World History Chapter 17 Study Guide

Humanism:
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. The movement allowed them to understand that life on earth wasn’t hell and isn’t all suffering. It started from the studies of classical texts. This allowed them to stop make classical text agree with Christianity, but instead allow it to agree with ancient Greek. It was important because it allowed them to become more educated by studying history, literature, and philosophy, which allowed them to deal with their own problems and not blame them on god.
Niccolo Machiavelli:
He wrote the prince in 1513. He taught people strategies and a new way to rule over people. It examines the imperfect conduct of human beings in a political guide book. It provides an explanation on how a ruler can gain power in spite of his enemies. He also talked about how people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt. It is important because it guides many rulers to success.
Lorenzo de Medici:
He came into power in 1469 after the death of his grandfather in 1464. He is known as Lorenzo the magnificent. He ruled as a dictator but he still kept an image that there was an elected government. He controlled Florence, and was an important family in Italy because they had a strong banking family and ruled them the right way.
Michelangelo Buonarroti:
He lived from 1475 till 1564, and was a true renaissance man. He excelled in subjects including painting, sculptor, architect, and poet. He is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpting. He is important because he influenced many artists and kings to paint or to donate their money. He is also important because he brought the renaissance back with him from Italy.
Leonardo Da Vinci:
He lived from 1452 till 1519, and he too was a renaissance man. He filled his book with observations, and then incorporated them in his drawing. He wrote backward, and filled his book with drawing. He is most famous for the Mona Lisa, because of how real she looks. Another famous artwork he did is the last supper, and it shows the personality of Jesus and his disciples. He is also important for being an artist and brings the renaissance to different countries.
Chateaux:
They are castles combining medieval and Italian renaissance elements. It is important because it mixed the culture of medieval Europe and the Italian renaissance. It also inspired them to create new ideas, themes, and architecture.
Johannes Gutenberg:
He is a craftsman in Mainz, Germany, and around 1440 he developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way. The printing press allowed them to print pages faster and allowed them to print hundreds of books and papers. This is important because it became cheaper and people were able to keep up with the news and what’s happened in the city.
The “Low Countries”:
These are the countries that are below sea level, and these include Germany and the Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg) countries. These are important countries because they received the renaissance after the French renaissance. There also important because they change the humanism ideas from focusing on human potential to Christian humanist, in which it focuses on ending corruption or abuse of medieval church and to do so they focused on learning and bible study in order to end it. They want the pope to stop living lives of excessiveness.
William Shakespeare:
He is the most famous writer of the Elizabethan age, and is regarded is the best playwright of all time. He was born in 1564 in Stanford-upon-Avon, by 1592 he was living in London, and writing many poems and plays. He is an important player because his plays are still discussed today and they inspire many people even after hundreds of years.
Erasmus:
His name is Desiderius Erasmus and was one of the best known Christian humanists. His most famous work is “The praise of Folly.” It pokes at merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome collars, and monies or rules. He was important because he taught people in order to improve society, people should study the bible; which lead to people analyzing and studying the bible just as Martin Luther.
Brueghel:
His name is Pieter Brueghel the elder, and he worked with Flemish. He like Flemish was very interested in realistic details and individual people. He was very skillful in a large amount of peoples and everyday peasant life like weddings and dances. He was important because he used rich colors, vivid details, and balanced use of space that gave it a sense of life and feeling.
Sir Thomas More:
A Christian humanist who wrote a book called utopia in 1516. He was one of the best Christian humanists, and was close friends with Desiderius Erasmus. He was important because he played an important role when King Henry VII divorced his wife.
Utopia:
A book written by Sir Thomas More in 1516. In Greek it means “no place, but in English it means an ideal place as depicted in Moore’s book. The book is about an imaginary place where greed, corruption, and war have been weeded out. Also they need less money because there is no greed. It is important because it set a model for all societies to look up to and something for us to strive for.
Martin Luther:
He lived from 1483 till 1546; his parents wanted him to be a lawyer. But fearing death at a storm he promised to become a monk and teacher till the end of his life. He then studied the bible and found faults in the church, so he developed a document called the 95 thesis. The church didn’t agree with it, but soon the people translated it from Latin to Greek, and they started reading the bible and believed the changes. He is important because he sparked an idea in the peoples and formed a new religion called protestant and Lutheranism.
Pope Leo X:
He is the pope that threatens Luther after telling the people to drive the pope out of the church. Luther didn’t care and didn’t take a word back so he excommunicated him. He also is on the trial of worms against Luther. He plays an important role in the reformation because after excommunicating him and finding him guilty on trial, Luther fled the country and formed his religion in secrecy.
Justification by Faith:
A doctrine stating that salvation should be reached through faith alone, and it was martin Luther who believed this idea. This is very important because it caused new religions to be formed on the debate on salvation. Also this is practiced in many religions including Anglican and Lutheranism.
Indulgences:
A pardon, which released a sinner from performing the penalty a priest imposed for sins. Indulgences were not supposed to affect God’s right to judge. However Johann Tetzel sold them to raise money and gave the impression that by buying them, they could buy their way into heaven. This is important because, this troubled martin Luther, and in response it lead him to write the 95 thesis. Which lead to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.
95 Theses:
A list of 95 critiques of the Catholic Church, posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany. It was written by Martin Luther, who intended to reform the church internally and quietly (only people inside the church to know). There are three main points: 1) God wants a direct relationship with man (not sacraments), 2) Christianity should be a priesthood of all believers (hierarchy unnecessary), and 3) The road to salvation (Heaven) is through “Faith alone”. This document is important because this is the start of a new religion and a full reform of the church. It also emerges the social forces, Capitalism, and the erosion of the feudal system.
Henry VIII:
He is son of Henry VII, he was originally not meant to rule but after the death of his sick brother Arthur, he ruled the throne of England and married to the wife of his dead brother (Catherine of Aragon) in 1509. He originally sided with the church when Martin Luther wanted to reform and was nicknamed “Defender of the faith”, but after wanting to get rid of Catherine of Aragon (He needed an heir to the throne) he broke away from the church. He is an important figure because he forms a new religion and breaks away from the church influencing England till modern day.
Edward VI:
Henry’s only surviving son, and came from Jane Seymour. He reigns as a child under the supervision of advisors and uncles until his early death as a teenager (natural disease). During his reign he influenced the religion his father set out, which was important because people were getting used to the change of religion.
Theocracy:
A government controlled by religious leaders. This was an ideal government in Calvin’s mind, and he put it out to use. This is important because it formed Calvin’s Geneva and became a model city of highly moral citizens (Began to be known as Calvinism). Calvinism also began to spread from his followers and they decided to do put his ideas to work
Zwingli:
Huldrych Zwingli is a catholic priest in Zurich. He was influenced by the reforms of Martin Luther and the Christian humanism of Erasmus. In 1520 he opened attack on the church so they could return to the more personal faith of Christianity and also for believers to be in control of the church. The ideas of Zwingli quickly spread to other cities. During a war against the Catholic Church in 1531, he met his death. However he was very important because e influenced many including a law student in France known as john Calvin became interested in the church and began clarifying religious beliefs.
Calvin:
John Calvin John Calvin is a Law student in France, who has in interest in the church and began clarifying religious ideas and thoughts. He was only eight when Martin Luther posted the 95 thesis in 1517, yet he had as much influence in the protestant Religion. He wrote a book in 1536 called Institutes of the Christian religion. It is about protestant religion as well as thoughts. He also talks about the “elect” which are the people God has chosen to save. He is important because he influenced the world with his ideas and then put them into one subject called Calvinism.
Predestination:
A doctrine that says that God chooses a very few people to save and has known since the beginning of time. Calvin called these few the “elect.” He had taken these ideas from Luther’s Idea that humans cannot earn salvation. This is important because it allowed the two ideas to incorporate the same ideas and see that they have the same core but different detail. Also the ideas are incorporated in Calvinism
Anabaptists:
A protestant religion that formed from difference in belief. The religion differed from the rest because they only baptized those people who were old enough to decide to be Christian. They believed that kids should be re-baptized as adults again. In Greek it meant “Baptize again.” They like Martin Luther believed state and church should be separate. Although they were protestant ideas, they were threatened by both Catholics and Protestants. Yet they survived, and they were important because their teachings influenced the later Quakers, and Baptists, Group who split from the Anglican Church.
Pope Paul III:
He was an important player in the Catholic Reformation, and the first pope for the reformation from 1534 to 1549. He took four important steps. 1) He directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses in the church, 2) He approved the Jesuits order, 3) He used the inquisition to seek out heresy in Papal States, and 4) He called a council of church leaders to meet in Trent, northern Italy. This is important because meeting at these councils they developed several doctrines such as: The churches interpretation of the bible was, and they needed good works and faith for salvation. This is important because it shows how the Catholic religion had after years finally incorporate Martin Luther’s ideas. He helped them remain royal to the Catholic Church.
Ignatius of Loyola:
He grew up on his father’s castle in Loyola, Spain. The turning point of his life came about in 1521 when he was injured during war. During his recovery he began thinking about his past sins and the life of Jesus. In 1522, he began writing a book called Spiritual Exercises, which laid out a day-by-day plan of prayers and studies. For the next 18 years, Ignatius gathered followers, and in 1540 the pope created a religious order for his people called the Society of Jesus. He is important because he formed a group called the Jesuits.
Jesuits:
These are members of the Society of Jesus. It was created in 1540 when the pope created a religious order for Ignatius of Loyola’s Followers. They focused on three activities: 1) They founded schools in Europe (The teachers were well trained in classical studies and theology), 2) To convert non-Christians to Catholicism (using missionaries), and 3) To stop the spread of Protestantism. They were important because they played a major role in the Catholic reformation.
Essential Questions:
Why was Italy the perfect spot for the Renaissance to begin?
Italy was the perfect spot for the renaissance to begin because of several reasons; the first is that northern European government is not like Italy. This meant Italy had a lot of small countries or city states and they only care about themselves. The second reason was there was little or less trade compared to Italy (Italy traded a lot). The third reason was war introduced the renaissance
How did the Renaissance spread from Italy to:
a)France?
The renaissance spread from Italy to France in 1494 when French king Francis (1st) invaded Italy. The nobles and the king loved the Italian art and fashion. King Francis I brought Italian artist to his court, including Da Vinci, which brought renaissance ideals to France. Fashion trends are most common in Italy and France because it started in Italy and France was second to get it. Afterwards the monarchs also followed and the ideas of humanism spread north rapidly
b)England?
The renaissance didn’t begin to spread to England until 1485; after the war of the roses ended (They were the last to get it). Around 1510 Henry VII (Tudor of Lancaster) invited the Italian renaissance scholars to England. They taught humanism and analyzed classical text. Two English humanists came out of it including Thomas Moore and William Shakespeare.
Compare and contrast the Renaissance in Italy, France, and England.
The original form of the renaissance, starting in Italy, and it was about art, architecture, and painting, but then when it traveled north to Germany and the Benelux Countries (Low and small countries); they focused more on the Christian form of humanism. By doing so they wanted the popes and clergy to live less materialistic lives. Then in England they focused more on writing books and famous authors were born like William Shakespeare, and Thomas Moore. Then in France they were most focused on the arts of painting and they had famous painters like Leonardo Davinci who originally came from Italy.
What characterized Christian Humanism? How did it differ from the original Italian form of Humanism?
Christian Humanist wanted to end corruption/abuses of medieval church. They focused on learning and bible study (any language) to end the corruption. One of the most famous Christian humanists is Erasmus; he studied Greek and Hebrew to understand older biblical versions. They want the pope to stop living these lives of excessiveness. These ideas were the form of humanist that formed in the northern renaissance. Whereas the original form of humanist in Italy was about and intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. This allowed them to focus on the bright side of life not the dark side.
What caused Martin Luther to turn to Religious Service?
Martin Luther turned to religious service in 1505 when he was on the road looking for work after becoming a lawyer. He was riding alone and a storm hit and he was very scared, so prayed to St.Anne and God that if he lives he will turn to religious service and become a monk (Bargain). After living he became a monk and devoted his life to religious service, and he double checks the church law and studies the bible (like a lawyer) leading to the 95 thesis.
What was Luther’s problem with the Catholic Church? How did it lead to him breaking with the Church?
Luther had multiple problems/critiques with the church, and it was meant to be silent and only inside people to know about (Written in Italian-only educated people knew Latin which were popes and church officials). The 95 thesis had three main points he wanted to change with the church: the first is god wants a direct relationship with men (Not sacraments). Second is Christianity should be a priesthood of all believers (Hierarchy unnecessary) and third is the road to salvation (Heaven) is through “Faith Alone.” Which means good works is minuscule, Human nature is evil.
This angered the church and didn’t do anything about it. But the church was near a collage and the students knew Latin and translated to the normal language (German) then they printed on printing press and everyone read about it. Luther then rejects the pope which causes the pope to excommunicate him. They also held a trial (German right to trial and in Germany) to see whether Luther is a criminal or not. They saw him guilty, but Fredrick the wise (who sided with him) told him earlier and wise able to escape
How did Luther bring religion to the common man?
Luther brought religion to the common man from social force including middle class, capitalism (The government isn’t the only way to make money) and the erosion of the feudal system (noble class).
Describe the WAYS in which the Lutheran Church differed from the Catholic Church.
There were multiple ways Lutheran church differed, he changed them a little but kept the same core as the catholic church but it resulted in revolution, from catholic church including:
He dropped 5 out of 7 sacraments (only kept Baptize and marriage Symbolism not needed)
Medieval church is non-Christian (not a true church) in Luther’s eye, god is non-human and should be treated as such
Abolished priesthood and priestly status (No Hierarchy: Bishop, Clergy and priest are no more)
Abolished traditional worship ( He removed the old way) including : No icons meaning no pictures of saints in the church and they reconstruct/change the mass
Abolished the monasteries , and state controls land, meaning more power to the king
Services (mass) will be held in native tongue
Focus on common people not clergy
Why is Lutheranism also known as a “Protestant” religion?
Protestantism is a branch of Christianity. It developed out of reformation, in Europe against beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church. It is applied to Christians who belong to non catholic churches. It began to be known as Protestantism when German princes who remained loyal to the Catholic Church joined forces and made an alliance. So the other princes who went against them signed a protest against the agreement. Then they were known as Protestants. Under the Protestantism branch there are three main religions Anglican (king Henry’s religion), Lutheranism (Martin Luther), and Calvinism. Then the ideas spread and new religions were found under these major branches and religions.
How did Lutheranism inspire the other protestant movements?
Lutheranism inspired other protestant religions because as the word spread (using the printing press), new leaders were born and they started interpreting the bible in their own way and they formed new protestant religion.
What were they? : There were three other main religions under the protestant religions including the Anabaptist, Calvinists, Anglicism, and Zwingilian. There also are many more including the Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian
Who were their leaders?: The leaders were John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, King Henry VIII, and many more.
What separated each from the other? : Each had different beliefs in subjects such as Leadership (of the church), Salvation (to heaven), Bible interpretation, what worship service is focused on, and the Bible.
Who were Henry VIII’s 6 wives and why did he have so many?
Henry’s six wives are 1) Catherine of Aragon, 2) Anne Boleyn, 3) Jane Seymour, 4) Anne of cleaves, 5) Catherine Howard, and 6) Catherine Paar. He had six wives because he wanted an heir (a son) to the throne for after he dies, but he kept getting healthy daughters and died sons, so he thought that the marriages were damned so he remarried.
Why was Henry VIII’s daughter known as “Bloody Mary”? Why do you think the nursery rhyme calls her “Mary, Mary, quite Contrary”? ***
Henry VIII’s daughter is known as “Bloody Mary” because she killed many people in order to undo the Henrician reformation, so she could feel as though the times went back to when her mom and dad were married and they believed in the Roman Catholic Church. (Religion reasons)
The nursery rhyme “Marry, Marry quite contrary” means that Mary goes against the religion of the people and changes it to Catholics, and whoever doesn’t believe in the catholic church dies and “the bell rings” means the canons will be shot whenever someone dies, Lastly “dresses never comes” means that women will wait for their weeding with the right one but they will never come because they will die.
What was Ironic about Elizabeth I coming to the throne?
It was ironic that Queen Elizabeth I came to the because King Henry VIII assumed she would never ascend to the throne and also her mother had told King Henry VIII she would be the best Queen England would ever have and she was right. Nobody liker her mom and thought that she would be bad just like her but they were wrong. Blood well spent= died for a good reasons, and shes third in line
What was Calvin’s “City of God” in Geneva? What behaviors were not permitted there? Why did he choose this place as the model city?
Calvin’s “City of God” in Geneva is a city that incorporated religion into their government so church and states were together, and it became a strong catholic city. In the city half their job is to spread the religion to others. In fact if someone did something wrong in the church they could be thrown in jail for doing so (Moral court and police). They are required to attend a religion class, no one wore bright colors or played cards, and they couldn’t preach different doctrines. Also there was no music or dancing even though John Calvin loved them both he restricted them. He chooses Geneva because the Protestants there asked him to lead the city and he did and set it up as a religious state.
What separated the Anabaptist’s apart from Catholics and all of the other Protestant Religions?
The Anabaptist were separated from Catholics and all of the other Protestant religions because they believed that they were too young to be baptized as children into any religion so they are baptized as adults. Also they are pacifists (they don’t believe in violence to resolve a problem) so they could betray the country by not fighting in the army (considered dangerous).
Why were the Anabaptist’s so easily persecuted? How was their movement destroyed?
They were easily persecuted because they were pacifists and they were considered dangerous since they wouldn’t fight in the army and could betray their country. Their movement was destroyed because the Catholics and protestants both worked together to get rid of them. They also re-baptized them while drowning them under water and the few of them that survived became a part of the Amish and the Mennonites.
What effect did the Anabaptist’s have on American Society?
The Anabaptist were peaceful and pacifists so they had a positive and negative impact on society. They wanted peace and to resolve issues without the need to resort to violence, whereas on the other hand they were dangerous for not being able to fight in the army and could be traitors. So they were outcast and many Catholics and Protestants looked to prosecute them and it was the only thing that brought them together. It started violence against other religious groups like Protestant vs. Catholics.
What was the Catholic Reformation? Why was it necessary? What was its purpose?
The catholic reformation had two parts internal meaning inside the church changing itself, and correctional, correcting the protestant evidence. Also they started spreading the word and converting the people, they attacked protestant, and battle with more weapons. It was necessary because they needed people to return to the Catholic Church. Also the purpose was to show the people that the protestant religion was wrong.
What was the Inquisition (of 1542)? How did it differ from previous Inquisitions? What was its goal? What was “the Index”?
The inquisition was a court held by the church to suppress heresy. However this was a different inquisition because it was meant to find out if people were practicing religions other then Christianity. Also the goal is to make sure that people do not believe in any other belief then the Roman Catholic Church such as protestant religion like Lutheranism, Anabaptist, and Anglican.
The index is a list of books that are banned from the Roman Catholic Church, such as books from other protestant religions and religions. They would also burned books that were a part of the index including the 95 thesis, protestant bibles, and more.
Describe the Council of Trent.
Pope Paul called a council of church leaders to meet in Trent, in northern Italy and from 1545 to 1563 Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines:
1)The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian who substituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic.
2)Christians needed faith and good works for salvation. They were not saved by faith alone, as Luther argued.
3)The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life.
4)Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of indulgences was banned.
Describe the long lasting effects of the Catholic Reformation.
The long lasting effects of the Catholic Reformation were for one it ended the Christianity unity of Europe and left it culturally divided. Both protestant religions and catholic religions flourished and there was more emphasis on the role education in promoting their beliefs. This led to the founding of universities and colleges. Politically the Catholic Church started declining, giving more power to the kings which led to the development of national-states. Lastly it leads to the enlightenment.