
Jacobin
a radical political organization.
Guillotine
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Maximilien Robespierre
a Jacobin leader, who slowly gained power.
Reign Of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1974, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.
Napoleon Bonaparte
one of the world’s greatest military geniuses.
Coup D’etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation.
Plebiscite
a direct vote in which a country’s people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.
Lycee
a government-run public school in France.
Concordat
a formal agreement-especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs.
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon.
Battle Of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Blockade
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region.
Continental System
Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy.
Guerrilla
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country.
Peninsular War
a conflict, lasting from 1803 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon’s French troops out of Spain.
Scorched-Earth Policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
Waterloo
a village in Belgium, near where the European allies quickly marshaled their armies led by the Duke of Wellington.
Hundred Days
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France.
Congress Of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.
Klemens Von Metternich
by far the most influential of the representatives was the foreign minister of Austria, he was also a prince.
Balance Of Power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
Legitimacy
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
Holy Alliance
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna.
Concert Of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.

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