World History- Chapter 15, Renaissance and Reformation

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Renaissance
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rebirth; an era of renewed interest and remarkable progress in art, literature, science, and learning in Europe, beginning in Italy in the 1300’s
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Renaissance man and woman
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One who is skilled in many fields (art, science, math, architecture…)
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Patrons of Art
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Someone who financially supports artists. They would pay artists commissions for major works of art.
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Rise of City-States
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A city-state is a region that is independently ruled by a major city. Italy wasn’t one unified country, but a number of small independent city-states. Some of these cities were run by elected leaders and others by ruling families. Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance/italian_city-states.php This text is Copyright © Ducksters. Do not use without permission.
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Causes of the Renaissance? connect to Black Death merchants / rising middle class
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Black Death, warfare, starvation, decrease in population Farmers produced more food than needed, prices declined, so people could spend money on other things; increased trade with Asia as a result of the Crusades growth of city-states; Rise of wealthy merchants who became patrons of the arts; An increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge; A desire to beautify cities after Black Death, etc…
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What was Renaissance Art?
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In addition to its expression of classical Greco-Roman traditions, Renaissance art sought to capture the experience of the individual and the beauty and mystery of the natural world. http://www.history.com/topics/renaissance-art
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Characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art
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Secular Humanism Realism Greek Influence
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secular
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having a worldly (ordinary life) rather than spiritual (church life) focus
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humanism
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human achievements and education are important; value critical thinking over faith; praised the beauty and intelligence of the individual
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naturalism
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expressive gesture, linear perspective, strong contrast between light and dark (chiaroscuro)
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realism
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realistic looking human bodies
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Greek Influence
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Boticelli
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Baldassare Castiglione
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Italian aristocrat who wrote “The Courtier”, which became a handbook for how to succeed in society
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Compare and contrast Renaissance and Medieval Art
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Describe the relationship between Classical and Renaissance Art
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Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art
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Surface Detail Symbolism Indoor setting Average every day setting In addition to humanism, realism, naturalism Northern Renaissance Art Characteristics Intense realism Lifelike features unflattering honesty Wealthy citizens, peasants Religious and domestic subjects Reveal individual personality in portraits oil on wood panels Complex, irregular composition
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Brunelleschi and the Duomo
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Architect and engineer of a dome that was unsupported by flying buttresses and wooden supports – used rows of arches as supports; also invented linear perspective; also invented a pulley so oxen could pull 1700 pound beams into the air and return them to the ground without changing direction.
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Niccolo Machiavelli
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Florentine political philosopher and statesman who worte “The Prince”, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics. Said a Prince is judged by how he appears.
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Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
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ruler of Florence who was an important patron (financial supporter) of arts and learning
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Cosimo de Medici
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Cosimo de Medici became the Gran maestro (leader) of the Florence city-state in 1434. Patron of Brunelleschi.
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Role of the Medici Family in Renaissance as patrons of art
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The Medici family were wool merchants and bankers. The Medici patronage had a huge impact on the Renaissance, allowing artists to focus on their work without having to worry about money. Supported Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
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Leonardo da Vinci
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“Renaissance man” who became famous as a painter, architect, inventor, and engineer; painter of the “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper”
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Raphael
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famous painter of both classical and religious subjects, and an accomplished architect
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Michelangelo Buonarroti
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sculptor and painter, famous for works such as the Sistine Chapel, the statue “David”, and the design of St. Peter’s Cathedral
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Johannes Gutenberg
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German man credited with the invention of movable type in the mid-1400’s
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Printing press – what was it and what were the effects?
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Invented in the mid-1400’s; gave people other than priests and the wealthy access to books and education
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Gutenberg’s Bible
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Desiderius Erasmus
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priest and Christian humanist philosopher who wrote about the need for a simple Christian life without the rituals and politics of the church
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Sir Thomas More
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English humanist who wrote “Utopia”, a book that told about a perfect but nonexistent society based on reason
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William Shakespeare
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English playwright and poet; author of famous works such as “Hamlet”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “Macbeth”, and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”
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Jan van Eyck
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Flemish painter who focused on landscapes and everyday life
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Christian Humanism
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Protestant Reformation
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a movement beginning in the 1500’s to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to a split of the church between Catholics and Protestants
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indulgences
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exchange of money for forgiveness of sin (to reduce a soul’s time in purgatory)
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purgatory
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after death souls enter purgatory to work off the sins committed while alive.
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Martin Luther
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German monk; critic of the Roman Catholic Church whose ideas sparked discussion about its practice and beliefs, and led to the founding of Lutheranism; Preceded the Protestant Reformation / got the conversation started.
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Lutheranism
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the Protestant religion founded by Martin Luther
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theocracy
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a government in which church and state are joined and whose officials are considered to be divinely inspired
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John Calvin
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Preached the doctrine of predestination (God knows who will be saved before they are born); important Protestant reformer whose writings became the basis of Calvinism
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predestination
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religious belief that states God has already decided who will go to heaven, and so nothing people do will change their fate
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Henry VIII
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English king who broke with the Catholic Church in order to divorce his first wife (began Protestant Reformation in England)
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Ulrich Zwingli
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Established a church in Switzerland where church and state are joined. Not like by Calvin.
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annulled
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declared invalid based on church laws
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Catholic Church issues (lay investiture, simony, etc.)
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John Wycliff
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Opposed the Roman Catholic church. His followers were called Lollards. Preceded the Protestant Reformation / got the conversation started.
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Jan Hus
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Czech priest, preached against the Catholic church. Burned at the stake for heresy. Preceded the Protestant Reformation / got the conversation started.
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95 Theses
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This document written by Martin Luther and was the catalyst for Protestant Reformation. It was written in Latin. Spoke out against indulgences, baptism, and absolution.
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excommunication
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throw from the church and damn forever
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Edict of Worms
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Decree that stated that Martin Luther was an outlaw an condemned his writings.
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Elizabeth I
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queen who firmly established England’s religion as Protestant, daughter of Henry VIII
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Jesuits
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religious order which focused on the reform of the church, spirituality, service to others, education, and the further spread of Catholicism (also called the Society of Jesus)
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Counter-Reformation
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reform movement within the Catholic Church; The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
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Ignatius of Loyola
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founder of the Jesuits whose search for spiritual peace led him to give up his belongings and practice self-denial
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Council of Trent
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meetings called by Pope Paul III to make a series of reforms to the church and clarify important teachings, took place between 1545 and 1563
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Francis of Sales
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French missionary who returned the French district of Savoy to the Catholic church and founded a religious teaching order for women
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Charles Borromeo (not sure in test)
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archbishop of Milan who implemented the reforms decreed by the Council of Trent, such as building schools for priests
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Teresa of Avila
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Spanish nun who reformed the Carmelite order
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Who were the most influential artists and thinkers of the Renaissance? Why?
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Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) – Leonardo is generally considered the perfect example of the Renaissance Man. He was an expert at many different things including painting, sculpture, science, architecture, and anatomy. He not only was one of the most celebrated artists of all time with paintings such as the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, but was also one of the most prolific inventors in history. Michelangelo – Sculptor and painter, famous for works such as the Sistine Chapel, the statue “David”, and the design of St. Peter’s Cathedral Brunelleschi -Architect and engineer of a dome that was unsupported by flying buttresses and wooden supports – used rows of arches as supports; also invented linear perspective; also invented a pulley so oxen could pull 1700 pound beams into the air and return them to the ground without changing direction. Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) – Luther was a German theologian and priest. He objected to many of the practices of the Catholic Church such as paying to get into heaven and the authority of the Pope. He thought the Bible should be the final authority and that it should be available to everyone. Luther’s ideas caused the Reformation and a new type of Christianity called Protestantism. Dante Alighieri – Writer of the Divine Comedy, an important work in world literature. William Shakespeare – Playwright considered the greatest writer in the English language.
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What role did the Medici family play in Florence?
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A significant amount of the art and architecture that was produced in Florence at the beginning of the Renaissance was due to the Medici. Early on they supported the painter Masaccio and helped pay the architect Brunelleschi to rebuild the Basilica of San Lorenzo. Other famous artists that the Medici supported include Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, and Leonardo da Vinci. The Medici didn’t just support the arts and architecture. They also supported science. They supported the famous scientist Galileo Galilei in his scientific efforts.
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How did art change? What were the characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art? (Medieval versus Renaissance)
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What are some of the major differences between Northern Renaissance Art and Italian Renaissance Art?
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Define and describe Renaissance Humanism. How was it portrayed in art?
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What were the causes of the Renaissance?
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Black Death, warfare, starvation, decrease in population Farmers produced more food than needed, prices declined, so people could spend money on other things; increased trade with Asia as a result of the Crusades growth of city-states; Rise of wealthy merchants who became patrons of the arts; An increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge; A desire to beautify cities after Black Death, etc…
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What role did the printing press play during the Protestant Reformation?
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Johann Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press around 1448 had a significant impact on the spread of ideas in Europe and beyond. Printing technology traveled quickly across Europe and, at a time of great religious change, played a key role in the success of the Protestant Reformation. Reformation leader Martin Luther could only preach to a small number of people, but the printed word could spread his message to thousands more.
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What were Luther’s beliefs, and how did they differ from those of the Catholic Church?
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Believed that Jesus was the head of the church; christians should be their own interpreters of the scriptures; God’s grace cannot be won by good works; practices should come from the bible alone. The Catholic church viewed the Pope as the leader and interpreter?
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What were the effects of the Protestant Reformation?
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Describe two other religions that emerged as a result of the Protestant Reformation.
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