WMST Flashcards

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Androcentric
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Practice of placing males at the center of one’s view of the world and its culture and history. A male-centered society. This is a major issue that exists in women’s studies and it is a myth that feminism works to dispel Adrienne Rich talks about this in her piece, Claiming an Education
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Backlash
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Organized resistance to something that has gained popularity, prominence, or influence. in this case, there has been a backlash to feminist influence as a result of this movement for social justice. (Shaw and Lee 644 par1) Susan Faludi wrote a piece titled Backlash, to address the undeclared war against women that critiqued feminism as out of touch and elitist Susan Douglas’ reading in chapter 9, she says that contemporary backlash also involves enlightened sexism and appropriation of the language of feminism Response to backlash is a focus in Katha Pollitt’s \”Amber Waves of Blame\” – how second and third wave feminism has been reduced to caricatures of mother-daughter conflicts represented as prudish, repressive mothers pitted against troublesome, rebellious daughters
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Bamboo ceiling
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Wesley Yang’s, Paper Tigers illustrates this idea of an invisible barrier that maintains a pyramidal racial structure throughout corporate America, with lots of Asians at junior levels, quite a few in middle management, and virtually none in the upper management or leadership positions such as CEO it is reflected as an unconscious bias toward Asians not an outward racism
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Body ethics
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Values and beliefs regarding care and presentation of the body illustrating a value for multifaceted notions of beauty that promotes personal style, self-care, and spirituality (Shaw and Lee)
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Canon formation
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The canon is the body of texts considered most important and women studies seeks to question its formation by asking where women fit into the equation – considering different groups of women and men that don’t conform to society.
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Catherine McCormick
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Appears in the documentary \”The Pill\” and she, after her husband died, made major contributions to the funding for research needed for the first birth control pill. Catherine was a suffragist and a biologist and her friendship with Margaret Sanger was very much a necessary component of the founding of this contraceptive.
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Cisgender
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Someone who is comfortable in the gender they were assigned at birth or where there is is conformity between gender, assignment, identity and expression (Shaw and Lee p. 108)
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Clara Chan Lee
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First Chinese-American woman who registered to vote in Nov 1911
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Class Privlege
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Compulsory Heterosexuality
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the expectation that everyone should be heterosexual-norm behavior (Shaw and Lee p. 167)
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Comstock Laws
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1873, to send any \”obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious\” materials through the mail including contraceptives and information about contraceptives — also banned the distribution of info. on abortion (Shaw and Lee p.294)
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Coverture
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Cult of True Womanhood
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Two spheres:public and private. Four cardinal virtues:piety, domesticity, submissiveness, purity.
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Difference
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Distinguishing characteristics
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Emma Goldman
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Author of \”Marriage and Love\” in 1910 that saw marriage as an economic transaction that binds women into subservience to men and society — love occured without institution of marriage (Shaw and Lee p.365)
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Eugenics
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The belief and social practice \”that certain groups have more right to reproduce than others\” (Shaw and Lee).
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Feminity
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Feminism
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A practice, perspective, and a process which puts gender at the center of how we see the world. It is a social and political movement interested in improving the conditions of all people, in particular women. TWO CORE PRINCIPLES: Feminism seeks to eliminate all aspects of inequality and injustice from women’s lives (Shaw and Lee). Feminism is a personal perspective, political theory, and a social movement that is inclusive and celebrates and affirms women’s aspirations and achievements (Shaw and Lee).
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Feminist Waves
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Feminine mystique
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Betty Friedan’s 1963 book: 1. Challenged the idea that women should be relegated to \”bored housewives\” and advocated that [white, middle class, educated] women were wasting their intellect and potential at home. 2. Credited with sparking the 2nd Wave in the US
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Gaiutra Bahadur
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\”Coolie Women are in Demand here\”
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Gender
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This refers to how society shapes, patterns and rewards our understanding of masculinity and femininity.
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Globalization
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Good appearance
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Only light skinned individuals could have a \”good appearance\”
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Grassroots
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Griswold v. Connecticut
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Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. This allowed for \”marital privacy\”, use of contraceptives, etc.
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Gregory Pincus
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co-invented the combined oral contraceptive pill
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Heterosexisism
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Discrimination or prejudice against homosexuals based on the assumption that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation.
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Homophobia
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\”the societal fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men, functions to maintain this as an insult\” (Shaw and Lee, 18).
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Hyde Amendment
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one of the first restrictions on abortion rights– amendment to the 1977 Health Education and Welfare Appropriations Act that gave States the right to prohibit the use of Medicaid Funds for abortion which limited abortion to those who could afford it (Shaw and Lee p.303)
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Inequality
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Internalization
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Intersex
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Lesbian baiting
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Feminists are accused of being lesbian in an effort to discredit feminism and prevent women from joining the movement or from taking women’s studies classes (Shaw and Lee p. 18). Lesbian baiting helps to maintain patriarchy.
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Liberal Feminism
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Maintain the status quo. Seeks to reform institutions by making changes to and within current systems such as education and family.
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Madame Restell
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An early-19th-century abortionist who practiced in New York City. She was arrested because she made her abortion activities visible. She advertised it. This, along with doctors wanting to get rid of competition, led to the change from legal abortion.
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Margaret Sanger
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Women’s rights activist; believed strongly in fair distribution of contraceptive information; developed various publications that were geared towards encouraging women to think for themselves and promote family planning she founded the National Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood; her persistent activism and lobbying was arguably the reason for the existence of the modern \”pill\” that is used today and for the legality of widespread use of the pill
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Masculinity
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Heterosexual, agressive/violent, promiscous (heterosexually), unwilling to \”commit\”
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Minor v. Happersett
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1874 The Supreme Court decides that citizenship does not give women the right to vote and that women’s political rights are under the jurisdiction of each individual state (Shaw and Lee p. 20)
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Nuclear Family
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Family of just parents and children (no extended relatives living in home)
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Objectification
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Making women’s bodies into things, separate from any other context, for men’s pleasure and to sell products.
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Oppression
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The institutionalized monopoly or near-monopoly of authority and resources by the members of one social group because of their membership in that social group. Plus the systematic and persistent blocking of members of a social group from access to authority and resources simply because of their membership in that social group
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Parenting
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Patriarchy
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The political, cultural, and social relationships among men for the purpose of subordinating women historically codified in law and tradition
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Postfeminist
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The belief that feminism is dead and/or unnecessary due to the belief that women have received all that they’ve advocated for. This is a myth.
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Privilege
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Queer
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Radical feminism
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Seeks to make fundamental changes to institutions especially in education, family and church and to change people’s mindset. Seek to overturn patriarchy.
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Reproductive Justice
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Calls attention to and politicizes the female body like no other issue because it foregrounds who has the right to a woman’s body.
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Roe v. Wade
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First trimester – abortion considered legal since the fetus is not considered a person. 2nd trimester: When fetus is viable the government can intervene and stop abortion. 3rd trimester: abortion illegal unless it endangers the life of the pregnant woman.
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Sexual Scripts
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Guidelines to how you are supposed to act or feel in regards to your sexuality. Internalized as a sexual self schema.
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Sojourner Truth
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Abolitionist, feminist, African-American female, ex-slave, \”Ain’t I a Woman.\” 1851, first wave feminism. Strived for equal rights for all females (including AfAm.), intersectionality.
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Stolen Generations
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Stonewall Riot
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Susan B. Anthony
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(Shaw and Lee Activist profile pg 7) Realized that women needed the right to vote in order to have political influence after her petition for the amendment of stricter liquor laws (reduce liquor sales) was rejected due to her being a woman and most of her signatures being from women and children. She joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and they campaigned for women’s suffrage for many years. She died before women gained the right to vote in 1920.
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The birdcage
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Frye’s metaphor for understanding the INTERSECTING nature of oppression or systemic inequality. Not just double, but the multiple intersections of oppression. It is a system-view or system-base; overarching Example: Housing + Wage gap + Property-taxes-funded schooling = Birdcage!
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The double bind
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Frye characterizes the \”double bind\” as the limitations of all potential options or \”damned if you do, or damned if you don’t\” (Shaw and Lee, 50). Example: SEXISM is prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex. If a woman (of any race or ethnicity) chooses to be sexually active, she risks being defined as \”easy\” or as a \”slut\” or a \”*****\”
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Title VII
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\”Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbade workplace discrimination.\” (Shaw and Lee pg 6)
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Title IX
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Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 supported equal education and forbade gender discrimination, including in sports and in schools.\” (Shaw & Lee pg 6)
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Transgender
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Claiming a gender identity or expression different from the one assigned to them by their family or community at birth; involved resisting the social construction of gender and seeks to break down the polarizing nature of the gender binary of masculinity and femininity Debra Rosenberg writes about transgendered people in her piece \”(Rethinking) Gender\”; \”transgender is an umbrella term that includes anyone whose gender identity or expression differs from the sex of their birth—whether they have surgery or not (relevant readings) The discussion and introduction of transgender is challenging to the system of heteronormativity and patriarchy and forces us to consider genders beyond male and female (importance to feminism)
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Virginity Fetish
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Connected to patriarchal society, as women are seen as \”damaged goods\” after sex, whereas it is the \”norm\” for men to be sexually active. The idea of the impossible double standard, virgin/***** dichotomy. Virginity as a social construct, no solid, biological definition.
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White Privilege
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Women’s status
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A composite measure that refers to the social, political and economic well being of women in comparison to men living in the same country (or community or group). It fails to tell the interrelationship, course of action, and amount of inequality between different groups of men/women.
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Women’s studies (as a discipline)
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An interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topic concerning women, gender, and feminism. As a body of knowledge, it examines women’s status in society and seeks to improve the condition of women’s lives, both in the United States and globally. Women’s studies puts women (in all their diversity) at the center of inquiry and focuses on our reality as subjects of study, informing knowledge through this lens. Challenges androcentrism. It assumes that women’s opinions and thoughts about personal experiences are central in understanding human society generally. Women’s studies also involves the study of gender as a central aspect of human existence by exploring our gendered existence. Women’s studies as a discipline/degree was first introduced in 1970 at San Diego State University

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