World Cultures – Europe Test

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physical landscape
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the natural features on the earth’s surface
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rivers and mountains
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examples of physical landscape
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cultural landscape
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features imposed on the physical landscape by the activities of humans; the “built environment”
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religion and people
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examples of cultural landscape
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peninsula
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all of Europe is a ____________
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Iberian Peninsula
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made up by Spain and Portugal
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mountains
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separate groups of people; make communication, travel and transport difficult
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uplands
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hills or low mountains that may also include mesas and high plateaus
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Balkan Mountains
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separate the Balkan Peninsula
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Pyrenees Mountains
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run across the border of France and Germany
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France, Austria, Germany and Switzerland
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where the Alps run through
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rivers
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bring people and goods together; aid in economic growth; movement of ideas
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Rhine River
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runs north to south through Western Europe
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Danube River
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runs west to east through Central Europe
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Northern European Plain
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desirable, arable land; difficult to defend against invasion
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coal, iron, timber, oil, fish, copper, natural gas
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natural resources
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33%
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% of Europe’s land is arable
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mild
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most of Europe is generally ________
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ocean currents and warm winds
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keep the climate from extremes
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Eastern Europe
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has a more continental climate
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polders
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the Netherlands created ______ to reclaim land from the sea
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freshwater lake
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the Netherlands turned the Zuider See into a…
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Venice
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formed of 120 islands and part of Italian mainland
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150
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Venice has over ______ canals between the islands
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Mediterranean
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European civilization born in _____________________
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Mediterranean Sea
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increased resources and trade opportunities
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easier survival
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in Mediterranean Europe’s early history, mild climate meant _______ ____________
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protection
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in Mediterranean Europe’s early history, mountains were a source of _________________
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Brexit
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term for British exit from the EU
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European Union
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EU stands for….
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Eurozone
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monetary union of 19 EU states that have adopted the euro as their common currency
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economic and monetary discipline
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countries in the Eurozone must demonstrate ____________ and ____________ ______________ to meet certain requirements
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eligible
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all EU member states are expected to join the Eurozone when they become _________
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language family
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a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor
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Indo-European
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language family that includes most European languages
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France and Monaco
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French culture in Western Europe is strong in ___________ and ____________
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Germany and France
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two dominant countries in Western Europe
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Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein
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German culture in Western Europe is strong in ______________, _____________, and ___________________________
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Benelux countries
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Belgium. Netherlands and Luxembourg
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Germany and France
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culture Benelux countries are influenced by
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English and German
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examples of Germanic languages
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French, Spanish, Italian, Portugese, Romanian
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Romance languages
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Latin
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Romance languages evolved from _________
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Germanic and Romance
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branches of Indo-European language family
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Roman Empire
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Romance languages spoken in regions of the….
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Germanic tribes
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Germanic languages spoken in areas held by….
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Central Powers
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made up by UK, France and Russia
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Militarism Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand
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causes of WWI
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WWI
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global conflict centered in Europe
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WWII
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most widespread global war in history
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Treaty of Versailles failure of the League of Nations militarism in Japan and Germany
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causes of WWII
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Axis Powers
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made up by Japan, Italy and Germany
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Allies in WWII
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made up by US, Soviet Union, Britain
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Allies in WWI
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Germany and Austria-Hungary
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1914-1918
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years of WWI
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1939-1945
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years of WWII
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Treaty of Versailles
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ended WWI
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Treaty of Versailles
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required Germany to accept responsibilities for the war and pay reparations to other countries
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effects of WWI
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many new countries & borders established ethnic minorities in new countries inflation and social trauma
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effects of WWII
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Soviet Union and US as global powers creation of United Nations tensions between SU and western allies
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Catholic Chruch
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was a dominant religious force through the Renasiannce
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Church
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was questioned during the Renaissance and led to the Reformation
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95 Theses
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In 1517, Martin Luther posted his ____ __________ against the Catholic Church
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Luther & his Theses
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spurred a movement when many broke away from the Catholic Church and formed Protestant denominations
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Spain, Portugal and France
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countries Catholic during Reformation
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Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany
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countries Protestant during Reformation
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referendum
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a vote in which all citizens can take part
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European Union
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economic and political partnership between 28 European countries
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EU
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was created after WWII
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purpose of EU
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to foster economic cooperation
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benefits of being a EU member country
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easier travel easier movement of goods, services and money strong political alliance more likelihood of economic stability more resources
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Leave Campaign
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argued held back by rules on businesses; paying for other countries mistakes; loss of sovereignty; loss of border and immigration controls
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Remain Campaign
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argued membership fuels economic growth; immigrants help economy; political power and status; more security
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Theresa May
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new prime minister of UK who works to begin removing the Uk from Eu
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city-state
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independant political unit made up of a city and its surrounding land
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Athens and Sparta
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two most well known Greece city states
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Alexander the Great
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conquered Greece and help spread Greek culture through the Persia empir
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republic
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government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their names
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Balkan and Iberian Peninsula
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Roman Empire grew to include….
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395 AD
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year Roman Empire spilt
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275 BC
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year Roman state grew on the Italian Peninsula
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Greek
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__________ city-states fought among each other, weakening the civilization
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Greek cilviation
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evolved as a number of individual city-states
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Greek scientists, philosophers, and artists
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had huge influence on modern culture
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Renaissance
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means “rebirth”
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Scandinavia
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made up of Norway, Sweden and Denmark
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Nordic countries
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Scandinavia, Finland, Iceland, and autonomous territories (Greenland and Faroe Islands)
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United Kingdom
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made up of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland
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autonomous territory
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administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy
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autonomy
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freedom from an external authority
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Industrial Revolution
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began by UK; production of coal and iron; growth of industry encouraged empire building

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