World History: Chapter 21 Section 2 – The Spread of Christianity in Europe

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Monasteries and Convents: A. The Benedictine Rule (1. What is a monastery? 2. What is a convent? 3. When and where did the first Christian monasteries develop? 4. Who was Benedict and what did he do? 5. What kinds of promises did monks and nuns make under the Benedictine Rule?)
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A monastery is a selected religious community. A convent is a religious community for women known as nuns. Monks and nuns devote their lives to spiritual goals. The first Christian monasteries developed in Egypt in the A.D. 300s. Later, an Italian monk named Benedict established a new European version of monastic life. About 529, Benedict organized a monastery in central Italy. There, he created a series of rules for monastic life. In time, these rules—known as the Benedictine Rule—were adopted by monasteries and convents thought Europe. Under the Benedictine Rule, monasteries Rule, monastic life was a shared experience that balanced prayer and work. Monks and nuns made vows, or solemn promises, to live and worship within their communities for the rest of their lives. They also promised to obey their leaders, work for the good of their community, remain unmarried, and own nothing individually.
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B. Daily Life in Monasteries (1. How was the day divided in a monastery? 2. What kinds of work did monks do during their work day? 3. Why did monasteries provide basic health care and education to the community? 4. How did the monasteries help keep ancient learning alive?)
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The monastic day was busy—and long. It began early, with prayers before dawn, and ended late in the evening. Each day was divided into periods for worship, work, and study. Monks used chants to mark the economical hours, or religious divisions, of the day. Monasteries and convents were not only places where monks and nuns lived and prayed, but were also places of work and study. Many were self-contained communities that grew their own food. They made many of the things people needed in daily life. Monks worked in the monastery’s gardens and workshops. They worked in libraries where they copied and illustrated religious manuscripts. Early medieval Europe had no hospitals or public schools. As a result, monasteries and convents often provided basic health and educational services. Monks and nuns helped care for poor and sick people. They set up schools for children. Monasteries and convents also helped keep ancient learning alive. Their libraries contained Greek and Roman works, which monks and nuns copied. Some monks and nuns wrote and taught Latin, which was the language of the Church and of educated people.
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The Conversion of Europe: C. St. Patrick Converts Ireland (1. What is a pagan? 2. What does convent mean? 3. What is a missionary? 4. What do we know about the life of Saint Patrick? 5. Describe how the conversion of Ireland progressed for Patrick. 6. What is a saint?)
answer

A pagan is a follower of a polytheistic religion. Convert is a verb meaning, “to bring over from one belief to another.” In tn he text it says, “During the early Middle Ages, Catholic missionaries traveled across Europe to convert pagans to Christianity.” A missionary is someone who tries to convert others to a particular religion. One important early missionary was a man named Patrick. Some of the stories about Patrick are probably legendary, but we do know that Patrick was born in Britain in the late 300s. As a teenager, he was sold into slavery in Ireland. Patrick eventually escaped, but he later returned to Ireland to convert its people to Christianity. Patrick began his missionary work in northern and western Ireland. At first, Irish people resisted his teachings. But over time, he gained the true and friendship of the local tribes. Many Irish people became Christians. In fact, Patrick and other early missionaries founded hundreds of Christian churches in Ireland. A saint is a person believed to be especially holy, similar to St. Patrick.
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D. Missionaries to Britain (1. When did Pope Gregory I send missionaries to Britain? 2. Why was the conversion of the section called Kent relatively easy? 3. About how long did it take to convert most of Britain?)
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Pope Gregory sent a group of monks as missionaries to Britain in 597. They were welcomed by the king of Kent, whose wife was already a Catholic. After the king converted to the new faith, his subjects followed his example. Over the next hundred years, most of Britain became Catholic as well.
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E. Christianity Spreads Through Europe (1. Where did the British monk Boniface work to convert pagans to Christianity? 2. What are some ways that the Catholic faith became the center of European society?)
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By the 700s and 800s, Catholic missionaries were working in on other parts of Europe. In northern Europe, the British monk Boniface worked to establish the Catholic Church in Germany and the Netherlands. Over time, the Catholic faith became part of everyday life in most parts of Europe. Daily life revolved around the Catholic Calendar, which included many holidays, such as Easter, as well as local holy days dedicated to saints. The church became the center of European society as well as a place of worship.
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The Medieval Church: F. Catholic Teachings (1. What were some of the things that the Church taught were sins? 2. What did the Church teach would happen to a person after death? 3. What were the ways to avoid hell? 4. What is a sacrament? 5. What is baptism? 6. What is communion?)
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Sins, such as stealing or doing harm to others, were violations to God’s law. Catholics believed that the way people lived would affect what happened to their souls after death. The concepts of heaven and hell were central to medieval Catholic beliefs. Heaven was described as a perfect place where the souls of those who followed God’s law would go after death. Hell was described as a fiery place of punishments for sinners. Catholics believed that the only way to avoid hell was to do good deeds, believed in Jesus, and participate in the sacraments. Sacraments are sacred rites of Christianity, such as baptism and communion (which is also known as Eucharist). Baptism is a rite that uses water as a sign of spiritual purification and admits a person to the Christian community. Communion is a rite in which people consume consecrated bread and wine that has been made sacred and which Catholics believe thus becomes the body and blood of Jesus.
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G. The Church’s Power (1. How did Europeans view the authority of the Church? 2. How could the church punish people? 3. What kind of wealth and land did the Church control directly? 4. What was the controversy about who could choose local bishops?)
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Medieval Europeans believed that the Church was the highest authority and the guardian of God’s truth. Because the Church controlled the administration of the sacraments, it could punish people by denying them the sacraments (excommunication). Medieval Catholics believed that the people who did not receive the sacraments would be condemned to hell. The Church also controlled some land and wealth directly. The pope controlled vast lands in central Italy, and many high-ranking clergy were nobles who had their own territories and armies (papel states). Some wealthy monasteries held large areas of land. Secular rulers sometimes struggled against the influence of the Church. For example, they argued over whether the pope or secular leaders had the right to choose local bishops.
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H. Christendom (1. What is Christendom? 2. How did the idea of Christendom help to bring the different peoples of Europe together? 3. How did this idea of Christendom also lead to conflict?)
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Eventually, most peoples of Europe were united under the Catholic faith. Although Christians might speak different languages and follow different customs, they saw themselves as part of Christendom. Christendom is the large community of Christians spread across the world. The idea of Christendom gave the peoples of Europe a common identity and a sense of purpose. Over time, this sense of common purpose would bring some Christians into conflict with their pagan, Jewish, and Muslim neighbors (persecution).
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Monastery
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A secluded religious community where men known as monks focused on prayer and scripture. The first Christians created these in Egypt in the A.D. 300s. Later, an Italian monk named Benedict established a new European version of monastic life. About 529, Benedict organized a monastery in central Italy. There, he created a series of rules for monastic life. In time, these rules—known as the Benedictine Rule—were adopted by monasteries and convents thought Europe. Under the Benedictine Rule, monasteries Rule, monastic life was a shared experience that balanced prayer and work. Monks and nuns made vows, or solemn promises, to live and worship within their communities for the rest of their lives. They also promised to obey their leaders, work for the good of their community, remain unmarried, and own nothing individually.
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Convent
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A religious community for women known as nuns.
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Pagan
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A follower of a polytheistic religion.
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Sacrament
answer

The concepts of heaven and hell were central to medieval Catholic beliefs. Heaven was described as a perfect place where the souls of those who followed God’s law would go after death. Hell was described as a fiery place of punishments for sinners. Catholics believed that the only way to avoid hell was to do good deeds, believed in Jesus, and participate in the sacraments. Sacraments are sacred rites of Christianity, such as baptism and communion (which is also known as Eucharist). Baptism is a rite that uses water as a sign of spiritual purification and admits a person to the Christian community. Communion is a rite in which people consume consecrated bread and wine that has been made sacred and which Catholics believe thus becomes the body and blood of Jesus.
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Patrick
answer

A pagan is a follower of a polytheistic religion. Convert is a verb meaning, “to bring over from one belief to another.” In tn he text it says, “During the early Middle Ages, Catholic missionaries traveled across Europe to convert pagans to Christianity.” A missionary is someone who tries to convert others to a particular religion. One important early missionary was a man named Patrick. Some of the stories about Patrick are probably legendary, but we do know that Patrick was born in Britain in the late 300s. As a teenager, he was sold into slavery in Ireland. Patrick eventually escaped, but he later returned to Ireland to convert its people to Christianity. Patrick began his missionary work in northern and western Ireland. At first, Irish people resisted his teachings. But over time, he gained the true and friendship of the local tribes. Many Irish people became Christians. In fact, Patrick and other early missionaries founded hundreds of Christian churches in Ireland. A saint is a person believed to be especially holy, similar to St. Patrick.
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Boniface
answer

By the 700s and 800s, Catholic missionaries were working in on other parts of Europe. In northern Europe, the British monk Boniface worked to establish the Catholic Church in Germany and the Netherlands. Over time, the Catholic faith became part of everyday life in most parts of Europe. Daily life revolved around the Catholic Calendar, which included many holidays, such as Easter, as well as local holy days dedicated to saints. The church became the center of European society as well as a place of worship.
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Gregory
answer

Pope Gregory sent a group of monks as missionaries to Britain in 597. They were welcomed by the king of Kent, whose wife was already a Catholic. After the king converted to the new faith, his subjects followed his example. Over the next hundred years, most of Britain became Catholic as well.
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Benedict
answer

A monastery is a selected religious community. A convent is a religious community for women known as nuns. Monks and nuns devote their lives to spiritual goals. The first Christian monasteries developed in Egypt in the A.D. 300s. Later, an Italian monk named Benedict established a new European version of monastic life. About 529, Benedict organized a monastery in central Italy. There, he created a series of rules for monastic life. In time, these rules—known as the Benedictine Rule—were adopted by monasteries and convents thought Europe. Under the Benedictine Rule, monasteries Rule, monastic life was a shared experience that balanced prayer and work. Monks and nuns made vows, or solemn promises, to live and worship within their communities for the rest of their lives. They also promised to obey their leaders, work for the good of their community, remain unmarried, and own nothing individually.
question

Christendom
answer

Eventually, most peoples of Europe were united under the Catholic faith. Although Christians might speak different languages and follow different customs, they saw themselves as part of Christendom. Christendom is the large community of Christians spread across the world. The idea of Christendom gave the peoples of Europe a common identity and a sense of purpose. Over time, this sense of common purpose would bring some Christians into conflict with their pagan, Jewish, and Muslim neighbors (persecution).
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Know how Catholic Calendar affected life.
answer

By the 700s and 800s, Catholic missionaries were working in on other parts of Europe. In northern Europe, the British monk Boniface worked to establish the Catholic Church in Germany and the Netherlands. Over time, the Catholic faith became part of everyday life in most parts of Europe. Daily life revolved around the Catholic Calendar, which included many holidays, such as Easter, as well as local holy days dedicated to saints. The church became the center of European society as well as a place of worship.
question

Know what the “Benedictine Rule” is.
answer

An Italian monk named Benedict established a new European version of monastic life. About 529, Benedict organized a monastery in central Italy. There, he created a series of rules for monastic life. In time, these rules—known as the Benedictine Rule—were adopted by monasteries and convents thought Europe. Under the Benedictine Rule, monasteries life was a shared experience that balanced prayer and work. Monks and nuns made vows, or solemn promises, to live and worship within their communities for the rest of their lives. They also promised to obey their leaders, work for the good of their community, remain unmarried, and own nothing individually.
question

Know what St. Patrick did.
answer

A pagan is a follower of a polytheistic religion. Convert is a verb meaning, “to bring over from one belief to another.” In tn he text it says, “During the early Middle Ages, Catholic missionaries traveled across Europe to convert pagans to Christianity.” A missionary is someone who tries to convert others to a particular religion. One important early missionary was a man named Patrick. Some of the stories about Patrick are probably legendary, but we do know that Patrick was born in Britain in the late 300s. As a teenager, he was sold into slavery in Ireland. Patrick eventually escaped, but he later returned to Ireland to convert its people to Christianity. Patrick began his missionary work in northern and western Ireland. At first, Irish people resisted his teachings. But over time, he gained the true and friendship of the local tribes. Many Irish people became Christians. In fact, Patrick and other early missionaries founded hundreds of Christian churches in Ireland. A saint is a person believed to be especially holy, similar to St. Patrick.
question

Know what are considered to be violations of God’s law.
answer

Sins, such as stealing or doing harm to others, were violations to God’s law. Catholics believed that the way people lived would affect what happened to their souls after death. The concepts of heaven and hell were central to medieval Catholic beliefs. Heaven was described as a perfect place where the souls of those who followed God’s law would go after death. Hell was described as a fiery place of punishments for sinners. Catholics believed that the only way to avoid hell was to do good deeds, believed in Jesus, and participate in the sacraments. Sacraments are sacred rites of Christianity, such as baptism and communion (which is also known as Eucharist). Baptism is a rite that uses water as a sign of spiritual purification and admits a person to the Christian community. Communion is a rite in which people consume consecrated bread and wine that has been made sacred and which Catholics believe thus becomes the body and blood of Jesus.

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