WIS 3401 Exam 1 (Lectures 1-4)

Multiple definitions:
– Game animals, birds, mammals
– An organic resource that can be managed on a
sustained-yield basis
– All undomesticated animals (in a natural
– Fish almost always not considered wildlife
– All living things (in a natural environment)
– Free-living animals (non-domesticated of major
significance to man
– All animals (TWS)
– Specifically, for this class, terrestrial vertebrates
>> most common definition
– Definition changes through time
Wildlife Ecology
Study of the relationship between wildlife and their environment
Wildlife Management
– Art of making land produce sustained annual crops
of wild game for recreational use (A. Leopold, 1933)
– Art of making land produce valuable populations
(J. Bailey, 1984)
– Practical ecology of all vertebrates and their plant
and animals associates along sound biological lines
(TWS/Journal of Wildlife Mgmt., 1937)
– Stewardship of wildlife
Wildlife Conservation
– Social process encompassing both lay and professional activities that define and
seek to attain wise use of wildlife resources and maintain the productivities of
wildlife habitats (J. Bailey, 1984)
– Mgmt., admin., education, law enforcement, and research
– Application of ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate animals and
their plant and animal associates in a manor that strikes a balance between the
needs of those populations and the needs of people (Bolen and Robinson, 2003)
Wildlife Mgmt./Conservation
Application of ecological knowledge to wildlife and habitats that balances the needs of people with that of wildlife (W. Giuliano)
Wildlife Mgmt./Conservation Goals
Increase, decrease, maintain, or stabilize
– Features (single) species mgmt.
– Multiple species mgmt.
– Biodiversity mgmt. (maximum species)
– Ecosystem mgmt. (maintain species)
Direct Wildlife Mgmt./Conservation
Impact animal
Indirect Wildlife Mgmt./Conservation
Impact environment (most common)
– Manipulative (active) vs. custodial (preservation)
Wildlife Mgmt./Conservation Characteristics
– Don’t know all vital characteristics for all species; may know large amount about one and not about another
-Wildlife Conservation primarily people managing
The Wildlife Society
– Journals (Journal of Wildlife Mgmt., Wildlife Society Bulletin, Wildlife Monographs, and The Wildlife Professional)
History of Wildlife Mgmt.
Beginning of mankind (~4 MYA)
– Native peoples (N. America: 8,000 – 10,000 YA)
– Sustained harvest; habitat modifications
– Pleistocene Overkill
3800 B.C.
Weirs built in Americas
0 A.D.
Evidence of wild turkey domestication in Mexico and SW states
– Bible (Deuteronomy 22:6)
Kublai Khan
– Harvest restrictions, food plots, winter feeding, and cover control
Magna Charta
Spanish introduce horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle to New World
Pheasant and partridge protection statute (no night hunting and corn field falconry)
Bermuda protects cahow
Bermuda protects green turtles
U.S. Eras
Era of Abundance (1600 – 1849)
Era of Overexploitation (1850 – 1899)
Era of Protection (1900 – 1929)
Era of Game Mgmt. (1930 – 1965)
Era of Environmental/Ecological Mgmt. (1966 – present)
Era of Abundance (1600-1849)
– Most wildlife very abundance, through inexhaustible
– People starting to have negative effects
– Predators and harmful wildlife persecuted
– Some local efforts to boost populations
1st predator bounty ($.01 wolves in MA)
1st closed season (deer in Rhode Island)
Beaver nearly gone in East
Connecticut prohibited game exports
Most colonies passed deer harvest laws, but no enforcement
Early 1700s
40+ million bison and 10+ million pronghorn roam West
1st closed seasons on game birds (ruffed grouse, turkey, northern bobwhite quail, and heath hens in some parts of NY)
Massachusetts prohibits some boat types (cam and sails) for hunting waterfowl
Massachusetts closed deer season for 3 years
1st wardens in Massachusetts
Seller’s sea cow extinct
1st federal game law closing deer season in all colonies except GA
Bald Eagle recognized as national symbol
Exotic wildlife released (NJ; Hungarian Partridge)
Jaguar extinct in U.S.
Early 1800s
Audubon counts a billion passenger pigeons in a flock
Ralph Waldo Emerson – Nature (Writer, nature and conservation in U.S.)
U.S. Supreme Court decision – Oysters
– Affirms “Public Trust Doctrine”
– Natural resources belong to all people in U.S.
Great auk extinct
1st law against spring shooting some birds (wood ducks, black ducks, woodcock, and snipe; Rhode Island)
Dept. Of the Interior (USDI or DOI) established
– Protects American’s natural resources, heritage, etc.
Era of Overexploitation (1850 – 1899)
Theme: destruction
– Declines in many game species (e.g. bison)
– Increased human population and settlement
– Transcontinental railroad
– Market hunting
– Sport hunting
– Some conservation initiated
– Eastern elk, bison, beaver gone
– 1st protection of non-game (screech owls and insectivorous birds in NJ and CT)
1850 – 1860
Wisconsin protected prairie chickens; CA protected elk and pronghorns
1851 – 1864
Non-game bird protection established in 12 states
1st salaried game wardens (Michigan)
Henry D. Thoreau – Walden
1st wildlife department (Massachusetts Commission of Fisheries and Game)
Estimated 60 million bison in U.S.
– Man and Nature published (G.P. Marsh)
– 1st state hunting license (NY); closed season (spring) on bison, elk, deer, pronghorn, mountain goat, and sheep
– Yellowstone Park Act
– Labrador duck extinct
1st game bird bag limit (25 PC’s in Iowa)
By this time, all states had some game laws
American Ornithologists Union (AOU) established
Late 1880s
Sea mink extinct
– Federal Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy established (now U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service – federal)
– Audubon society formed
– Hunter (Grinnell) combats plume trade
– Advocates for bird conservation (not against
– 540 bison remain in U.S.
Boone and Crockett Club formed
– Wildlife and hunting issues; started by Roosevelt and Grinnell
150 wild bison in U.S.
– Killed them to starve Native Americans
– Brought numbers back via Bronx Zoo
Forest Reserve Act (President sets aside land/public domain)
Sierra Club formed (Muir)
– Preservation group (different from conservation)
1st resident and nonresident hunting licenses in several states
Division of Biological Survey (BS) formed
– Was DEOM, still in USDA, later USFWS
Greer v. Connecticut
– Challenge 1677 law, public trust, and state authority
– If you legally harvest something in CT, can keep it
but can’t remove from state
Pinchot named head of USDA division of Forestry
– Later becomes U.S. Forest Service
Refuse Act
– Pollution in navigable waters regulated
Era of Protection (1900 – 1929)
Theme: preservation
– Many wildlife populations very low
– Increase in protection and regulation by
– Except predators and wildlife that’s harmful
– 1st conservation movement begins
– Roosevelt’s Wise Use Doctrine
– Integrated whole, wise use and public trust;
science based
– 1st attempts to look at entire systems
Lacey Act
– Stopped market hunting/commerce in dead wildlife, limited exotic imports, regulates interstate transport, illegally killed wildlife transportation
1st wildlife managers meeting (wardens) in Yellowstone
– Later the IAFWA >> International Association of
Fish and Wildlife Agencies
1st federal wildlife refuge established
– In FL, Pelican Island (protection heron’s and egret’s
habitat especially breeding habitat) protected them
for their feathers
Creation of U.S. Forest Service (USFS)
Term “conservation” coined (means prudent use)
– Seal Treaty (International; seals and sea otters)
– American Game Protective and Propagation
Association (AGPPA) established (now known as
Wildlife Mgmt. Institute; very important NGO)
– Tariff Act of 1913: Non-meat bird parts cannot be
imported (feathers); further protection for herons
and egrets
– Weeks-McLean Migratory Bird Act (feds get
migratory and insectivorous birds, no spring
waterfowl hunting)
Last passenger pigeon and Carolina parakeet died
Act of Congress to control harmful wildlife
Migratory Bird Convention and Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)
– Great Britain = Canada for this act
Creation of National Park Service
Gila Wilderness in Gila National Forest becomes first wilderness area
Migratory Bird Conservation Act
– Acquire more refuge lands
Era of Game Mgmt. (1930 – 1965)
– Protection not good enough, needed active management and conservation
– “Wise Use” taking hold
– Increased funding
– Enforcement becomes more effective
– American Game Policy (A. Leopold)
– Tariff Act of 1930
– Import tax on wild bird parts, no import of illegally killed wildlife form other countries (prevent bringing ivory from another country)
Animal Damage Control Act
– Heath hen extinct
– 1st wildlife professor (training and new
– Game Mgmt. (A. Leopold)
– Darling’s NYC Meeting (leads to Coop units, NWF,
– Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (Duck Stamp)
– A financial pillar
– Division of Game Mgmt. created within Bureau of
Biological Survey
– Taylor Grazing Act (Federal lands and state
– Wilderness Society formed
– 1st cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
– USDA – Soil Conservation Service formed (later
– 1st national Wildlife Conference (NAWNRC)
– Discuss problems/policies
– Mexico joins MBTA (Migratory Bird Treaty Act)
– Federal aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (Pittman-
Robertson Act)
– A financial pillar (11% excise tax included in
– ~$6.5 billion to states
– ~42,500 animals reintroduced
– ~ 3 million hunter education students
– ~ 173,000 private landowners assisted
– ~ 4.9 million acres acquired or leased
– Ducks Unlimited (DU) formed
– The Wildlife Society (TWS) formed
BS moved to USDI
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service formed
– Wildlife Management Institute (WMI) formed
– USDI – Bureau of Land Mgmt. (BLM) established
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
– Federal $$ to states to fix problems
Leopold – A Sand County Almanac
– Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act (Dingell-
Johnson Act)
– A financial pillar
– The Nature Conservancy (TNC) formed
Flood Control Act (Army corps cause problems)
Fish and Wildlife Act (must have national policy)
– Sikes Act (USFWS, DOD)
– Multiple Use Act
– Cooperative Research and Training Units Act
Wetland Loan Act
Rachel Carson – Silent Spring
– Helps with 2nd environmental movement
– Wilderness Act (established system, review roadless areas)
– Land and Water Conservation Fund (oil and gas fees, federal real estate, boat fuel tax)
Era of Ecological/Environmental Mgmt. (1966-present)
– Active mgmt. and conservation continue
– Increased funding
– Non-game, endangered species, community,
ecosystem, and biodiversity conservation
– 2nd conservation movement begins
– National Wildlife Refuge System Administration
Act (guidelines and directives)
– Endangered Species Preservation Act (species and
critical habitat)
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
– National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
– Feds work together, EISs
– Endangered Species Conservation Act
– Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established
– Protect land, water, and air
– Clean Air Act; First Earth Day
– Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act
– Convention on Wetlands of International Important (Ramsar)
– Japan joins MBTA
– National Marine Sanctuary Act (establish system, no dumping)
– Marine Mammal Protection Act (stopped all hunting)
– Clean Water Act
– Coastal Zone Mgmt. Act
– DDT banned in U.S.
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act
– Don’t degrade federal lands
1973 – 1975
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
– National Land policy and Mgmt. Act
– Guidelines to enhance nature reservation on
public lands
– National Forest Mgmt. Act
– Expanded multiple use, public input, more
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Russia joins MBTA
– Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
– Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (Non-game Act)
Lacey Act amended again
Wallup-Breaux Act
– Replaces DJ, adds 3% tax on boats and motors
Food Security Act (The Farm Bill)
North American Waterfowl Mgmt. Plan
Montreal Protocol (protect ozone layer)
African Elephant Conservation Act
– More CITES protection, $ for reservation and conservation, penalties define
NA Wetlands Conservation Act
– Oil Pollution Act ($ to clean up and plan)
– Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act ($ for wetland conservation,
especially Louisiana)
1990 – present
Several state band use of traps
– Loss of mgmt. tools
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
– Study climate change, education programs
National Biological Service (NBS) formed
NBS becomes Biological Resources Division of USGS
– USDI researchers
– Kyoto Protocol (reduce greenhouse hases, mitigate
climate change, sustainable development)
– National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act
(“organic” legislation for National Wildlife Refuge
Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act
– $ from USDI/FWS to U.S, Louisiana, and
Caribbean for conservation
Hawaiian Island National Marine Sanctuary
– White nose syndrome first discovered (big deal
when talking about disease)
– PapahanaumJohnokuakea National Marine Monument
(not marine sanctuary)
– 2nd Bushy is sneaky; wanted to make it
protected, but making national parks done by
congress didn’t allow it; President made it
monument instead because presidents can make
Lacey Act amended; plants included
3 additional marine national monuments established in Pacific
– USFWS bands some contractors snakes under Lacey Act
– Estimated 30,000 bison in North America
– Deepwater Horizon (oil spill)
2000 – ?
State Wildlife Grant Program (SWG)
– Teaming w/ wildlife
– Conservation and Reinvestment Act?
John Audubon
– Notable for expansive studies to document all types of
American birds and for details illustrations that depicted the
birds in their natural habitats
– Wrote “The Birds of America” (considered one of the finest ornithological works ever completed)
– Identified 25 new species
George Perkins Marsh
– Considered to be America’s first environmentalist
– Wrote “Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified
– by Human Action
– First to raise concerns about the destructive impact of human
activities on the environment
Henry David Thoreau
– Best known for his book “Walden”, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings
Fredrick Law Olmsted
Landscape architect (urban environment)
John Muir
Founded Sierra Club; huge impact on Roosevelt
George “Bird” Grinnell
Founded Audubon Society; bird hunter, conservationist
Theodore Roosevelt
25th president; brought conservation to forefront of society; found for wise use (sustainable usage of land)
Gifford Pinchot
– Generally regarded as the “father” of American conservation
– Primary founder of the Society of American Foresters
Stephen Mather
– First director of the National Park Service
Jay Norwood “Ding” Darling
– Recruited by roosevelt to serve on the President Committee
for Wild Life Restoration (“Duck” Committee)
– Designed the first Duck Stamp for the Duck Stamp Act (1934)
Aldo Leopold
Father of wildlife mgmt. (maybe considered founder by some)
Paul Errington
– Scientific and literary interpreter of the natural world
– Published extensively on the wildlife mgmt. of muskrats,
minks, bobwhite quail, and great horned owls
– Recipient of the Aldo Leopold Award and named as one of ten
outstanding naturalists by Life magazine
Olaus Murie
Father of large mammal ecology and conservation; fought for protection in national parks
Rachel Carson
Kicked off 2nd environmental movement
“Conservation means development as much as it does protection… I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste the, or to rob, by wasteful means, the generations that come after us.”
– T. Roosevelt
“We seem ultimately always thrown back on individual this as the basis of conservation policy. it is hard to make a man, by pressure of law of money, do a thing which does not spring naturally from his own personal sense of right and wrong.”
– A. Leopold
Public Trust Doctrine
– 1842 Supreme Court Decision
– Natural rescues belong to all people in U.S.
– Entrust gov. to manage on our behalf
Wise Use Doctrine (Roosevelt Doctrine)
-T. Roosevelt
– G. Grinnell, G. Pinchot, J. Muir (G. Marsh)
– All natural resources are an integrated whole
– Conservation of natural resources through wise use as a public responsibility and their private ownership as a public trust
– Science as a tool for and foundation for conservation
– Need to know more, know more through research
American Game Policy
– Leopold et al. 1930
– Extend public ownership and mgmt. of game lands
– Recognize landowners as custodians of public game on private lands
– Encourage and experiment w/ ways to bring hunters, landowners, and the public into
production relationships to provide game mgmt.
>> Book by Errington: Muskrats and Marsh Mgmt.
– Train people in skills of game mgmt. thereby
establishing a profession
– Determine facts about ways and mans of making
land product more game (research)
– Recognize as partners, non-hunters and scientists,
w/ landowners and hunters for wildlife conservation, including mgmt. and funding
– Provide funding from general taxes for the conservation of all wildlife, w/ hunters paying for
activities that only affect game species; private funding should help pay for wildlife education and research
>> 1956 Fish and Wildlife Act
– Right around the time it was published (1930), gov. asked
Leopold and others to recommend policies, things our
national gov should be doing to further wildlife conservation
North American Model for Wildlife Conservation
7 sisters of Conservation
– Wildlife held in public trust
– Eliminate commerce in dead wildlife
– Allocate wildlife use through law
– Hunting opportunities for all
– Wildlife may be killed only for legitimate reasons
– Wildlife is an international resource
– Science as basis for wildlife policy
Leopold, Ethics, and NA model
– “We seem ultimately always thrown back on individual ethics as the basis of conservation policy. It i shard to make a man, by pressure of law or money, do a thing which does not spring natural from his own personal sense of right and wrong”. – A. Leopold
– A Sandy County Almanac = speaking to all!
Who owns wildlife?
– U.S., Canada
– Europe, Asia, Others
> Ownership affects mgmt.
– States
– Resident wildlife
– Research
– Federal government
– Migratory
– Exotics
– Interstate shipments
– Endangered species and their habitats
– Federal lands and things that affect it
– International agreements
Political Influence in Fish and Wildlife Conservation
– Legislature makes Fish and Wildlife laws and funds
(increased political influence)
– If agency makes laws through commission and get no funds,
small amount (if any) of political influence
– Commissioners make laws in FL; middle-ground in terms of
political influence
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
– Divisions
– Hunting and Game Mgmt.: smallest in terms of people;
manage hunting and game
– Marine Fisheries Mgmt.: manage marine (saltwater) fish
– Freshwater Fisheries Mgmt.: manage freshwater fish
– Law Enforcement: marine patrol, etc.; monitor and enforce
laws and policies for wildlife and civil laws; largest in terms
of people (game wardens) which makes FWC largest in
– Habitat and Species Conservation: biologists typically here;
minoring and conserving habitats and species
State Wildlife Conservation
– FL Dept. of Environmental Protection
– Division of State Lands
– Division of Recreation and Parks
– Division of Resource Assessment and Mgmt.
– FL Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
– Forest Service (Division of Forestry)
– FL Water Mgmt. Districts
– UF/Institute of Food and Ag. Sciences
– Cooperative Extension Service
– Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
Federal Wildlife Conservation
– From laws established by Congress and policies of President
– Dept. Of Interior (USDI)
– Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
– Geological Survey (GS)
– National Park Service (NPS)
– Bureau of Land Mgmt. (BLM)
– Bureau of India Affairs
– Bureau of Reclamation
– Department of Agriculture (USDA)
– Forest Service (USFS)
– Natural Resources Conversation Service (NRCS)
– Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
– Wildlife Services
– Department of Commerce
– National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
– National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
– National Ocean Service
– Department of Defense
– Army Corps of Engineers
– Defense Agencies
Private Wildlife Conservation
– Ducks Unlimited
– The Nature Conservancy
– Wilderness Society
– The Wildlife Society, etc.
Funding for Wildlife Conservation
– Source affects “politics” and how it’s spent
– General tax revenues
– Income taxes and fees
– Excise taxes (e.g. P-R$)
– Sales taxes, tax checkoffs, etc.
– License sales
– Special use stamps (e.g. archery stamp)
– Private sector
“There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm. One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes form the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the furnace.” – A. Leopold
– Disconnect from people and natural resources; think impacts this could have on the environment
– Don’t value resources, so won’t fight to protect them
“Every head of wildlife still alive in this country is already artificialized, in that its existence is conditioned by economic forces.”
– A. Leopold
Wildlife Values
– Commercial
– Recreational
– Biological
– Scientific, philosophical, and educational
– Aesthetic
– Social
– Undiscovered or underutilized
– Negative
Commercial Wildlife Values
– Income (part of economic value)
– Selling or trading wildlife or their parts
– Conducting business based on access to wildlife
– Meat, fur, etc.
– Guides, sporting goods stores, motels, etc.
– Leases and fee hunting; fee access land (big in
Recreational Wildlife Values
– Pleasure, adventure, and advanced physical and mental condition from wildlife activities
– Hunting, photography, bird watching, etc.
Biological Wildlife Values
– Contribution of wildlife to healthy ecosystems
– Stability
– Pollination, seed dispersal, soil tillage, nutrient
transport, etc. (pollination by bees decreasing = crop failure)
– “Civilization is a state of mutual interdependent
cooperation between human animals, other animals, plants, and soils, which may be disrupted at any moment by the failure of any of them.” – A.
Scientific, Philosophical, and Educational Wildlife Values
– Studies (scientific and philosophical)
– Understand ecology, physiology, behavior, etc.
and ourselves
– Baseline information
– Use information in classrooms to educate about the environment and develop and environmental ethic
– Conservation
Aesthetic Wildlife Values
– As objects of beauty, historical significance, or as part of literature, poetry, art, and music
– Human communication and expression
– Cultural importance
– Indigenous peoples
Social Wildlife Values
– Any benefits that have a positive affect on the
community as a whole
– More income, less stress, increases physical and mental
– Overlap w/ others
Undiscovered or Underutilized Wildlife Values
– Unknown and underutilized
– Medicine, food, etc.
– Antlers (dog bones, herbal supplements)
– Gall bladders
Negative Wildlife Values
– Cost of wildlife damage or its prevention
– Main one of those in urban/suburban areas
– Beavers, deer, coyotes, Lyme disease, etc.
Florida Economics of Wildlife
Recreation – USFWS 2012
– 242,000 hunters spent $720,190,000 (inc.); FL lowest as %; Rhode Island highest
– $2,976/hunter/year (3rd)
– 3,092,000 fishers (rec.) spent $4,626,975,000 (inc.)
– $1,497/fisher/year (1st)
– 4,308,000 wildlife watchers spent $3,041,333,000 (inc.)
– $706/person/year (2nd)
– Over 8 billion dollars spent in 2011!
U.S. Economics of Wildlife
– 13,700,000 hunters spent $33.7 billion (inc 9%)
– $2,484/hunter/year
– 33,100,000 fishers spent $41.8 billion (inc. 11%)
– $1,262/fisher/year
– 71,800,000 wildlife watchers spent $54.9 billion (inc. 9%)
– Over 130 billion dollars spent in 2011!
U.S. Economics (AFWA 2007)
– 12.5 million hunters
– $725 million/year in license sales
– $280 million/year in P-R funds generated
– $300 million conservation donations
– $9.2 billion/year in paid taxes
– $24.7 billion/year in retail spending
– Overall economic impact of $66 billion and ~600,000 jobs in
Non-Consumptive Uses of Wildlife
– Whooping Cranes
– Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, TX
– 1993; 78,000 people spent $4 million
– Whale Watching (worldwide)
– 2008: 13 million people
– $2.1 billion in revenue generated
– > 13,000 jobs
– Ecotourism
– Conservation tool or problem? Both!
– United States
– Bird watchers spent $32 billion in 2001
– $62.6+ million spent feeding birds and other wildlife in
– Wildlife Viewing in U.S.
– 66 million participants
– Supports 467,000 jobs
– Generates $2.7 billion in taxes
– Economic impact of $42 billion/year
Consumptive Uses of Wildlife
– Farming wildlife: fur, feathers, meat, musk, antlers, milk, trophies (not much in U.S.)
-Mink, ostrich, red deer, egrets, chinchillas, etc.
– New Zealand: 1.8 million deer (80% red deer) yielded
$144,523,400 in 2003
– 38+ million pounds of venison
– 388,000+ velvet antler
– 565,000 hides
– 105, 000 square meters of leather
– 2.8+ million pounds co-products (sinews, blood, other)
– $30-50+/pound of antler
– High quality meat, often less environmental impact, but
social problems in U.S.
– Hunting Wildlife
Hunting: Value of each species ($ spent/animal harvested)
– $11,000+/ Colorado Bighorn Sheep
– $250+/pronghorn antelope
– $6,500+/black bear
– $800+/mule deer
– $20+/northern bobwhite quail
– $18+/eastern cottontail
Hunting: Livestock vs. Wildlife
– 10-50% more money/acre from wildlife versus livestock
– Cows, quail, deer, turkey, hogs, waterfowl
– Individually or combing
– FL leases: $4-18/acre/year
– TX leases more expensive
– Improves habitat for all wildlife
Hunting: Harvest fees ($) at Private FL Ranches
– White-tailed deer: $500-3500
– Elk: $3500-8000+
– Feral hogs: $200-750+
– Alligators: $500-3500+
– Turkey: $500-3500+
– Quail: $50-500
– Helps other wildlife and habitat
Hunting Preserves and Producers: Game Birds (U.S.)
– Ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite quail, chukar, mallard, turkey
– 19 million participants
– Industry spends $1.6 billion/year
– Industry contributes $0.25 billion in federal taxes
– Economic impact: $5 billion/year
– Restored and maintained habitat on >16 million acres
– Non-target benefits
Sport Hunting: Harvest fees of Safari companies, S. Africa
– Ostrich: $350-400
– Rhino: $25,000-30,000 ($350,000 this year in Namibia)
– Zebra: $550-700
– Kudu: $700-900
– Giraffe: $1,000 – 2,500
2001 Hunting
– 13.7 million hunters spent $33.7 million
– $2,484/hunter/year
– If hunting was a business, would be in Fortune 500 top 50!
Costs of Wildlife and Negative Values
– If hunting and trapping were lost as wildlife mgmt. tools in
– An additional:
– 50,000 injuries and 50 deaths from wildlife-auto
interactions (=297,000 injuries and 250 deaths total)
– $3.8 billion on auto repair costs
– $1.45 billion in health care just from rabies
– $128 million in aircraft damage
– Governments would need to spend (taxes from citizens):
– Up to $9.3 billion/yr to control deer
– Up to $265 million/year to control fur-bearers
– Loss of renege from hunting licenses and PR$
Wildlife Attitudes/Values
– Perceptions, emotions, cultures, and values
– Who is correct?
– Naturalist: contact with nature (hunters, etc.)
– Ecologistic: biological
– Humanistic: think of them like pets (affection; against
consumptive use)
– Moralistic: animal welfare
– Scientific: curiosity, source of information
– Aesthetic: art value, literature (aesthetic and symbolic)
– Utilitarian: something of use (harvest)
– Dominionistic: something to control
– Negativistic: avoidance, dislike
Ethics (Part of Some Values)
– Moral philosophy
– Standards we employ to determine our actions and evaluate whether something is good or bad
– Ethical obligation?
– Include consumptive use?
– Necessary for conservation success?
– “Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and
protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health
of the natural world.” – Wikipedia, 2009
– Roosevelt – “Wise Use”
Leopold’s Land Ethic
– Land is a community (and includes us)
– Land is to be loved and respected
– Existence of an ecological conscience
– See, feel, understand, love, or otherwise have faith in
– Outlook: “Examine each question in terms of what is ethically
and esthetically right, as well as what is economically
expedient. A thing is right when it tends to preserve the
integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is
wrong when it tends otherwise.”‘
– Necessary for conservation?
– “Ethical behavior is doing the right thing when no one else is
watching – even when doing the wrong thing is legal.” – A.
– Teddy’s Bear – Fair Chase
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