western art history

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
reformation and counter reformation
1517, martin Luther posts the 95 thesis on the witlenburg cathedral
– missionary movement
– emphasis on the experience of the faith through the senses
mysticism
emphasis on the intense and personal experience of the devine
– spiritual journey
council of trent
reaffirms images for their didactic and inspirational value
1. should be clear in form
2. realistic
3. true to religious text
4. appeal to emotions
5. involve and persuade
6. reveal the divine beholder which is in our midst
tenebrism
a composition where shadows dominate highlights; demands very high contrast in light/darkness
– biblical movements in everyday concepts
Louis xiv
\”sun king\”
– compared himself with apollo
– absolute monarchy
– everything depends on him
– insignia = sings of authority, position of power
flowers
vanitas, not going to last
– not perfectly arranged
– all exotic, imported
– wilting and falling
– bugs eating plants, reminder that material items do not last
18th century
a period of philosophical, scientific, economic, political and social change
– wealth centered around aristocrats
– poor worked for the rich
– small middle class
– industrial revolution
rococo
prefered style of the aristocracy and established institutions such as the church
– from rocaille = pebbly decoration
– takes the visual vocabulary of baroque and lightens it in both subject matter and form.
naturalism
sees nature as a model for human society.
– rausseau’s philosophy of the nobel savage
– picturesque landscape
– shift in taste from formal gardens to natural but constructed landscapes
– belveders= beautiful
– picturesque = like a landscape
neo- classicism
noble themes and grand means
– revival of classical ideals and forms
– response to the frivolity of the rococo style
– mythological and historical subjects, moral lessons
– crisp, clear and licked styles
napoleon bonaparte
expected to save the revolutions, republican ideals, instead made himself emperor
french academic art
favored historical, mythological and exotic subjects that often became a pretense for presenting the nude
– painting adopted style of neo-classicism
– clear, crisp, licked styles and strong color
realism
positivism = a faith in objectivity and empiricism, from enlightening science
– reaction against french academic art.
hyperrealism
very realistic
– bringing the viewer into a close relationship with that they are seeing
arts and crafts movement
england and the u.s.
– return to simpler, more wholesome life style
– dehumanization of labor goods
impressionism
critics derogatory comment
– celebrates modernity and leisure of the urban populace
– transitory lighting effects plain air
– lush color, broken brush work that blends the eye
post- impressionism
a reaction to impressionism
– seeking art of the museums
– stylistic components of impressionism and reintroduce recognizable structure and focus
japanism
influence of japanese prints
– colors, strong lines and weird cropping
– rethink standard rules
– contour lines with flat color areas
modernist principles
iconoclasm = rejection of established institutions, structures and standards and the search for their replacements.
– authenticity
– individual experience
– universalism and timelessness
– essence of things
– utopianism, social utopia
– toward abstraction
expressionism
primacy of expressive properties of the elements and principles of design.
– fauves = pure delight
– the bridge = social critique
– blue rider = spiritual transformation
cubism
biggest movement!
– iconoclastic movement = subject, style and craftsmanship
– fragmentation and collage
-forth dimension – time
– mundane objects become subjects
– elements from poplar culture
-analytical = breaking the subjects into parts, looking at them as if from multiple perspectives
– collage = building things up with cut paper
– synthetic = patches of colors and shapes, build broken parts
futurism
takes the cubist idiom of facing the subject to represent energy, motion and the celebration of technology
dada
iconoclastic movement that calls into question the very methods and purposes of art in the modern world, largely a philosophy then a work of art
surrealism
focus on the unconscious, psychological experience, dream reality and free association
– sur reality, beyond concrete reality as we know it
– laws of logic and material existence are subverted
pop art
critiques and sometimes celebrates popular, commercial culture, its icons, images and values often by making use of its means of promotion
super realism/ photo realism
hyper reality forces a heightened, sometimes encounter with the familiar

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