WHAP Chapters 13 and 14

Flashcard maker : Ken Ericksen
the European advantage
geographical argument
1. Europeans closer to Americas than Asian competitors
2. Atlantic winds blew steadily towards Americas versus alternating monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean
technological argument
1. European innovations allowed them to enter the Atlantic Ocean
2. Rich Indian Ocean markets provided little incentive Chinese, Indian, or Muslims to go much beyond their territory
motives for European exploration
motives for European exploration
“We came here to serve God and the King, and also to get rich.”
1. natural resources and productive agricultural lands of the New World
2. ongoing Crusade, spread Christendom
3. European rulers driven by the rivalries of competing states
4. persecuted minorities in search of new life
Spanish vs. Aztecs
Aztec people resented Mexica domination so they willingly joined Hernan Cortes in the Spanish assault on that empire. The Aztecs joined themselves with Cortes and they formed a Spanish Mesoamerican empire.
Spanish vs. Incas
The Inca elite welcomed the Spanish as liberators, settled a share of rule of Andean farmers and miners.
*Spanish invasions and victories
(see Spanish vs. Aztecs, Spanish vs. Incas)
Spanish military victories were the product of alliances with the locals who supplied a bulk of their armies.
Hernan Cortes
A Spanish conquistador who led the fall of the Aztecs and the first phase of Spanish colonization in the New World.
Dona Marina
Born into an elite family living in between the Incas and the Aztecs. When her father died, she was sold into slavery in Tobasco. After the Spanish defeat in Tobasco they gave women as gifts including Malinal. She was baptized and given the Christian name Dona Marina, later she learned Spanish and became Cortes’ interpreter and strategist, helping uncover spies and plots.
the great dying
The New World’s lack of domesticated animals and exposure to Afro-Eurasia meant absence of immunities to Old World diseases. When Native Americans came in contact with these diseases they lost up to 90% of their population.
the little ice age
the little ice age
A period of unusually cool temperatures during much of the early modern period, most prominent in the northern hemisphere. Causes may have been a low point in sunspot activity, volcanic eruptions, or the great dying.
general crisis
A combination of record/near record winters, irregular rainfall, severe droughts, widespread famines, epidemics, and uprisings. This caused the collapse of the Ming dynasty, growth of the Sahara desert, constant European warfare, and a civil war in Mughal India.
*great dying->little ice age->general crisis
The desertification of large areas of Native American farmland ended the tradition of forest management through burning, this brought a resurgence of plant life which took large amounts of CO2 contributing to global cooling. These climate changes contributed to the general crisis.
Colombian exchange
The joining of the old and new worlds; European plants, animals, weeds and germs take hold in the Americas. These transform the landscape and spread the European diet and way of life. Domesticated animals create a ranching economic as well as cowboy culture, horses in particular transform native societies.
patriarchy shift in North America
Women lost much of their earlier role as food producers as there is a shift towards the male dominated hunting and warrior culture.
economic globalization
There is a never before seen worldwide biological exchange, the spread of foreign agricultural products and goods create a network of communication generated by European colonial empires.
*creating colonies in the Americas and mercantilism
When colonial empires conquered, they established wholly new societies with the decimation of the natives and the introduction of Afro Eurasian people, culture, plants, and animals. European rulers viewed their colonies as economic interests, encouraged exports and accumulation of precious metals. This mercantilist thinking fueled Europeans wars and colonial rivalries.
encomienda
A Spanish legal system not far from slavery in which the Spanish Crown granted Spanish settlers some native people who they could require labor, gold, or agricultural produce. In return they gave protection and instruction in Christianity.
repartimiento
Replaced encomienda with a similar system that was slightly more controlled by the Crown and Spanish officials.
hacienda system
Another legal system in which owners of large estates directly employed natives with low wages, high taxes, and large debts.
peons
The people that worked hacienda estates, had little control over their life.
Spanish social hierarchy
1. peninsulares
2. creoles
3. mestizos
4. Indians
creoles
Spaniards born in the Americas.
peninsulares
Spaniards born in Spain.
mestizo
mixed-race people, mainly resultative from the lack of Spanish women compared to Spanish men. They were looked down on and viewed as illegitimate because they were not born from “proper” marriages.
castas
the individual castes that people were divided into based on racial heritage and skin color.
Indians
indigenous peoples known to Europeans as “Indians”
the European advantage; cultural argument
Europeans were powerfully motivated to explore beyond their territory to gain access to the abundance of natural resources and highly productive agricultural lands as well as opportunities to expand Christendom. In addition each of these European rulers were driven by the rivalries of competing states.
Changes for natives
1. abuse and exploitation including forced labor and required tribute payments
2. empires dismantled
3. religions attacked
4. relocated
5. learned Spanish, converted to Christianity, and ate different food
Local continuities
1. Indian males retained some autonomy
2. culture persisted although it blended with European cultures
Sugar production
large scale sugar production pioneered by Arabs was learned and introduced by Europeans to their territories. It transformed Brazil and the Caribbean, but with the absence of native people they turned to Africa for a work force. The work was labor intensive, and the brutal work required them to constantly import fresh slaves. There were consistent gender imbalances although all were still subject to punishment.
Mulattoes
Portuguese-African mixed people.
Plantation complex
based on African slavery, these plantations extended beyond the Caribbean and Brazil to the British colonies of North America. They grew major crops such as tobacco, cotton, rice, and indigo.
Settler colonies
Because the British were the last to establish a colonial presence, the lands they claimed were considered the leftovers; New England, New York, and Pennsylvania.
Siberia geography
remote, cold, and heavily forested with tundra grasslands
Siberia culture
Living in small scale societies with more than 100 languages, hunting, gathering, and herding without gunpowder weapons.
Russian conquest
brought steppes and Siberia under Russian control
1. Demanded oath of allegiance
2. Demanded yasak
3. Brought disease that devastated the remote areas of Siberia with little immunity
4. Pressured to convert to Christianity
Yasak
A tribute paid in cash or in valuable furs to the Russians by conquered peoples.
Westernization
efforts made by Peter and Catherine the Great to Europeanize Russian culture
Peter the Great
r. 1689-1725
Created capital St. Petersburg or the “window to the west” and ordered dress in European styles and shaving of beards.
Catherine the Great
r. 1762-1796
Descendent of Peter the Great that further efforts to Europeanize Russian culture and intellectual life.
Autocratic
“Such a state requires a powerful monarchy to hold it’s vast domains and diverse people together”
A system of government with one absolute ruler.
Qing/Manchu dynasty
1644-1912 CE
Qing/Manchu dynasty; culture and government
Manchu foreigners from North of the Great Wall conquered China, wanting to make an ethnic distinction they forbid intermarriage. The Qing learned Chinese, Confucian teachings, Chinese bureaucratic techniques, and enforced Confucian gender roles.
Qing/Manchu dynasty; consolidation of nomadic areas
Took an 80 year effort (1680-1760) in order to bring nomadic territory under their control as a security concern rather than economic drive. This expansion towards Russia was seen as threatening, and eventually the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) settled these Russia/China boundaries.
Court of colonial affairs
The areas of central Eurasia that China had conquered was ruled separately through this, using sources of local nobles to govern as inexpensively as possible. Qing and Manchu officials did not seek to assimilate these people into Chinese culture and restricted the entry of Chinese people into these areas in an effort to preserve.
Mughal empire
Turkic Muslim Chinggis Khan descendents conquested onto India bringing brief political unity from 1526-1707.
Akbar
r. 1556-1605
Because there was a religious divide (majority Muslim and the rest Hindu), Akbar tried to accomodate Hindu population and imposed a policy of religious toleration. He also created a state cult as a religious faith that combined Islam, Hinduism, and Zoroastrianism with an emphasis on loyalty to the emperor. Akbar and his successors favored the blended culture and downplayed their Islamic identity for a hybrid Indian-Turkic-Persian culture. These policies were opposed by some Muslims who disliked the cultural synthesis.
Aurangzeb
r. 1658-1707
Aurangzeb reversed Akbar’s policy of religious toleration and sought Islamic supremacy by reinstating the jizya and destroying some Hindu temples. His religious policies combined with a high demand for taxes, caused a movements of opposition.
Ottoman empire; origins
Creation of Turkic warriors that aggressively raided much of the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeastern Europe becoming heir to the Byzantine empire and leadership of the Islamic world.
Ottoman empire; women
The relative independence of women diminished as Turks adopted Islam, but still retained some social power and for a period of time the women of the royal court held some political power. In addition Islamic law still permitted them property rights and legal rights in marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
Ottoman empire; culture and religion
Prominence of Turkic people with growing numbers of Arabs. The prestige of protecting the holy cities of Islam (Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem) now fell to the Ottoman empire. The Sunni and Shia division continues and as the Ottoman empire expanded many Christians converted to Islam.
Constantinople and the fall
The Turkic assault on Byzantium ended in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople. It was renamed Istanbul and made the capital of the Ottoman empire. This majority Christian population welcomed Ottoman conquest because of the lighter taxes and oppression, however most did not convert to Islam.
devshirme and the Christian response
devshirme and the Christian response
Through the process of devshirme Ottoman recruiters go to Christian villagers and pick boys ages 10-18 years old. Those that are picked are marched to Constantinople, circumcised, converted to Islam and given Muslim names, and enrolled in a training program as well as prestigious education. The purpose was to enable the sultan to create military officials loyal and dependent to him. This was widely hated and resisted, and eventually abandoned by 17th century.
DQ: What enabled Europeans to carve out huge empires an ocean away from their homelands?
1. proximity
2. motivation to gain access to Eurasian markets
3. seafaring technology
4. iron technology, gunpowder weapons, and horses helped colonize
5. divisions within/between local societies provided allies
6. germs and diseases to which natives had no immunities
DQ: What large-scale transformations did Europeans empires generate?
1. collapse of native empires
2. creation of new societies with combinations of natives, European, and African people
2. exchange of plants and animals
3. silver mines of Mexico and Peru fueled global commerce
4. Columbian exchange, scientific revolution, and industrial revolution
DQ: What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? How did it shape the kinds of societies that arose there?
1. commercial agriculture and silver and gold mining, based on forced and wage labor
2. social order grew, replicating Spanish class hierarchy while adding racially and culturally different people
DQ: How did the plantation societies of Brazil and the Caribbean differ from those of southern colonies in British North America?
In NA there was less racial mixing, slavery was less harsh, and eventually all slaves there had been born there, while in Brazil and the Caribbean free blacks and mulattoes had more opportunities. Lastly, ideas about race differed; in NA any amount of African descent made someone “black”, while in Brazil in the Caribbean this made them some other mixed race category.
DQ: What distinguished the British settler colonies of North America from their counterparts in Latin America?
1. both sought to escape old European society, not recreate it
2. Spanish and Portuguese colonial pattern of sharp class hierarchy, large rural estates, and dependent labrorers
3. British settlers were more numerous
4. British colonies were almost pure settler colonies, without racial mixing that was prominent in Spanish and Portuguese territories
5. British colonies had more literacy and local self government and no elaborate bureaucracy like Spanish colonies
DQ: What motivated Russian empire building?
1. security, pastoral people of the region frequently raided Russian territory
2. world market demand for pelts
3. defending Russian frontiers and enhancing power of the state
4. bringing Christianity and civilization to indigenous peoples
DQ: How did the Russian Empire transform the life of its conquered people and of the Russian homeland itself?
1. for conquered people it meant oath of loyalty, tribute payment, disease, pressure to convert to Christianity, influx of Russian settlers, and loss of hunting grounds and pasture lands which disrupted the economy and left the locals dependent on Russian markets
2. for the Russian homeland, it meant highly militarized and highly autocratic
DQ: What were the distinctive features of Chinese empire building in the early modern era?
1. enlarged territory
2. brought non-Chinese people in
3. driven by security concerns
4. conquered regions administered separately
5. made use of local nobles
6. did not seek to assimilate culture
DQ: In what ways was the Ottoman Empire important for Europe in the early modern era?
1. represented a military threat to Europe
2. impressed European intellectuals because of religious tolerance
3. allied with France
4. important trading partner
Vasco da Gama
1497-1499
Portugese mariner that was the first European to sail to India
Spice trade
The biggest motivation for sailing to Asia. Spices like cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, and peppers were used as condiments and preservatives.
Issues of Muslim control of trade
The source of desired goods was controlled by Muslims because of how Eastern goods got to the Mediterranean by going through the Middle East from the Indian Ocean commercial network. This led to the monopoly of European trade and the required payment in gold and silver for Asian goods.
Venice
An Italian commerce city that had a monopoly on European trade in Eastern goods. Other European powers resented this monopoly because of their resultative reliance on them.
Portuguese; Indian Ocean commercial network
European trade goods were unattractive in Asian markets making it hard for Europeans to compete. However, Portuguese learned that Indian Ocean ships were largely unarmed compared to their own. This with the addition of more advanced naval technology gave the Portuguese the opportunity to quickly establish bases at key locations within the Indian Ocean.
Portuguese; trading post empire
They aimed to control commerce rather than territories or populations and they did this by force of arms instead of economic competition. They then monopolized spice trade by requiring the purchase of a cartaz (pass) and pay of their cargoes, blocking the traditional Red Sea to Mediterranean route, and monopolizing the highly profitable route around Africa to Europe.
Spain and the Philipines
Spain was behind in the race to riches, in an effort to catch up they established themselves on what became the Philippine Islands named after king Philip II.
The Philippines
Proximity to China and the spice islands, small and weak local societies, and a lack of competition encouraged the Spanish to establish colonial rule rather than imitate Portuguese trading post empire.
Missionary effort
The Philippines was formed into the only major Christian outpost in Asia and they persuaded and forced locals into Christendom, this led to some revolts and flight.
Manila
The new capital of the Philippines, flourishing and culturally diverse. Chinese immigrants became essential to the relationship with China, however their economic prominence and resistance to conversion created hostility and discrimination.
Private trading componies
The British and Dutch organized Indian Ocean voyages into this which allowed them to raise money and share their risks with investors. The British and Dutch East India trading companies are established with charters from their government. These charters gave them trading monopolies, the power to make war, and govern conquered people.
Dutch East India trading company; spice islands
Seized control of small islands and forced locals to sell only to the Dutch. They killed, enslaved, or starved locals to replace them with Dutch planters and slaves. This enabled them to sell spices in India and Europe for 14-17 times the original price. Overall this causes Dutch profits to go up while the local economy goes down and their people are impoverished.
Dutch East India trading company; Taiwan
The Dutch were briefly established from 1624-1662 to produce deer skins, rice, and sugar.
Taiwan; co-colinization
When it became clear that the local people did not want to participate in commercial agriculture the Dutch opened the island to large-scale Chinese immigration causing the island to become ethnically Chinese. The Chinese later expelled the Dutch and took Taiwan into their own power.
British East India Company; India
Because the British East India Company was less well financed and commercially sophisticated they fell back on India where they established 3 major trading companies Bombay on the west coast, Calcutta and Madras on the east coast. They were able to gain control of the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf largely replacing the Portuguese but they were no match for the Mughal empire. Therefore they were unable to practice “trad by warfare” like the Dutch and secured trading bases with payments and bribes to get Mughal authority permission. Although spices were important in British trade they began to focus on cotton textiles which were popular in the Americas and England.
Carrying trade
A strategy where the investor borrows money at a low interest rate to invest in something that will provide them with a higher return rate. Dutch and English profits from carrying trade allowed them to purchase Asian goods without paying them in gold and silver.
*British/Dutch East India trading companies; bulk goods and colonies
Began to deal in bulk goods (pepper, textiles, coffee) for mass market. This later evolved into colonial domination where the British rule India and the Dutch rule Indonesia.
Japan and Europe; 16th century
The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English first arrive and it is followed by conflict between fuedal lords (daimyo) and groups of samurai. Europeans receive welcome because their military technology, ship building skills, geography knowledge, commercial opportunities, and religious ideas were attractive/useful to fractious Japan. There is a growth of Christian movement.
Japan and Europe; 17th century
A military commander (shogun) from the Tokugawa shogunate unified Japan politically which ended civil wars and started view of Europeans as a threat to unity. They expelled missionaries, suppressed Christian practice violently, forbid Japanese travel abroad, and ban European traders except for the Dutch who were less interesting in spreading Christianity. From 1650-1850 Japan was closed off from European commerce while they maintained ties with other Asian powers.
Japan; continuity of market dominance
Though Japanese merchants lacked government support they did not refrain from Southeast Asia and dominated the spice trade.
Silver in the Americas
Large scale silver production, Spanish America alone produced 85% of the worlds silver during this time.
Global network of exchange
Silver creates the first direct and sustained link between the Americas and Asia
China in silver trade
Taxes in China were required to be payed in silver which skyrockets the demand, this makes foreigners that had silver have an increasing access to high demand Chinese goods.
China in silver trade; Potosi
The sight of a huge silver mining operation in modern day Bolivia. The population grew rapidly until it was the largest city in the Americas. The workers (natives and slaves) labored in horrendous conditions and the highly intensive mining caused deforestation, and the poisoning and eroding of soil. Created opportunities for women and many started businesses creating a hive of commercial activity. After a century of intensive mining all that remained were low quality hard to extract ores, the mines shut down.
Silver and Spain
Silver enriched the Crown making Spain the envy of European rivals, but it did not fundamentally transform the Spanish economy instead inflated the price of silver. When the price later dropped Spain lost its position as the dominant Western European power.
Japan and Silver
A major source of silver production, used the profits to defeat rival fuedal lords and unify the country. They created a market-based economy and invested heavily in agriculture and industrial enterprises. Japanese state acted vigorously to protect and renew their forests and families took efforts to have fewer children slowing Japan’s population growth.
China and Silver
To obtain the silver to pay their taxes people had to sell either their labor or their products and the Chinese economy became more regionally specialized. This economic growth resulted in the loss of forest cover as more land was devoted to cash crops.
Environmental impact of fur trade
The little ice age increased the demand for furs and the great dying led to forest regrowth for fur bearing animals. European population and agricultural growth diminished the supply of fur bearing animals.
Key locations and practices for fur trade
Southern British North American colonies, Mississippi river, Great lakes, Hudson bay, St. Lawrence valley
Impact of fur trade on North Americans
Native Americans were cheap labor force and they were not directly coerced into working. They brought furs and skins to their coastal settlements and then to interior North American trading posts.
Mourning wars
Population decline from disease led to this designed to capture people who could be assimilated into diminished societies.
Huron
Lived in the northern shores of Lake Eerie and Ontario trading pelts (mostly beaver) for pots, axes, knives, cloth, firearms, and alcohol. These goods enhanced Huron chiefs authority because he could give them as gifts to followers. The competition with Europeans ensured that natives could negotiate reasonable prices and their important role protected them from extermination, enslavement, or displacement. Half died from European borne diseases.
Iroquois
Sold products (ginseng root) to China as medicine as well as rented land to Europeans, worked for wages in European enterprises, and started to use currency.
Alonquians
Grew dependent on European goods and over time traditional crafts were lost and they didn’t learn to manufacture the European goods themselves.
Impact of alcohol
(Rum and brandy in particular) With no prior experience and little time to adjust to wide availability it led to binge drinking, violence, promiscuity, and addiction.
Women in North America
A substantial number of native women married European men which eased cross-cultural exchange, provided traders with guides, interpreters, and negotiators. There was an enhanced position of men because hunting and trapping were normally male positions although women controlled trade in wild rice and maple syrup, both of which were essential to European traders.
DQ: What drove European involvement in the world of Asian commerce?
1. desire for spices, silk, cotton, rhubarb, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires
2. recovery from the Black Death devastation
3. resented the Muslim monopoly of goods
4. secure gold and silver to pay for the goods they wanted
Russian empire furs
A major source of furs for Western Europe, China, and the Ottoman Empire. The profit of fur trade motivated Russian expansion across Siberia were “soft gold” was abundant.
soft gold
fur bearing animals
DQ: To what extent did the Portuguese realize their own goals in the Indian Ocean?
Original goal of creating trading post empire that controlled commerce of Indian Ocean was partially achieved, never succeeded in controlling more than half of the spice trade and by 1600 their empire was on a decline
DQ: How did the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and British initiatives in Asia differ from one another?
Portuguese set up trading post empire to control the trade routes of the Indian Ocean.
Spanish established colonial rule over the Philippine Islands, converted most of the population to Christianity and ruling the island directly they set up estates owned by Spanish settlers.
Dutch and British organized into private trading companies which raised money and shared risks with investors. Dutch had control of some of the spice islands while the British set up centers in India by securing support of the Mughal empire.
DQ: To what extent did the British and Dutch trading companies change the societies they encountered in Asia?
1. Dutch violently took control of some spice islands forcing their people to sell only to them
2. British secured their trading bases with permission of authorities and came to specialize in Indian cotton textiles
DQ: What was the significance of the silver trade in the early modern era of world history?
1. First direct and sustain link between the Americas and Asia, initiated web of Pacific commerce
2. Transformed Spain and Japan, states that controlled source of silver
3. Deepened commercialization of China’s economy
4. Became key commodity in driving long distance trade and offered Europeans a product they could get that was demanded in the rest of the world
DQ: What can Potosi tell us about the consequences of global trade in the early modern period?
1. Forced intensive labor in bad conditions
2. Intensive mining techniques resulted in deforestation and poisoning and erosion of soil
DQ: Describe the impact of the fur trade on North American native societies
1. Trade of pelts for goods of value, enhanced influence and authority of some Native American leaders, ensured protection
2. exposed natives to European diseases, left them dependent on European goods, brought alcohol into native societies with destructive effects
DQ: What was distinctive about the Atlantic slave trade? What did it share with other patterns of slave owning and slave trading?
1. Immense size of slave traffic, centrality of slavery to economies of colonial America, prominence of slave labor in plantation agriculture
2. racial dimension, dehumanized treatment of slaves
DQ: What explains the rise of the Atlantic slave trade?
1. The difficulty and danger of the work, limitations of serf labor, and absence of wage workers
2. cutoff supply of Slavic slaves, demographic collapse of native populations, and Christian faith of Europeans

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