world history chapter 19

Flashcard maker : Margaret Bruce
analyze why life changed as the industrial spread
-worked with handmade tools
-made own clothes
-grew own food
-villages started to grow into towns and cities
-those who lived in towns and cities bought their clothes and food
summarize how an agricultural revolution led to the growth of industry
-farming methods improved
-population multiples
-enclosure increases output but causes migration
outline the new technologies that helped trigger the industrial revolution
-steam engine
-smelt iron
understand why Britain was the starting point for the industrial revolution
-had plentiful natural resources such as natural ports and navigable rivers
-trade from a growing overseas empire
-stable government that supported economic growth
-didn’t have river rolls and other barriers
-strong navy
describe the changes that transformed the textile industry
-cottage industry
-flying shuttle
-spinning jenny
-water frame
-cotton gin
-powered by steam engines
explain the significance of the transportation revolution
-canals boom
-steam locomotive made the growths of railroads possible
-tracks could go anywhere and could transfer more things at one time
explain what caused urbanization and what life was like in the new industrial cities
-industrial revolution caused urbanization
-more people moved to cities
-some farmers went homeless and jobless
understand how the factory system and mines changed the way people worked
-worked in bad conditions
-long hours
-children started working at age 7 or 8 or even sometimes 5
-couldn’t see because of the dust
-children crawled under machinery to repair broken threads
analyze that benefits and challenges of industrialization
-goods grew
-factories opened
-more jobs
-wages rose

-pay was low
-terrible working conditions
-dismal housing

understand the laissez-faire economics and the beliefs of those who supported it
-malthus believed that natural laws govern the world of economics
-smith was popular and most middle class capitalists agreed with him
-ricardo saw no hope for working class to escape poverty
describe the doctrine of utilitarianism
-the idea that the goal of society should be \”the greatest happiness for the greatest number of citizens\” and that this should be the basis for judging all laws
-Bentham believed there should be some government intervention in the economy
-Mill believed that power should be exercised over someone to prevent the harm to others
summarize the theories of socialism
-set up communities where work was shared and property was commonly owned
-Owen set up a Utopian community to show that mill owners could make a decent profit
-Marx condemned Utopians as unrealistic dreamers
explain Marx’s views on the working class and the response to Marxism
-said that modern class struggle pitted the bourgeoise against the proletariat
-predicted that proletariat would take control of the means of production
-thought a communist society would end the struggles of equal wealth and power
-at first, Marx gained popularity

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